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Correction to Bremser and Gallup Jr. (2012)

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From the book : Evolutionary Psychology 11 issue 2 : 324-326.
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Evolutionary Psychology
www.epjournal.net – 2013. 11(2): 324326
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Correction
 Regarding Bremser, J. A., and Gallup Jr., G.G. (2012). From one extreme to the other: Disordered eating and negative evaluation anxiety as candidates for the extreme female brain.Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 457486: The authors wish to correct information in two sections of the manuscript. Failure to see formatting errors in Table 9 (p. 478) led to incorrect values displayed in that table. The corrected values are highlighted below.  In addition, the correlations presented inStudy 2(of 4) should be considered invalid due to the failure to recognize that a merged data file was used in the analyses of these variables. The merged data file inadvertently contained participants fromStudy 1. Readers should be cautioned that this error primarily affects the values that are presented in Tables 4 and 5 and described in paragraph 3 of page 468.  In an attempt to correct for this, we reexamined the variables that were affected by this oversight with a new, independent sample of participants and describe our findings in detail below. One hundred and fortyeight undergraduate students (34 males; 114 females) were recruited from the Alfred State and Alfred University psychology courses and were offered course credit for their participation (an outlier scoring more than 3 standard deviations away from the mean on the dimension ofEmpathizing Biaswas removed from the analysis). Participants’ ages ranged from 1853 years (Mean Age= 21.1;SD= 5.3) and all were fluent in English. Participants completed the short form of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT26), the brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (FNE), and the Empathizing (EQ) and Systemizing Quotients (SQR) in small groups in a classroom setting. Data from each participant were entered into a spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS/PAWS version 19.0. An exploratory data analysis revealed that the distribution for scores was normal for every variable except for the EAT26 (KolmogorovSmirnov Z(EAT) = 1.75,p< .01) and the bulimia subscale of this test (KolmogorovSmirnovZ(bul) = .345,p< .01) which were both positively skewed. In order to correct for skew, EAT26 scores were transformed into their natural logarithm, which resulted in a distribution that did not differ significantly from normality (KolmogorovSmirnovZ(nlEAT+1) = .066,p= .20). Pearson product correlations were computed to analyze the relationships between all variables, except the bulimia subscale. A log transformation did not correct the skew for this variable; therefore, Spearman rank order correlations were computed between this subscale and the other measures. In addition, the composite variable,Empathizing Bias(EB), was computed in the same manner as inStudy 1 subtracting the Systemizing by Quotient (SQR)zscores from Empathizing Quotient (EQ)z.serocs
Evoluti
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Corre
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y – ISSN 14747049 – Volum
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Gallup Jr. (2012)
e 11(2).
2013.
 325
Correction to Bremser and Gallup Jr. (2012)
 There was a significant positive correlation between disordered eating and negative evaluation anxiety (r .412, =p < .01), replicating our findings fromStudy 1. We also replicated the significant positive correlation between scores on the FNE and an Empathizing Bias(r= .206,pthe bulimia subscale were not significantly< .05). Scores on correlated with anEmpathizing Bias or empathizing and systemizing scores. Independent of gender, disordered eating was not related to empathizing scores or empathizing bias, as we found inStudy 1. However, when the file was split by gender, we found that disordered eating and empathizing were positively correlated (r = .533,p< .01) as was disordered eating and anEmpathizing Bias (r = .360,p< .05) for male participants. Conversely, the correlations between these variables in female participants were not significant.  In our original study, the purpose ofStudy 2to 1) replicate our findings from was the empathizing and systemizing quotients reported inStudy 1,and 2) investigate objective measures of Empathizing and Systemizing as a function of disordered eating and gender. Because it was revealed that the data file depicting empathizing and systemizing scores had been inadvertently merged with data points fromStudy 1, we attempted to correct our mistake and replicate our findings from those measures with a new, independent sample.  We were able to replicate most, but not all of our findings fromStudy 1. The significant positive relationship between negative evaluation anxiety and disordered eating was replicated, as was the positive relationship between negative evaluation anxiety and empathizing bias. However, the significant positive relationship between disordered eating and empathizing was observed in males only.  Despite the flaw in our original manuscript, the recent data we collected seems to fit the model we proposed, which is that disordered eating and negative evaluation anxiety are potential candidates for an extreme female brain—a profile that manifests as excesses in empathizing and hypermentalizing. However, it is clear that more research, particularly with regard to the effects of gender, is needed to fully clarify the utility and implications of this model.
Evolutionary Psychology – ISSN 14747049 – Volume 11(2). 2013. 326
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