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Sarthak Sengupta
Anthropological studies among the Koch population of Goalpara
district, Assam
In: Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, Nouvelle Série, tome 2 fascicule 2, 1990. pp. 203-
212.
Résumé
ÉTUDE ANTHROPOLOGIQUE DES POPULATIONS KOCH DU DISTRICT DE GOALPARA, ASSAM Résumé. — Les Koch de
Goalpara constituent un groupe détribalisé de l'Assam dont la distribution des caractères anthropométriques, dermatoglyphiques,
aussi bien que celle du sanguin ABO et de la sensibilité gustative au PTC sont présentées dans ce travail. La population
Koch est comparée à d'autres populations tribales qui constituent leur stock ancestral ainsi qu'à des populations ayant un statut
de caste équivalent au vu de leur affiliation ethnique.
Abstract
Summary. — The Koch of Goalpara, an Assamese detribalized caste group, has been investigated for the the distribution of
anthropométrie and finger dermatoglyphic traits as well as for the distribution of ABO blood groups and PTC taste sensitivity. The
Koch population is compared with some tribal population who form their ancestral stock and also with population groups of
equivalent caste status in the light of their ethnic affiliation.
Citer ce document / Cite this document :
Sengupta Sarthak. Anthropological studies among the Koch population of Goalpara district, Assam. In: Bulletins et Mémoires de
la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, Nouvelle Série, tome 2 fascicule 2, 1990. pp. 203-212.
doi : 10.3406/bmsap.1990.1732
http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/bmsap_0037-8984_1990_num_2_2_1732et Mém. de la Soc. d'Anthrop. de Paris, n.s., t. 2, n° 2, 1990, pp. 203-212 Bull,
ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES
AMONG THE KOCH POPULATION
OF GOALPARA DISTRICT, ASSAM
Sarthak Sengupta (*)
Summary. — The Koch of Goalpara, an Assamese detribalized caste group, has been
investigated for the the distribution of anthropométrie and finger dermatoglyphic traits as
well as for the distribution of ABO blood groups and PTC taste sensitivity. The Koch popul
ation is compared with some tribal population who form their ancestral stock and also
with population groups of equivalent caste status in the light of their ethnic affiliation.
ÉTUDE ANTHROPOLOGIQUE DES POPULATIONS KOCH
DU DISTRICT DE GOALPARA, ASSAM
Résumé. — Les Koch de Goalpara constituent un groupe détribalisé de l'Assam dont
la distribution des caractères anthropométriques, dermatoglyphiques, aussi bien que celle
du groupe sanguin ABO et de la sensibilité gustative au PTC sont présentées dans ce tra
vail. La population Koch est comparée à d'autres populations tribales qui constituent leur
stock ancestral ainsi qu'à des populations ayant un statut de caste équivalent au vu de
affiliation ethnique.
I. — INTRODUCTION
The Koch populations who are synonymous with Rajbansi form one of the
largest caste group of Assam. Today they are widely distributed over most of the
plain districts of Assam. However, a heavy concentration is observed in the dis
tricts of Kamrup and Goalpara. Their primary occupation is agriculture, few of
them do not own any agricultural land and subsist as agricultural and daily
labourers.
According to Waddel (1901), « the term Koch has become more of a caste title
than a tribal appellation, so that individuals of the Kachari, Garo, Rabha, Lalung
and allied Indo-Chinese tribes are admitted as members ». Gait (1905) Comments :
« In Assam proper, it (the word Koch) has become the name of a Hindu caste,
into which are received the converts to Hinduism from the ranks of the Kachari,
Lalung, Mikir and other tribes ». Therefore, in the present context of Assam, « the
term Koch is applied in various senses to indicate various groups of some
which are now full fledged members of the Hindu society, even raising themselves
to a high status in the caste hierarchy » (Mazumder, 1972). They have been des
cribed as one of the « race caste » (Allen, 1905) of Assam who generally claims
to be an « outlying branch of the Kshatriya » (Risley, 1915). Scholars also differ
in opinion with regard to the affinity of the Koch as some of them (Dalton, 1872 ;
Department of Anthropology, Dibruagarh University, Dibrugarh Assam, India, 786 004. 204 SOCIÉTÉ D'ANTHROPOLOGIE DE PARIS
Risley, 1891) hold this group to have Dravidian origin while others (Waddel, 1901 ;
Haddon 1924, ; Das, 1962) are inclined to postulate mongoloid descent for them.
But whatever may have been racial affinities of the original Koch population, there
can be no doubt that the present Koch population of Assam belong to the « Mon
goloid » rather than to the « Dravidian >> stock (Sengupta 1982).
From the above discussion there hardly remains any doubt of the fact that
the Koch (Rajbansi) population forms a major detribalized group. It is not known
from which time the process of conversion started, but it has not stopped. It is
a continuative one, i.e. ongoing process. It is a fact that major part of conversion
took place following the preaching of Vaishnavite cult by Srimanta Sankardeva,
a socio-cultural reformer and a religious preacher of Assam during the 15 th cen
tury A.D.
The present paper aims to study the distribution of anthropométrie and der-
matoglyphic traits as well as that of ABO blood groups and PTC taste sensitivity
among the Koch population of Goalpara. Regarding the origin of the Koch it has
already been mentioned that the people of different tribal groups like the Rabha,
Garo, Kachari, Lalung, Mikir, etc. after conversion to Hinduism are known as
Koch and are given a place in the caste complex of the Hindu society. Therefore,
an attempt has been made to examine how much the Koch sample of Goalpara
deviates from the so called ancestral population and also to examine the position
of the Koch caste with respect to the groups of almost equivalent caste
status distributed in different parts of the State.
II. — MATERIAL AND METHOD
The anthropological data of the Koch population under study were collected
from Goalpara (Borigaon area) district of Assam in 1978-1979. Proper care was
taken not to include closely related individuals in the samples. Somatometric mea
surements were takan on males only following Martin and Sailer (1957) : The other
anthropological variables (ABO blood groups, PTC taste sensitivity) were collec
ted from both sexes following the standard techniques. In collecting and analy
sing the dermatoglyphic data (male only) the usual scheme proposed by Cummins
and Midlo (1961) is followed. Chi-square and t test were performed to see the
intergroup differences. The data of the ancestral tribal population and caste popul
ation groups having equivalent status like that of the Koch are taken from the
published works of other scientists whose method and approach are the same as
those of the present worker. Necessary information (reference) as regards sources
have been incorporated in respective tables.
III. — RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 demonstrates the distribution of 1 1 measurements and 6 indices among
the population groups under study. An attempt has been made to compare the
anthropométrie characters of the Koch of Goalpara with those of some other tr
ibal (ancestral) populations of Assam. It is seen from the table that there is some
variation among these groups. The Koch of Goalpara are medium statured peo- ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES AMONG THE KOCH POPULATIONS OF GOALPARA DISTRICT, ASSAM 205
Г~ о VO «n <n О* •4- On en <S О* — О* О О О* m О* — i 33S 3 s en O* o* S O* en о" o" о* о* о* o* ©*©* o* ce Cv> Tj- ^ сл Cli _ . _
Mean +i«S (Das 19 Lowe = -+ r- vo >n in vo <Ч СП СП ,42 f» VO <N Tf m гч — ts ^ en С<| Г» 1П -h On m en Os* (N en en oo ^ř en en ^f en VO <n so oo — — — pî m Sn"? 00
1
en O >n ^ O СП ■* en <N in O*O* en <S en in o* «n s in о" en^O о* о* о* О о* -^ О О* О О* О* О o* 3 en o" о* o" w о" O* 'С *о СЛ a H^ -H О <S vo en Os so vo On VO О vo On 2 <N jž o и qw in Os^OO^ ce Tt" VO* Г-" en ^ř en r-*oo r- 00 l~ vo oo — — — in VO 00
•£• en <S en Os so en m - VO 3 s en О о* о* О О о* o* >n VO o"o" en en O* о* о* о* о* о* O* o" о* O* O*
ел ř^
■H — а з Г- s " en On es oo о г- — oo en о 00 en 00 en Г~- Os t~ m c-g in Q* c^Tt m vo en СП m oó" ■ri* vo" oo" oo" * vo"— en ci •n сп ^ř en |Ô VO 00 — -ч — r- in 00 00 00 VO I
о1 Г- — in r- in in о vp ■* en On S en in vo О* О* **i~" О* О* О О* — * ni _. о* 33S о* о* o" о" о" o" o" "o" O* O* —
с r- -H «g ^í* Г- >-| 00 r- Os Os ^ On en еп m 00 3 <S fS in O en en vo vo in •П VO 8 3Z v* vo" 00* V* vo* 00* ©_ en сп ^ř en ci 00 la rř oo >n ЧО 00 —. — — r- m Os 00
oo O <n m О m 5nN VO en vo m ni** m О* О* en О О -^_ 3 en О о* о* О О о* r-vo o*o* o" en О* О* O* o* О* O* O* o* О 'C Kach — CO
vo On in О СП en <N <S in 00 s«l- СЧ,О^«п Г-^О Й 5Ň Щ. vo" en. O^vo^ O* гч сп oo ^ř сп en in en oT On oo en r~ V© 00 — -н — m «n s VO
^ř en en ,05 On Os <S SO Г- m O* ui~ ^ř сп со íO 1ии о* О О О o" «n en O* о* о* о" о" о* О* o" o"o* а о о О о
oí Gar
^- en Г- Os О <N en >n f~ in О <п f~ -" ^ О сп оо г- os en en oo m sa g !j vo" 3 v* Г-* 0^-1 r- m* ^D сп oo ^ř c*i СП ^ СП en ci vo oo — — — m S 00 00 00
h-miflO <n 00 m r- — СП t- - O* ni — О О* O* S см O* en o" 335 О* О* О* О* О* О* О* o" o*o* o* Q О c/j ®
-h2 •S ce ii II vo in О -^ <П VO О vo en m en гч en ce С «2 со m vo см m* «n in 3 •^■* об" VO* V* — — w |O ^ en •ПТ* СП 00 en 00 ЧО 00 — — ci -< r- m 00 00
r- en i~- oo vp vp m m vo m cn «MOON О* en O* in S3S о" о" Щ О* О* О* О* o* O* *\ °°. o" ^* — *O* О о — Г О о
■H О II — •"=!• г^ оо г** — m On m en en О О 00 en СП СП СП ^Г СП en en en 00* •n en Г-* ce Z *"!"! "Т. 8. VO* 4> en сп oo ^ř сп сптгеп ci oo <n ci \О 00 -« -н — r- On r- m 00
| biological h-height th-height breadth height breadth 73 iracters height jmatic height и lenght facial facial facial facial index ontal '§>
o circum. head re I •5 Horizi Lengt! Breadi Statui Bizygc breadi Morpl height Cepha index 73 Morpl Sittinj height то Nasal Nasal Nasal upper Total upper Total index index Head Head Head index index
6 of • SOCIÉTÉ D'ANTHROPOLOGIE DE PARIS 206
pie. They are mesocephalic in mean cephalic index. Their nasal index is mesor-
rhine. Somatometric features that set apart the Koch of Goalpara from most of
the tribal samples include the former's significantly higher stature with broader
and higher head. As a result, they have higher mean values of length height index
and breadth height index and differ from others. The variation bet
ween the pair of groups also manifested for having significantly lower mean values
of bizygomatic breadth, nasal height, nasal breadth and nasal index in the Koch
of Goalpara than in the different tribal samples.
Geographic proximity of the Rabha, Garo, Kachari to Koch of Goalpara may
lead one to expect some sort of physical interrelationship but the above mentio
ned three groups, who form numerically dominant ancestral population in Goal
para, appear to be quite different from them with larger t test values in most of
the characters (table II). The Lalung show close affinity with Koch of Goalpara
in respect of ten characteristics. Next to Lalung, in terms of relative closeness stand
Mikir. However, only in three characters the Koch of Goalpara show real distinc
tion with lower caste population.
With respect of ABO blood groups (table III), the goodness of fif with 1 degree
of freedom (1,48 ; 0,30 >p> 0,20) shows that the Koch sample is homogeneous
and is in agreement with Bernstein hypothesis. It also appears that В allele occurs
more frequently than the A allele.
It is also observed that the Koch of Goalpara and lower caste sample show
close affinity having high incidence of В allele in comparison to A allele which
is in agreement with the general distribution patterns of ABO gene frequency in
the Indid populations of North East India. One particular fact to be stressed in
this connection is that all the Indid (caste) populatoins of Assam always show high
frequency of В than A alleles. But on the other hand, tribal populations of North
East India are characterised by higher incidence of A than В alleles.
Amont the Garo, Kachari and Mikir, phenotype В occurs in much higher per
centages than A as well as O. On the other hand, among the Rabha and Lalung,
phenotype A is found to occur in higher percentage than B. When comparison
is made between the Koch and other population it is observed that they differ
significantly from the Rabha, Kachari and pooled tribe sample chiefly in their high
phenotype О and low AB in comparison to the latter samples. In respect of phe
notype B, the difference among the sample is less. The percentage of A is relati
vely more in the Rabha and pooled tribal sample in comparison to Koch, while
it is almost similar with Kachari.
In Koch, the males exhibit lower percentage on nontaster than their female
counterparts (table IV). The females also show higher mean threshold value among
taster than the males. Significant bisexual variation is observed regarding taster
mean threshold it value = 3,32 ; 0,01 >p> 0,001) while there is no bisexual varia
tion with regard to phenotype distribution (Chi-square value = 2,20 d.f. = 1 ;
not significant).
The frequency of nontaster is somewhat higher in Lalung (28,72 °7o) than in
other two tribal populations namely Kachari (17,82 °7o) and Mikir (16,27 °7o). The
chi-square value reveals that in respect of the incidence of the taster and nontast
er, there is no significant differences between the Koch and the tribes. In respect
of mean threshold for taster of the three tribal populations, the Kachari have the
highest mean value and significantly different from the Koch of Goalpara. The ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES AMONG THE KOCH POPULATIONS OF GOALPARA DISTRICT, ASSAM 207
Characters Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch Koch
X X X X X X X
Rabha Garo Kachari Mikir Pooled Lower Lalung
tribe caste
2,34* 3,16* 2,12* 3,48* 1,97* Stature 1,18 0,06
2,14* 3,67* 5,76* 0,38 0,17 1,13 0,32 Sitting height 6,53* 5,24* 2,68* 3,71* Head lenght 1,71 1,92 0,77
2,56* 3,60* 3,84* 3,65* breadth 1,66 0,55 0,76
4,41* 4,71* 2,33* 2,52* Head height 1,00 0,13 0,07
Horizontal
head
7,39* 2,16* 3,77* 1,96* circumference 0,43 1,91 1,87
Max.
Bizygomatic
3,59* 8,59* 7,18* 5,00* breadth 1,56 0,46 0,93
3,18* 3,00* 14,80* 3,80* 7,60* 2,65* Nasal height 0,53
7,20* 11,08* 8,86* 3,04* 12,05* 10,28* breadht 1,10
Morphological
upper facial
4,09* 4,48* 9,57* 2,94* 5,82* height 1,80 1,80
Total
4,77* 2,38* facial height 1,27 0,86 0,11 1,86 0,76
Cephalic
6,78* 6,55* 0,21 index 1,45 0,08 1,75 1,61
Length-heigth
5,49* 5,56* 2,88* 3,31* 1,84 index 0,26 0,35
Breadth-height
3,59* 3,71* 2,28* 2,95* 2,81* index 0,35 0,11
2,86* 4,99* 4,41* 3,51* 3,21* Nasal index 1,86 0,49
Morphological
upper facial
2,45* 6,05* 3,38* 2,12* index 0,89 1,39 1,79
Total
3,25* 3,91* facial index 0,45 0,20 0,22 1,49 0,26
Note : * indicates statistically significant at 5 0% level of probability.
Table II. — Intergroup homogeneity test for anthropométrie characters. SOCIÉTÉ D'ANTHROPOLOGIE DE PARIS 208
Population No О А В АВ г Р q
Koch 114 37,72 26,32 31,58 4,38 0,169 0,201 0,629
726 25,34 32,23 30,16 12,26 0,255 0,241 Rabha 0,503
Garo 144 25,69 29,86 32,64 11,81 0,236 0,255 0,507
Kachari 532 25,94 32,89 12,41 0,213 0,259 0,527 28,76
94 29,79 32,96 31,91 5,32 0,217 0,211 0,570 Lalung
Mikir 414 28,99 30,68 33,09 7,25 0,214 0,230 0,555
Pooled tribe 1 910 27,33 30,00 31,83 10,84 0,231 0,243 0,525
Lower caste 1 411 38,70 25,23 29,98 6,09 0,171 0,201 0,627
Table III. — Phenotypes and gene frequencies of ABO in Koch and other populations
ABO blood groups of the Rabha was determined by Das (1960 a and 1981),
while the same author also sutdied Garo (1981). The Kachari sample was
collected by Phookan (1974) and Das (1981) and Lalung was examined by
Das et. al. (1980 a). The Mikir were blood grouped by Chakravarty (1976),
Deb (1979) and Das (1981), while the Lower caste populations studied by
Das et. al. (1985).
Population Sex No Nontaster t Threshold Source
gene Mean ± S.E. (%)
Koch Male 81 16,05 0,400 7,49 0,20 Present study Female 41 26,83 0,518 8,80 0,34
Koch M + F 122 19,67 0,443 7,85 0,19 Present study
Kachari M + F 864 17,82 0,422 8,35 0,08 Phookan, 1974
Male 94 28,72 0,536 7,60 0,26 Das et. al., Lalung
1980 a
Mikir Male 209 16,27 0,404 7,81 0,17 Deb, 1979
— M + F Pooled tribe 1 167 18,42 0,429 8,19 0,11
Lower caste M + F 1 386 21,21 0,460 7,39 0,20 Das et. al,
1985
Table IV. — PTC taste phenotypes and main thresholds for taster in Koch and other
populations.
comparison between the Mikir and Lalung with Koch turned out to be statisti
cally non-significant. However, that Koch sample is mutually undifferentiated from
the lower caste sample in respect of both the trait. Thus, the data on PTC do
not support the earlier observation that we have calculated from the somatome-
tric measurements and the distribution of ABO blood groups. The Koch of Goal-
para come close to the range displayed by the tribal population under consideration.
The Koch of Goalpara have comparatively more loops, lesser whorls and fewer
arches than each of the tribal populations (table V). As regards whorl : loop ratio
of the Koch of (approximating 40 : 60), varies from the tribal popula
tion having almost 50 : 50 pattern ratio in the finger. A chi-square analysis reveals
that these differences between Koch sample on one hand and each of the tribal
population on the other hand are statistically significant. However, it is also noted
with interest that the lower caste population remains significantly apart from the ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES AMONG THE KOCH POPULATIONS OF GOALPARA DISTRICT, ASSAM 209
and| | 1 | 196l| | 1961 1961 1961 1985 and & & & & and al. ravarty ravarty ravarty ravarty 1979 ource 1960а al. 1960c (Л erjee [980a erjee erjee erjee 1959 et.
t. b s g eu (U с/э ss ce Рге (Л Das, ел ICha ICha Das ICha Muk ICha Muk Q ce Q 3 сЗ Q Q 1
X <и
г- •s
О* со о" со_ .ti
+1 +1 g щ С/Э +1 се с <и о r- r- ON ^н SO fS Os vo СО -о со Os со" Os 2" 13.
се s 2 2 2
si
Он я о
ta's
On 00 «r> о Os ее осГсо" VO on" СО Os cio" <N u л тз о 3 SO ON 00 S <S О а
Ни
ier's
—, Os «n oo -H о VO .'53 s G тз '""^ ^, Г- i^ СЯ vO со СО m Tr
С ce
Q
OS о 00 25 "§ CO* со* — • ci ci ci
Г- vo OS -h 8 <o s©" VO^ c" о ^r 00 О СО 00 H </"> <o тг тГ тГ <o
ial — о Os 00 О <s a о os ci—* со «о ТЗ СО -h" се ~* ci •S Он
r- CO г- о се Ьн о о
^^
«ri о t? т?т? 5 T? t?
R 00 <N VO 00 V~l OS *—> о OS^OO со" SO* "Я VO* oo о «о т|- n- i «n 1
158 108 313 769 424 304 319 «о
1 1
ibe u ел О ulal ел Ьн S
00 ce « j= о Si о. u 2 "о 8 ce « я о -i о s ° Он QÍ О SOCIÉTÉ D'ANTHROPOLOGIE DE PARIS 210
Koch population by their conspicuously lowaring of whorl and raising of loop.
A more or less marked intergroup variability is present especially concerning Dank-
meijer's index in general and Furuhata's index in particular (table V) — as expec
ted the Koch of Goalpara differing from all other tribal groups under study (accor
ding to the figures given in table V). When pattern intensity index of the Koch
sample is compared with each of the tribal population and lower caste sample,
it is observed that all the samples show almost equal consistency.
On the basis of the foregoing discussion we can draw the following conclusion
(table VI). With regard to anthropometry the Koch of Goalpara disagree with the
Taster Taster Groups ABO Pattern Papillary
Compared Blood phenotype mean pattern intensity
groups threshold index
x2 test x2 test x2 test t test t test
12,206* 18,934* Koch x Rabha
12,035* — — — x Garo 7,378
8,036* 2,426* 28,181* — Koch x Kachari 0,246
20,959* — x Lalung 1,824 2,411 0,776
32,690* — Koch x Mikir 0,617 3,946 0,156
Koch x Pooled
8,923* 22,970* — Tribe 0,113 1,552
Koch x Lower
11,022* 0,681 1,667 caste 0,159 0,157
Note : * statistically significant at 5,0% level of probability.
Table VI. — Intergroup homogeneity test.
tribal populations in most of the characters, but show resemblance with the lower
caste. In respect of serological traits, the Koch sample differs significantly from
the tribal but there is no statistically significant difference between
the Koch and the lower caste. On the other hand PTC data do not reveal any
significant difference between the population under consideration. However, as
regards finger ball patterns, the groups differ from each other. The finding is in
conformity with that of Das (1962) who observed that the Rajbansi (Koch) of
Assam are more similar to Suri, a lower caste group of Assam, than the tribes
like the Garo, Kachari and Rabha who form the parental stock. It is difficult to
account for such a situation. As mentioned earlier, besides various other factors,
we cannot rule out the possibility of exchange of genes between the lower caste
populations with the Koch of Goalpara. One particular fact to be stressed in this
connection is that Das et. al. (1980b) observed that the Rajbansi (Koch) living
in the tribal area were maintaining a high frequency of HbE gene while Rajbansis
living in the of Hindu castes showed "dilution" of the HbE frequency and
thereby showed similarity with the Assamese caste groups in this regard. Along
all the Bodo speaking tribes, namely the Garo, Rabha, Kachari and Lalung, who
also form the parental stock of the Koch, HbE gene occurs in very high percenta
ges. Therefore, one may perhaps infer that the Rajbansis of the tribal areas are
desendants of the recent converts and as such are still preserving HbE gene in
a high frequency. The results of the present study are very similar to the ones
mentioned above. ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES AMONG THE KOCH POPULATIONS OF GOALPARA DISTRICT, ASSAM 211
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The data analysed in this paper was collected through grants from the UGC, New Delhi. The data
analysis was made possible through research grants from the Anthropological Survey of India, Govern
ment of India, Calcutta.
REFERENCES
Allen (B.C.), 1905. Assam District Gazetters (Goalpara), volume 3, Shillong.
Cakravarty (M.R.), Mukherjee (D.P.), 1961. Dermatoglyphic study of tribes and castes of the state
of Assam. Science and Culture 27, 12 : 554-585. (S.), 1976. ABO blood group distribution among the Mikir of Assam. Bulletin of the
Department of Anthropology, Dibrugarh University, 5 : 14-18.
Cummins (H.), Midlo (C), 1961. Finger prints, Palms and Soles : An Introduction to Dermatogly-
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Dalton (E.T.), 1872. Descriptive ethnology of Bangal, Calcutta Office of the Superintendent of
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Das (B.M.), 1959. Finger prints of the Hajong. Man In India, 39, 1 : 20-27.
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— 1960b. Somatic variation among the Hills and Plains Garos of Assam. Man In India, 40, 2 :
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— 1960c. Physical affinity of the Kachari. Journal of Gauhati University, 11, 2 : 61-81.
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lore Research, 1 : 23-45.
— 1968. ABO blood groups in the tribal populations of north east India with special reference
to the Khasi. The Anthropologist (Special volume) : 85-92.
— 1981. Micro Evolution. New Delhi ; Concept Publishing House.
Das (B.M.), Das (P.B.) Das (R.), 1980. The Lalung : Their Physical Features and Biosocial Profile
(Mimeographed). Department of Anthropology, Gauhati University, Assam.
Das (B.M.), Deka (R.), Das (R.), 1980b. Haemoglobin E in six populations of Assam. Journal of
Indian Anthropological Society, 15 : 153-156.
Das (B.M.), Das (P. В.), Das (R.), Walter (H.), Danker-Hopfe (H.), 1985. Anthropological Stu
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bartas). Antrhopologischer Anzeiger, 44, 3 : 239-248.
Deb (A.), 1979. Comparison between the Hills and Plains Mikir of Assam in respect of certain anth
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Assam.
Gait (E.), 1905. History of Assam. London (3rd edition, Calcutta, Thackers Spink and Co, 1963).
Haddon (A.C.), 1924. Races of Man and their distribution, Cambridge.

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