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Passive solar architecture in Europe 2

160 pages
Energy research
Renewable sources of energy
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THE ARCHITECTURAL PRESS LTD LONDON Mr. H. Davies, Deputy Director General of DGXII,
congratulates a competitor at the prize-giving
ceremony in Cannes. PREFACE
he Western world has, in this century, been negligent in its use of fossil fuels,
T which Nature has prepared for us over many millions of years. One can find
evidence of this carelessness in all branches of industry and not least in the building
industry. The world's store of fossil fuels is limited and it is urgent that we move
towards other sources of energy, preferably those which do not necessitate our
depending on materials imported from outside the European Community. In order
to develop these sources a huge programme of research and development is required.
The Commission of the European Communities is encouraging and pursuing
this programme and has indeed funded one tenth of all public energy research in
the Community. In some areas its contribution has been much higher and in
research into solar energy it has provided no less than 40% of the finance employed.
By the beginning of the next century, it has been foreseen, solar energy will be
providing from 5 to 7% of Europe's energy needs and an even greater share will be
accounted for by use of energy-conserving policies. The Commission regards Passive
Solar Design as of great importance in the pursuit of these two means of reducing
Europe's dependence on oil.
The European Passive Solar Design Competition is one of the ways the
Commission has adopted to stress the importance of this source of energy.
The effect of climate on building design was early realised and for centuries
builders were influenced by it, but the skills they had developed were largely
forgotten after the Industrial Revolution. These skills must now be re-learnt and
disseminated. The European climate demands that designers concentrate on
conserving solar gains and minimizing heat losses in the winter months.
The construction materials must be used in such a way as to absorb and store the
heat gained from the sun and the rooms must be arranged so that they use this stored
heat with little recourse to artificial and expensive means of distribution.
To encourage the use of passive solar energy the Commission funded a study in
August 1979 to identify the centres of skill in the use of such design in Europe.
This was followed by a meeting of experts later in the year which recommended that
the Commission's programme should pursue two courses:
(i) to develop and assess the necessary technology
(ii) to disseminate the principles of passive solar design
among those in the profession of building design in
the EC countries.
This Second European Passive Solar Design Competition, like the first in 1980,
is part of the policy of dissemination of the principles of passive solar design and it
is hoped and expected that it will result in much greater interest in and wider use of
these principles. Members of the panel of judges have assured us that our aim has
been achieved to a considerable degree by both the competitions.
The excellence of the winning designs and the high standard of work submitted
indicate that the passive solar approach to architecture is being very well received
by the building design profession.
The Commission looks forward with confidence to the continued growth of
interest and the consequent wide application of Passive Solar Energy in building
design in Europe.
Dr W Palz
Head of the Division
"Solar Energy Research"
Commission of the European Communities ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The editor would like to thank the supervisor of this contract at the Commission of the European
Communities, Theo Steemers, for his constant guidance and close contact throughout the competition, the
exhibition and the preparation of this book. Thanks for their involvement and support are also due to the
technical assessors and judges (listed below) without whose expertise the competition would not have been
successful. Finally, we are grateful to all those who have put so much time and effort into the organization
of the competition, the exhibition and this book.
Sub-editing, organization
and verification of
calculations: Simon Walter
Design: Robert Budwig
Artwork and Planning: Paul Rowley
Typing: Diane Pearson
Proof reading: Geoffrey Lebens and Claudia Bloom
Translation of drawings
and photographs of models: Competition award winning entrants
Printing advice: Maritz Vandenberg and Keith Kneebone
The Architectural Press, London
Additional photography: Morley von Sternberg
Typesetting: Galley Typesetting, London
Simon Walter, Paul Rowley, Claudia Bloom and Geoffrey Dale
Competition entry documents:
Design and Artwork: Paul and Esther Rowley and Andrew Myer
Technical supervision: Andrew Myer l assistance: Professor John Page, University of Sheffield, UK
Hans Lund, Technicaly of Denmark
Erotokritos Tsingas, Engineer, Public Utility Company,
Thessaloniki, Greece
Organization of
Registration and
submissions: Diane Pearson
First published in 1983 by
Translation of documents:
The Architectural Press: London
Danish: Lars Olsen, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
Dutch: Martin de Wit, Technische Hogeschool, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Brussels and Luxembourg, 1983
French: Christian Queffelec, Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment, Paris, France
German:n Kupke, Fraunhofer Institut für Bauphysik, Stuttgart, F R Germany
ISBN 0 85139 957 6
Greek: Erotokritos Tsingas, Thessaloniki, Greece
Italian: Sergio Los, Bassano del Grappa, Italy
Publication arranged by:
Commission of the European Communities Technical assessment of entries:
Directorate-General Information Market
and Innovation Luxembourg Nick Baker Energy Conscious Design, London, UK
Francois Penz Martin Centre, Cambridge University, UK
Orazio Barra University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy EUR 8564
Francois Guyon Centre Scientifique et Technique de la Construction, Brussels, Belgium
Albert Dupagne University of Liege, Belgium All rights reserved. No part of the publication
Federico Butera Istituto di Fisica Tecnica, University of Palermo, Italy may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
Christian Kupke Fraunhofer Institut für Bauphysik, Stuttgart, F R Germany
system, or transmitted in any form or by any
J Owen Lewis* University College, Dublin, Ireland means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
Michel Raoust* Consulting Engineer, Paris, France
recording or otherwise, without the prior l Schneider CNRS, Nice, France
permission of the publishers.
Wolfgang Ehlers Technische Universität, Berlin, F R Germany
Such permission, if granted, is subject to a Alexandros Tombazis
Architect, Athens, Greece
fee depending on the nature of the use. Martin de Wit
Technische Hogeschool, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Competition direction and judging of entries:
Neither the Commission of the European
Communities nor any person acting on behalf James Barrett Architect, Dublin, Ireland
of the Commission is responsible for the use Edward Cullinan* , London, UK
which might be made of the following Michel Gerber Architect, Perpignan, France
Sergio Los information. Architect and Professor, Venice, Italy
Jaques Michel Architect, Paris, France
Printed in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd,
* Chairmen Guildford CONTENTS
Introduction and Organizer's Report 8
Judges' General Report 12
Technical Assessors' Report3
Explanation of Technical Data6
'Guidelines for Passive Solar Heating Design' 17
'Data Booklet' 20
Category A:
High Density Low-Rise Housing
Winning Entries 35
Commendations 61
Other Details of Interest 88
Category B:
Retrofit and Rehabilitation of Dwellings
Winning Entries 9
Commendations 117
Special Mentions 130
Other Details of Interest6
'Calculations Booklet'9
Entries which satisfied the
Technical Assessors' Criteria 15INTRODUCTION
Entrants were asked to select real sites for their schemes within his book presents the award winning schemes of the second
Tarchitectural ideas competition held by the Commission of the the EC countries. No cost limits for the passive components or the
buildings were set but competitors were asked to bear cost in European Communities, Directorate-General XII, for Science,
Research and Development. mind and advised that the judges would consider the economy of
the schemes in their selection. It was also stated in the competition The aims of both competitions were similar: to disseminate
brief that within the category of retrofit and rehabilitation, "An area information on the principles of climate sensitive design.
The purpose of this publication is threefold: to spread the of particular concern is the large existing building stock of high-
density high-rise housing stock (built between 1945 and 1970)". ideas and principles of passive solar design to a wider audience,
to document the competition so that some of the excellent designs The competition was launched in October 1981 and the final
submitted will have a wider influence, and to give a voice to the entry date was 27 August 1982.
It was decided to encourage schools of architecture to include pioneering work being undertaken by a few innovative architects
and designers in Europe. the competition in their design studio work. The early launch
date was essential if schools of architecture were to include the This book will present the award winning schemes with verified
performance calculations and a copy in English of all the entry competition in their curricula. They were allowed to register for
documents sent out to competitors except the brief. The main a fee of UK£25 (single registration was UK£5() for which they
would recieve 40 sets of documents and could submit the 5 best requirements of the brief are outlined within this introduction.
schemes. Students were also permitted to register individually.
The First European Passive Solar Competition — 1980 The involvement of the schools in this way meant that the
At the end of 1979 the Commission asked Ralph Lebens information within the competition documents would be
Associates, an architectural practice in London which specialises distributed to many more designers and that the technical assessors
in passive solar design, to organize the 'First European Passive and judges would not be over-burdened by increased numbers of
Solar Competition — 1980'. The competition was announced in submissions.
early April of 1980, when the documents became available to the Another departure from the procedures in the first competition
general public. The submission date for entries was 29 August 1980. was that all competition entry documents were produced in the
The judging was in two stages: the first by technical assessors from seven major European languages (Danish, Dutch, English, French,
all over Europe, and the second by a panel of international German, Greek and Italian) and submissions could be made in
architects with experience in the field of passive solar design. any one of these languages.
The prizes, totalling 30,000 ECU *, were awarded in November
1980, at a ceremony in the offices of the European Commission
in Brussels. The following applications for the competition documents were
The competition was open to architects and students of received:
architecture resident in any of the EC countries, and entries were Individuals Schools of
encouraged from multi-disciplinary groups. It was an 'Ideas Architecture
Competition', for the application of passive solar design principles
either to a new construction or to the rehabilitation of an existing Belgium 84 3x40
building. Entries were invited in three separate categories :- Denmark 75
France 366 1x40 Category A: Multi-Storey Housing
Germany 376 4x40 y B: Clustered Housing
Greece 27 1x40 Category C: Single Dwellings
Ireland 35 2x40
There were 1000 registrants and 223 entries to the competition Italy 170 1x40
resulting in 11 prizes, 11 commendations and 3 special mentions. Netherlands 140
An exhibition of the winner's drawings and models has travelled UK 119 9x40
throughout Europe. A book of the competition results entitled
'Passive Solar Architecture in Europe' has been published by the Total 1395 20x40
Architectural Press, London.
The Second European Passive Solar Competition — 1982
The number of submissions for the competition were as follows :
The general response to the first competition and the interest
shown in the winning schemes prompted the Commission to
Category Category
hold a second competition. Ralph Lebens Associates were again
asked to be the organizers. The aims of this second competition
were to shift the emphasis of the competition to include design
Belgium 8 8 16
questions which are more pertinent to the needs of Europe.
Denmark 13 1 14
An initial meeting of the judges in Brussels resulted in the 43 14 57 France
definition of two categories :-
Germany 54 18 72
Category A: High Density, Low Rise Housing Greece 5 3 8
Category B: Retrofit and Rehabilitation of Dwellings Ireland 5 1 6
Italy 28 3 31 These categories were chosen because they were thought to
18 22 represent the more pressing problems in housing in Europe. Netherlands 4
UK 20 3 23 The 'single house' category was omitted since this had been fully
tackled in the first competition and it was not thought to be of
such wide importance. Total 194 55 249