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Synthesis and Deposition of Functional Nano-Materials on
Natural Fibres

Von der Fakultät für Mathematik, Informatik und Naturwissenschaften
der RWTH Aachen University
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigte Dissertation

vorgelegt von
Ahmed Gomaa Abd ALLAH Hassabo
aus Dameitta, Ägypten

Berichter: Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Martin Möller
Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Andrij Pich

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 06.06.2011
Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulbibliothek online verfügbar.

Synthesis and Deposition of Functional Nano-Materials on
Natural Fibres

From the Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Natural Sciences
of the Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technische Hochschule Aachen
RWTH-Aachen University
to obtain the academic degree of
Doctor of Natural Science (Dr. rer.nat.)

Approved thesis
Submitted by
M.Sc. Organic Chemistry
Ahmed Gomaa Abd ALLAH Hassabo
From Egypt
born in Dameitta 10.03.1979

Advisor: Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Martin Möller
Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Andrij Pich

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: June 06.2011
Diese Dissertation ist auf den Internetseiten der Hochschulebibliothek online verfügbar.

Aachen University of Technology (RWTH)
Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry (DWI/ITMC)

The undersigned certify that they have read, and recommend to the Aachen University of
Technology (RWTH) for acceptance, a thesis entitled:

Synthesis and Deposition of Functional Nano-Materials on
Natural Fibres

Submitted by Ahmed Gomaa Abd ALLAH Hassabo in total fulfilment of the requirements of
the degree of Doctor Philosophy of Science

Approved by thesis committee:
Certified and Approved by (Advisor):
Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Martin Möller
Aachen University of Technology (RWTH-Aachen)
Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry (DWI/ITMC)

Certified and Approved by (Advisor):
Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Andrij Pich
Aachen University of Technology (RWTH-Aachen)
Institute of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry (DWI/ITMC)

Accepted by (Further examiner):
Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Walter Richtering
Aachen University of Technology (RWTH-Aachen)
Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC)

Accepted by (Chairman):
Univ. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Paul Kögerler
Aachen University of Technology (RWTH-Aachen)
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (IAC)

Date: June 06.2011
DWI an der RWTH-Aachen University
I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. All the experiments in this thesis
constitute work carried out by the candidate unless otherwise stated. The thesis's tables,
figures, bibliography and appendices, and complies with the stipulations set out for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy by the RWTH-Aachen University of Technology (RWTH-Aachen).
I further authorize RWTH-Aachen University of Technology (RWTH-Aachen) to reproduce
this thesis by photocopying or by other means, in total or in part, at the request of other
institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly research.

Title of Thesis/Dissertation:
Synthesis and Deposition of Functional Nano-Materials on Natural Fibres

Author Hassabo, Ahmed Gomaa Abd Allah
DWI/ITMC, RWTH-Aachen University
Author’s Declaration vi Ahmed G. Hassabo⎪2011
This Thesis deals with the modification of natural fibres properties by applying a functional
coating to the fibre. Natural fibres, i.e. cotton and wool, have been chosen as fibrous material
giving contribute to the fact that they cannot be modified in bulk, like synthetic fibres where
additives can be added in the melt before spinning. The focus of the modification has been
directed towards thermo-regulating properties, textile gloss and improved dyeing. Common to
all three tasks is the necessity to develop a binder for permanent application of the functional
entity. This has been achieved via polymeric binders, namely polyethylene imine (PEI) and
polyacrylates. The phase-change resins were applied for thermo-regulating, micro-gel based
soft colloids were used for gloss modification and dendrite polymer dyes were used for dyeing.
The prepared polymer were characterised using NMR, IR, SEM, DSC. Treated fibres were
characterised according to the required end-use.
Summing up the fibre surface properties can be controllable improved by selecting the
appropriate polymer structure and by adjusting the corresponding treatment parameters.

Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Modifizierung von NaturfaserEigenschaften durch
Anlegen einer funktionalen Beschichtung auf der Faser. Natürliche Fasern wie Baumwolle und
Wolle, sind als Faserstoffe ausgewählt worden, durch die Tatsache, dass sie nicht im bulk
verändert werden können, wie synthetische Fasern, wo Zusatzstoffe vor dem Spinnen in der
Schmelze zugesetzt werden können. Der Schwerpunkt der Modifizierung wurde auf thermo-
regulierenden Eigenschaften gerichtet, Textil Glanz und verbessertes Färben. Gemeinsam ist
allen drei Aufgaben die Notwendigkeit, ein Bindemittel für die permanente Anwendung der
funktionellen Einheit zu entwickeln. Dies wurde durch polymere Bindemittel, nämlich
Polyethylenimin (PEI) und Polyacrylate erreicht Die Phase-Change-Materialien für Thermo-
Regulierung angewendet, Mikro-Gel basierte Soft Kolloide wurden für Glanz Modifikation
verwendt und Dendriten Polymer Farbstoffe wurden zum Färben verwendet. Die hergestellten
Polymere wurden durch NMR, IR, SEM, DSC gekennzeichnet. Behandelte Fasern wurden in
Übereinstimmung mit End-Anwendung durch gekennzeichnet.
Zusammenfassend können die Faseroberflächeneigenschaften durch die Auswahl der
geeigneten Polymerstruktur und durch die Anpassung der entsprechenden Behandlungs-
parameter kontrolliert verbessert werden.

vii Thesis Abstract Ahmed G. Hassabo⎪2011
First, I thank ALLAH for all his blessings. Any success earned by this research deservedly
belongs to almighty "Allah" Thanks ALLAH.
A grateful acknowledgement to the Egyptian Government (Egyptian ministry of higher
education and scientific research, Missions Department) to which granted the scholarship to
pursue the PhD degree at RWTH-Aachen University and the German language course, and
also for giving life to this challenging PhD project. It offered me the possibility to cooperate
with DWI an der RWTH and to gain life-time experiences while I stayed in Aachen to study
at RWTH-Aachen University, also, for the financial support.
Perhaps the most significant contribution was by Prof. Dr. Martin Möller, Head of the
Institute of Textile Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry (DWI/ITMC), RWTH-Aachen
University. His unflagging efforts to improve readability, assistance with writing, and his
suggestions concerning content were an incalculable asset. Therefore, I affectionately
dedicated my research to his amazing patience and tolerance.
I equally thank Prof. Dr. Crisan Popescu, at (DWI/ITMC), who introduced various aspects of
organic chemistry to me, a very exciting subject that never got my attention before. I have
learned a great deal from him about how to express the concepts in a clear and logical manner,
and made a major contribution refining this work, so he deserves a special deep heart thanks.
Co-operation and technical assistance from my fellow-colleagues at (DWI/ITMC) who helped
me to make this work possible are gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks to my colleagues
Nicolae Goga, Christine Schmitz and Marcus Nobis for their help and support. This work is
a testimony to their professionalism and technical excellence. In addition, I cannot forget
Angela Huschens from DWI secretarial board, which she helps me a lot during my studying.
Also I want to thank my wife Amina, and my children, Adam, Areej and Akram for showing
me “the meaning of life”. Thank you Amina for your understanding and for all the constant
support and encouragement, for your deep love, confidence and serenity making me believe in
this day. I also want to thank you for being a superb mother, assisting and caring for my
children when I had to be away. Also, thank you for your pure smile, tender hugs, softhearted
and for showing me the beauty of life…and…the eternity of night.
Ahmed G. Hassabo
June 2011

ix Acknowledgments

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