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Wind energy

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162 pages
Potential of wind energy in the European Community: An assessment study
Energy research
Renewable sources of energy
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* * Solar Energy R&D
* inin thethe European Community
*
Series CC VolumeVolume ,2,2
Wind Energy
Potential ofof Wind Energy
in the European Community
An Assessment Study
D.D. ReidelReidel Publishing Company
for the Commission of the European CommunitiesWind EnergySolar Energy R&D in the European Community
SeriesSeries GG
Wind Energy
VolumeVolume 22
Publication arrangements: T. C. JonesSolar Energy R&D
in the European Community
SeriesSeries GG Volume 22
Wind Energy
Potential of Wind Energy
in the European Community
An Assessment Study
by
H. SELZER
ERLO - Raumfachtechnik GmbH, Bremen, F.R.G.
D.D. ReidelReidel PublishingPublishing Company
A MEMBFR OF THE KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS CROUP
Dordrecht / Boston / Lancaster / Tokyo
for the Commission of the European CommunitiesLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Selzer, H.H.
Potential of wind energy in the European community.
(Solar energy R & D in the European Community. 1 O "i /<=>
Series G, Wind ; v. 2)
Bibliography: p.
1.1. WindWind power-power- European Economic CommunityCommunity countries.countries.
I. Commission of the Communities. II. Title. III. Series.
TJ820.S45 1986 333.79'2 86-456
ISBN 90-277-2205-6
Publication arrangements by
Commission of the European Communities
Directorate-General InformationInformation MarketMarket andand Innovation,Innovation, LuxembourgLuxembourg
EUR 10376
© 1986 ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither thethe Commission ofof thethe EuropeanEuropean CommunitiesCommunities nornor anyany personperson actingacting onon behalfbehalf ofof thethe
Commission isis responsible forfor thethe useuse whichwhich mightmight bebe mademade ofof thethe followingfollowing information.
Published by D. Reidel Publishing Company
P.O.P.O. BoxBox 17,17, 33003300 AAAA Dordrecht, Holland
Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
190 Old Derby Street, Hingham, MA 02043, U.S.A.
InIn allall otherother countries, soldsold andand distributeddistributed
byby KluwerKluwer Academic PublishersPublishers Group,Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Holland
All Rights Reserved
No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording or by any information storage and retrieval system,
without written permission from the copyright owner.
Printed inin TheThe Netherlands
CONTENTS
11 .. .. -INTBQEHEJEîeil..-INTBQEHEJEîeil.. 11
ListList ofof ContributorsContributors toto thisthis ReportReport 33
2. ASSESSMENT OF THE CONVERTIBLE POTENTIAL OF WIND ENERGY 5
IN COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
2 . 1 Distribution of Mean Annual Wind Speeds 5
2.2 Evaluation of the Sites and Conversion Potential 17
2.2.12.2.1 DescriptionDescription ofof thethe MethodMethod UsedUsed 1717
2.2.22.2.2 ResultsResults ofof thethe Analysis .18.18
Potential for Small WECs
On-Land Potential for Large WECs
Off-Shore for Large WECs
2.3 Geographical Distribution of the Potential 25
2.4 Discussion of the Siting and Conversion Potential 34
3.3. ASSESSMENTASSESSMENT OFOF THETHE UTILIZATIONUTILIZATION POTENTIALPOTENTIAL 3737
3.1 General Aspects 37
3.2 Survey of the Existing Supply System and Electricity
Consumption 37
3.3 Penetration Problems 41
3.3.1 Limitation of Wind Energy Utilization by the
ExistingExisting TransmissionTransmission Capacity 4141
3.3.23.3.2 AspectsAspects ofof thethe Combined Operation ofof Conventional andand
Wind Power Stations 44
3.4 Conclusions 61
4. STATE OF THE ART OF WIND ENERGY UTILIZATION 63
4.1 Technical Maturity of Wind Energy Converters 63
4.1.14.1.1 TechnologyTechnology ofof WindWind EnergyEnergy Converters 6363
4.1.24.1.2 AnalysisAnalysis ofof CommerciallyCommercially Available WECsWECs 6666
4.2 Integration of WECs in the Electricity Networks 75
4.2.1 General Aspects 75
4.2.2 Electrical Requirements for Small WECs 75
4.2.3 Safety for Small WECs 80
4.2.4 for Large WECs 86
4.2.5 Problems of Island Operation of WEC and Diesel Systems 88
4.34.3 NationalNational ProgrammesProgrammes 9090
4.4 Involvement of Industry and Electricity Supply Boards
in Wind Energy 98
5. ECONOMIC ASPECTS 102
5.1 Analysis of the Costs of Existing WECs 102
5.2 Cost of Wind Energy in Decentralized Applications
(private(private ownership)ownership) 1071075.2. .1 Energy Costs of Small WECs Connected to the Grid 107
5.2,5.2, .2.2 ofof WECsWECs withoutwithout GridGrid Connection 109109
5.2.5.2. .3.3 TariffsTariffs forfor Autoproducers 11 11 11
5.2, .4 Public Financial Aids to Wind Energy 112
5.3 Allowable Costs of Wind Energy in Centralized
Applications 116
5.3. .1 Costs of the Conventional Production of Electricity 116
Calculation Methods for Fuel Credit and Capacity Credit 1195.3. .2
Examples of the Allowable Costs for Wind Energy5.3. .3
InstallationsInstallations atat SpecificSpecific LocationsLocations inin thethe EECEEC CountriesCountries 128128
5.4 Discussion 130
6. MAIN RESTRICTIONS ON WIND ENERGY UTILIZATION 132
6.1 Legal Constraints 132
6.2 Environmental and Safety Constraints 133
6.3 Economic 133
6.46.4 TechnicalTechnical ConstraintsConstraints 134134
7. CONCLUSIONS 135
7.1 The Prospective Value of Wind Energy 135
7.2 Recommendations for Future Research, Development and
Demonstration 135
7.2.1 Wind Potential 135
7.2.27.2.2 SitingSiting ProblemsProblems 135135
7.2.37.2.3 PenetrationPenetration Problems 136136
7.2.4 Machine Technology 136
7.2.5 Pilot Plants !36
7.2.6 Demonstration Plants 137
7.2.7 Economic Aspects 137
Glossary 138138
LIST OF FIGURES 14°
LIST OF TABLES 144
REFERENCES 146PREFACE
TheThe presentpresent bookbook provides aa technical andand macro-economical assessment ofof
the wind energy potential in Europe. It is an important result of the
first Wind Energy R&D Programme of the European Communities which was
started in 1980.
The potential electricity production of wind energy conversion systems in
thethe EuropeanEuropean CommunityCommunity hashas beenbeen analysedanalysed inin aa concerted actionaction withwith anan
international groupgroup ofof expertsexperts underunder thethe leadershipleadership ofof Dr.Dr. SelzerSelzer fromfrom
the company ERNO/MBB. In order to develop reliable data, it was
necessary to analyse the wind which is available in the various' parts of
Europe, study in detail all candidate sites for the possible installation
of wind turbines, and to review the technological cost-effectiveness of
wind turbines. The availability of utility networks for grid-connection
ofof thethe windwind turbinesturbines waswas alsoalso included inin thethe analysis.analysis.
Three important facts are described for the first time in this book:
First, all member countries of the European Community are concerned by
wind energy utilization. There is a high wind energy potential in
Northern as well as in Southern Europe. Secondly, most of the potential
areas for wind energy utilization are along the coastal zones. Thirdly,
electricity contribution from wind energy converters to Europe's overall
consumption couldcould eventually bebe veryvery large.large. InIn principle, itit wouldwould eveneven
be possible to provide all of Europe's electricity needs from wind
energy .
However, in the foreseeable future, the actual development of this
technology in Europe will be much more modest because at the present
time, wind turbines are not yet fully cost-competitive with the
conventional meansmeans ofof electricityelectricity production.production.
In any case, this book clearly shows that the promise of wind energy in
Europe is such that its development deserves full attention and it has
become urgent to set up an aggressive strategy for implementation.
I take this opportunity to thank all the participants of the study for
theirtheir cooperationcooperation andand II amam confident thatthat thisthis bookbook willwill bebe anan importantimportant
helphelp toto inform aa widerwider public ofof thisthis veryvery interestinginteresting andand newnew
technology.
U)U) V
W. PALZ
Head of the Wind Energy R&D Programme