//img.uscri.be/pth/fe3d8bd89a9d29d558ef47c4a3f3bddb447c51b9
Cet ouvrage fait partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le lire en ligne
En savoir plus

Specific ion effects in foam and wetting films [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Natascha Schelero

De
183 pages
Prof.Sphe:2.ionnat.eectsinbfoamandhwettingDr.lmsProf.vwissenscorgelegtDvDr.onDissertationDipl.-ChemikVerinReinhardNatascerhater:Scv.helerohausThomasM?ncaghenhenVBerlinonderderhaftenFrer.akult?tgenehmigteIIuss:-orsitzender:MathematikDr.undSckhaften1.derhTProf.ecRegineKlitzinghenUnivter:ersit?tDr.BerlinZemzurTErlangungderdesakAussprac12.11.2010hen2010Grades83Doktorin.Contents.1...5of1.1.F..in.thin.liquid.lms4.1.......Anion.37...................50.The.eect....................5.1.1.1.Disjoining.pressure....stabilities.......1:1.....4.2....................................5.1.1.2.Disjoining.pressureDiscussionisotherm........eects.......3.4.2............queous..............10461.2lmsLiterature.o.v.erview..............of..................54.3.3...................37......11.1.2.1.On.the.nature.ofCationions.at.the.air/w.ater.in.terface..39...................3.4.111.1.2.2.Eect.of..electrolytes.on.foam.lmseectsfrom..surfactan.ts.12.1.2.3.F.oam3.4.3lmswithfromacidsmixtures.of.3.4.
Voir plus Voir moins

Prof.
Sp
he:

2.
ion
nat.
eects

in
b
foam

and
h
w

etting
Dr.
lms
Prof.
v
wissensc
orgelegt
D
v
Dr.
on
Dissertation
Dipl.-Chemik
V
erin
Reinhard
Natasc
er
ha
ter:
Sc
v.
helero
h
aus
Thomas
M?nc
ag
hen
hen
V
Berlin
on
der
der
haften
F
rer.
akult?t
genehmigte
I

I
uss:
-
orsitzender:
Mathematik
Dr.
und
Sc

k
haften
1.
der
h
T
Prof.
ec
Regine

Klitzing
hen

Univ
ter:
ersit?t
Dr.
Berlin
Zem
zur
T
Erlangung
der
des

ak
Aussprac

12.11.2010
hen
2010
Grades
83
Doktorin.
Contents
.
1
.

.

.
5
of
1.1
.
F
.

.
in
.
thin
.
liquid
.
lms
4.1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Anion
.
37
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
50
.
The
.
eect
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
.
1.1.1
.
Disjoining
.
pressure
.
.
.
.
stabilities
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1:1
.
.
.
.
.
4.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
.
1.1.2
.
Disjoining
.
pressure
Discussion
isotherm
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
eects
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.4.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
queous
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
10
46
1.2
lms
Literature
.
o
.
v
.
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
54
.
3.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
37
.
.
.
.
.
.
11
.
1.2.1
.
On
.
the
.
nature
.
of
Cation
ions
.
at
.
the
.
air/w
.
ater
.
in
.
terface
.
.
39
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.4.1
11
.
1.2.2
.
Eect
.
of
.

.
electrolytes
.
on
.
foam
.
lms
eects
from
.

.
surfactan
.
ts
.
12
.
1.2.3
.
F
.
oam
3.4.3
lms
with
from
acids
mixtures
.
of
.

3.4.4
surfactan
etting
ts
.
and
.

.
electrolytes
.
16
.
2
3.5
Exp
.
erimental
.

.
19
.
2.1
.
Metho
.
ds
.
.
.
.
.
.
Eect
.
on
.
SDS
.
tro
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
The
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
51
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
19
.
2.1.1
.
Thin
.
Film
4.2.3
Pressure
the
Balance
.
(TFPB)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
35
.
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
19
.
2.1.2
.
Surface
.
tension
.
measuremen
.
ts
.
.
.
.
3.3.1
.
eects
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.3.2
.
eects
.
.
25
.
2.1.3
.
Zeta-p
.
oten
.
tial
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
42
.
Anion
25
.
2.1.4
.
Con
.

.
angle
.
measuremen
.
ts
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
42
.
Cation
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
26
.
2.1.5
.

.
Surface
43

Comparison
y
salts
Measuremen
the
ts
onding
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
44
.
A
.
w
.
lm
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
27
.
2.2
.
Materials
.
and
.
preparation
.
pro
45

Conclusion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4
.
of
.
electrolytes
28
foam
3
from
Ion
47
sp
In


eects
.
on
.
thin
.
aqueous
.
w
.
etting
.
lms
.
33
.
3.1
.
In
.
tro
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
47
.
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.2.1
.

.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
33
.
3.2
.

.
Mo
.
del
.
.
.
.
4.2.2
.

.
anions
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
52
.
The
.
of
.
electrolyte
.
tration
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.C14
C TAB14
C TAB14
C TAB14
C TAB14
Discussion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
56
.
4.3
oam
Discussion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
rganic
.
.
.
prop
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ts
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
salt
.
and
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.2.1
.
.
58
ts
4.3.1
.

.
of
.

.
.
ylammonium
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
of
.
.
.
Mixtures
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
8
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
58
.
4.3.2
isotherms

.
of
.
anions
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
sulfate
.
.
.
.
.
tetradecyl
.
.
.
Discussion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
do
.
.
.
.
.
6.3.2
.
.
.
100
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7
.
lms
60
103
4.3.3
.
Eect
.
of
.
the
.
electrolyte
103

.
tration
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
62
.
4.3.4
.
V
.
ariation
the
of
.
the
.
surfactan
7.3.3
t
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
from
.
8.1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
8.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
127
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
91
.
.
64
.
4.4
.
Conclusion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
do
.
ts
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.2.2
.
ylammonium
.
.
.
.
.
95
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.3.1
.
sulfate
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
tetradecyl
.
ts
.
.
65
.
5
Conclusion
Ion
.
sp
.

.
eects
.
on
.
foam
.
lms
.
from
.
(
.
.
of
.
on
.
.
T
.
A
In
C)
.
67
.
5.1
.
In
.
tro
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7.2.1
.
stabilities
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7.2.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
112
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
67
.
5.2
.
Results
.
.
.
.
7.3.1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
115
.
t
.
ariation
.
t
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
oam
.
of
.
surfactants
.
tro
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
69
.
5.2.1
.

.
of
.
anions
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Disjoining
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
127
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
69
.
5.2.2
.

.
of
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
92
.

.

.
surfactan
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
93
.
Cationic
.
trimeth
.
surfactan
.
.
.
.
71
.
5.2.3
.
Eect
.
of
6.3
the
.
salt
.

.
tration
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
97
.

.

.
surfactan
.
.
.
.
73
.
5.3
.
Discussion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
97
.
Cationic
.
trimeth
.
surfactan
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
101
.

.
o
.
ions
78
foam
5.3.1
from

.
of
.

.
.
7.1
.
tro
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
78
.
5.3.2
.

.
of
.
anions
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
105
.
F
.
lm
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
105
.
Surface
.
erties
81
.
5.3.3
.
Eect
.
of
.
the
.
surfactan
.
t
.

.
tration
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
83
.
5.3.4
.
Eect
.
of
.
the
.
electrolyte
.

.
tration
114
.
Mixtures
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7.3.2
84
of
5.3.5
surfactan

of
of
V
the

.
.
and
.
surfactan
.
(soaps
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
120
118
Conclusion
Mixtures
.
4.2.4
.
Contents
.
ii
.
surface


t
harge
)
on
.
ion
.
sp
.

.
eects
7.4
in
.
foam
.
lms
.
.
.
.
.
87
.
5.4
.
Conclusions
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
123
.
F
.
lms
.
mixtures
.

.

.
125
.
In
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
88
.
6
125

Results
of
.

.
on
.
foam
.
lms
.
from
.

.
surfactants
.
91
.
6.1
.
In
.
tro
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
8.2.1
.
pressure
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.A
Contents
.
iii
.
8.2.2
.
F
.
oam
.
lm
.
stabilities
.
.
Characterization
.
151
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ds
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
adsorption
.
9.5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
129
.
8.2.3
.
Surface
.
prop
.
erties
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Sample
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Characterization
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
130
.
8.3
adsorption
Discussion
.
.
9.6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Conclusion
.
.
.
9.3.2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
141
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
9.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
143
.

131
.
8.4
.
Conclusion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
143
.
the
.
y
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
145
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
145
.
the
.
y
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
135
.
9
.
A
.
dso
.
rption
.
of
148
gold
Outlo
nanopa
endix
rticles
.
at
141
the
Metho
liquid/solid
.
interface
.
137
.
9.1
.
Preface
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
9.3.3
.
preparation
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
142
.
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
137
.
9.2
.
In
.
tro
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
9.4.1
.
dsorption
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
9.4.2
.
of
.
Au-NP
.
la
.
er
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
144
.
Discussion
.
.
.
.
140
.
9.3
.
Exp
.
erimen
.
tal
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
9.5.1
.
dsorption
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
9.5.2
.
of
.
Au-NP
.
la
141
er
9.3.1
.
Materials
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
147
.
Conclusion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
10
.
and
.
ok
.
App
.
157

om

b
1
ed
Motivation
it
Pro
surfaces

repulsiv
a
surfactan
foam
am.

thin
results
lm
in
pressure
a
es
"w
lms
et
thic
foam"
of
(gure
standing
Intro
0.1a),
41,364.
whic
drainage
h
of

forces
of
V
air
attractiv
bubbles

disp

ersed
are
in
ater
a
een

surfactan
tin

uous
olyhe
liquid
a
phase.
with
Due
e.
to
Unser
the
y
loss
aected
of
formation
liquid
latter

surface
b
In
y

gra
w
vitation
5

of
drainage),
der
the
Based

dieren
gradually


(CBF)
hanges
10-100
and
and
the
NBF
bubbles
w
are
left

terfaces.
v
to
erted
No
in
to
to
(REM)
p
liquid
olyhedral
on
air


e
separated
am
b
thickness
y
pr
thin
taken
liquid
Schulze-Schlarmann,
foam
Zeit
lms
The
(gure

0.1b),
lms
whic
y
h
during
in
to
turn
In
are
static
stabilized
foam
b
dominate
y
y
surfactan
the
ts
foam
adsorb
e
ed
y
at
wn
the
theory
lm
The
surfaces.
the
Although
e
liquid
v
foams
aals
are
steric
frequen
these
tly
w
applied
t
in
thin
daily
e
life
k
and
thic
industrial
w
pro
whic


(e.g.
blac

In
agen
free
ts,
h
p
around
ersonal
headgroups

et
pro
lm

the
re-gh

tening,

otation,
length.
oil
ada

p
v

ery),
opic
a
image
general
a
understanding
p
ab
dr
out
fo
ho
(c)
w
of
to
fr
manipulate
e
foam
fo
stabilities
lm
is
h
missing.
and
Th
disjoining
us,
essur
the
Images
dev
fr
elopmen
J.
t
Chem.
of
e
new
2007,
pro
4

stabilit
is
of
often
h
based
liquid
on
is

b

the
and

exp
foam
erience.
related
T
e.g.
o
forces.
understand
the
the
rather
prop
stage
erties
the
of
only
foams
forces
one
the
has
stabilit
to
.

general,
b
surface
esides
in
the
lms
whole
b

describ
the
b
single
the
foam
ell-kno
lms
DL
as
O
the
.
elemen
,6
tary
disjoining
building
is
blo
sum

repulsiv
ks

of
e
the
an
foam
W
(gure
and
0.1c).
e
It
pressures.
is
on

in
thinking,
t
that
o
the
t
stabilit
yp
y
of
of
lms
foam
b
lms
distinguished:
is
blac

lms

with
to
knesses
that
et
of
een
the
nm
resp
h
ectiv
mainly
e
stabilized
foam.
Newton
1
k
3
(NBF).
Figure
a
0.1:
no
The
w
tr

ansition
ydration
of
ater
a
the
wet
t
fo
is
am
b
to
w
a
the
dry
in
fo
Hence,
am
lm
due
kness
to
onds
dr
t
ainage
the
is
t
shown
7
in
w
(a).
ys
(b)
is
Ele
ossible

tune
onterfaces
2
eects
Intro
for

prop
the
the
prop
oth.
erties
addition:
of
ater
foam
prop
lms
other
of
y
pure
fundamen
surfactan
science
ts

with
observ
resp
in
ect
of
to

the
tal
t
ater
yp
are
e
ers
of

surfactan
eects.
t,
in
surfactan
disp
t
mo

thesis
tration,
are


strength
electrolyte
of
lms
the
determine
system
follo

y

of
tration),
terface:
and

pH
adsorption
of
they
the
scales.
solution.
for
Ho
for
w
sensitiv
ev
this
er,

in
out
most
of
of
is
the
lik
applications
hnical
mixtures
uclear
of
are
sev
studying
eral
the

(Hofmeister)
onen
etting
ts
estigated.
are
and
used.
of
The
w
main
bare
foaming
hapter
agen
o
ts
opp
used
the
in
in
these
ion
pro
foam


are
The

(anionic
alkyl
the
sulfates,
exp
alkyl



o
the
xylates,
the
alkyl
terface,
p
sensitiv

t
and
metho
to
sensitiv
tune
surface
the
and
prop
la
erties
others
of
for
the
aim
pro
is

to
quaternary

ammonium
questions
surfactan
terfacial
ts.
general
8

Beside
in
the
ortan
main
y
foaming
in
agen
for
ts
e.g.
the
of
mixtures
aste.

liquid
tain
o
a
systems
v

ast
Outline
n
Within
um
sp
b
on
er
of
of
foam
additiv
in
es
order

whic

w
It
prop
turned
air/
out
terface,
that
lms
in
on
mixtures
substrate
not
estigated
only
W
the
t
nature
t
of
e
the
y

sign
onen

ts
air/
but
In
also
sp
the
on
sp
of

stabilized
in


t
b
hapter
et

w
surfactan
een

the
harge
main
solution
surfactan
y
t
erimen
and
and
the
results
additiv
tradict
e
h
are

imp
ion
ortan
at
t
air/w
in
in
resp
since
ect
are
to
e
foam
dieren
lm
length
prop
Some
erties.
ds
9
only
Therefore,
e
the
the
sp
la

er
in
not


b
y
et
and
w
are
een
e
the
b
most
The
frequen
of
tly
thesis
used
to
additiv
tribute
es
the

of
and
h
surfactan
tal
ts
ab
are
in
regarded
ion
within
A
this
understanding
thesis.
sp
The
ion
lm
at
thic
terfaces
kness
imp
and
t
stabilit
man
y
elds
of
e
foam
life
and
and
w

etting
applications,
lms
the
is
osal
link
n
ed
w
for
In
the
Thin
rst
lms
time
go
to
d
the
del
eect
for
of
in
ion
in
adsorption
sytems.
at
of
the
thesis
air/
this
w
ion
ater

in
eects
terface
the
and
erties
to
w
sp
and

lms
in
systematically

v
b
In
et
to
w
e
een
h
headgroups
ho
and
ions
ions
the
in
erties
the
the
wider
w
realm
in
of
asymmetric
Hofmeister
etting
eects.
of
Related
solutions
to
a
the

Hofmeister
are
series,
v
esp
(c
ecially
3).
h
etting
ydrophobic
with
in
w
terfaces,
dieren
e.g.
in
the
giv
air/w
the
ater
ortunit
in
to
terface
the
are
of
of
surface
in
harge
terest.
the
It
solution
is
terface.

the
tro
wing,
v

ersially
eects
discussed
the
in
erties
the

literature,
lms
whether
b
the
either
air/w
or
ater
surfactan
in
are
terface
(c
is
4-8).
negativ

ely

or
the
p
t
ositiv
or
ely
determines


harged.
of
10
air/
F
in
urthermore,
manSw
Intro
of

ydrophobicit
3
the
p
applications,
ositiv
The
e
ion
in
the
the
great

11
of
prop

of
surfactan
Beside
ts
lms,
and
v
negativ
Nylander
e
tuning
for
erties


surfactan

ts.
ions
T
tied
o
w
b
and
e
elucidated
able
estigation
to
w

of
from
has
the


of
harge
ersit
of
9).
the
a
air/
appliance
solution

in
sensors,
terface
and
on
electrolytes,
to
the
the
of
sp
foam

is
ion
hapter
eects
b
at
the
the
additiv
in
stabilit
terfaces
lms
(c
hapter
hapter
in
5),
sp
the
in

and
tration
ad-
of
nanoparticles
the
in
solutions
een
of
within

eration
or
ork

Dr.
sur-
the

of
t
(c


onds
materials
b
scale
oth
otenial
to
unique
3.7%

of
ortan
the
h
resp

ectiv

e
t



the

of
trations
h
(cmc).
y
Sp
the

on
ion
lm
eects
erties

iden
b
(c
e
7).
studied
relation
b
et
y
een
the
stucture
addition

of
e
dieren
the
t
y
electrolytes
foam
to
is
a
(c
surfac-
8).
tan
the
t
v
solution
of
and

b
eects
y
aqueous
v
etting
arying
foam
the
the

sorption
terion
gold
of
at
the
liquid/solid
surfactan
terface
t.
b
The
in

estigated
of
the
dieren
op
t
with

w
terions
group
of
Prof.

T.
surfactan
at
ts,
Univ
i.e.
y
of
Lund,

eden
do
hapter

The
sulfates
trolled
and
of

on
tetradecyl
small
trimeth

ylammonium
p
surfactan
for
ts,
of
on
prop
foam
of
lms
in
are
imp
studied
t
(c

hapter
as
6).
high
Due
solar
to
single
replacing



ions

b
14
y
4
Intro