La lecture en ligne est gratuite
Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
Télécharger Lire

The electronic structure of spin ladders and spin chains studied by ellipsometry [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Christina Hilgers

145 pages
Publié par :
Ajouté le : 01 janvier 2009
Lecture(s) : 0
Signaler un abus

Ellipsometry
El
e
ctronic
Structure
of
Spin
Ladd
y
Christina
and
Spin
Chains
Studied
b
er
Hilgers
s
Theöln
vo
n
eb
Universität
Sp
Hi
of
Chains
Spin
rgrades
akultät
and
K
Structure
von
i
aus
i
öln,
r
Electron
c
Ladders
Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen
Studied
der
b
F
y
der
Ellipsometry
zu
Inaugural
öln
D
rgelegt
i
Christina
s
lgers
sertatio
K
n
K
zur
F
Erlangung
rua
des
2009
Dokto
ThePrüfung:
h
terstatter:
Prof.
Dr.
A
.
F
ündlic
April
ommission:
Dr.
Bohat
T
der
reim
Prüfungsk
uth
Prof.
Prof.
L.
Dr.
ý
M.
ag
Grüninger
m
V
hen
orsitzende
30.
r
2009
der
Beric.
and
.
.
4.3
.
.
Electron-Hole
P
ladders
Co
.
.
63
.
.
Exci
.
Magnetic
.
ng
.
.
l
.
4.1
ourier
.
.
Exp
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.2.1
er
.
.
V
25
.
.
.
.
Brewster
Spin
Di
.
.
16
.
ectroscop
.
.
.
.
.
Setup
Li
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
e
.
.
.
.
66
.
.
.
ielectric
.
.
in
t
.
.
.
.
ounds
.
.
Matrix
.
.
and
51
Lo
.
.
.
.
F
30
.
.
.
hains
n
.
.
.
erimen
2.3
Euler
34
Exp
ons
ds
Electro
.
.
.
.
.
Sp
.
.
.
erimen
.
.
.
.
Resp
.
.
.
.
.
v
.
.
.
.
.
Krame
.
.
.
.
4.4
l
.
.
.
.
.
.
M
.
.
.
.
.
Extracting
24
.
.
68
ati
.
.
olarized
c
.
11
.
xide
.
14
.
.
.
2
.
.
3.2.2
.
and
.
.
erties
.
1D
.
.
.
-shar
Ell
.
.
hains
.
.
.
.
.
Quan
52
.
equations
.
.
1D
.
2.1
.
spin
53
.
F
.
Anisotropic
.
Samples
.
.
.
3.2.6
.
a
.
System
.
.
Exci
56
Optical
Setup
.
ectroscopic
41
.
excitonic
.
in
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.2
.
ransform
.
y
.
.
.
.
.
4.2.1
.
a
.
.
41
.
.
.
e
.
19
.
F
.
d
.
.
.
tal
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Rotating
41
.
.
.
s-Kroni
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
ransition-Metal
deling
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Cry
.
ts
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
67
.
Complex
.
uncti
2.5.1
.
Comp
.
t
.
.
.
ons
47
.
P
2D
Ligh
.
.
opp
.
.
.
o
.
.
.
planes
.
2.2
.
.
.
2.4
.
.
.
Intro
.
.
.
Excitations
47
.
Jones
Prop
ector
.
Jones
.
.
.
.
.
.
2.5.2
.
.
.
corner-sharing
.
of
.
edge
.
.
3.2.3
i
ipsometric
11
arameters
c
and
.
.
.
.
w-Dimensional
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.2.4
.
resnel
.
and
tum
angle
2.5.3
.
.
.
spin
.
Physics
.
and
.
.
.
c
3.2.5
Systems
electric
.
unctio
.
of
.
Bu
.
k
.
.
.
.
.
.
12
56
.
Exp
.
t
.
l
The
ordinate
.
and
2.4.1
Angles
.
.
Cuprates
.
3
4
t
erimental
Sp
59
.
Sp
y
Metho
and
.
3.1
.
.
.
dynamics
.
resonances
.
Matter
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
59
.
F
.
T
.
Infrared
.
ectroscop
.
(FT-IR)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
mo
59
.
Exp
.
t
.
l
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.1.1
.
.
.
n
.
.
.
ar
.
.
.
onse
.
2.5
.
unctions
62
T
Ellipsometry
.
.
erimen
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
o
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
erview
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
e
4.3.1
.
analyzer
.
.
3.1.2
.
.
.
r
.
.
.
g-R
.
.
.
lations
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
64
.
Data
.
cquisition
7
Mo
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.4.1
1
duction
of
Hubbard
.
.
.
.
.
42
ostat
3.2
easuremen
F
.
undamen
.
tals
.
of
.
Ellipsometry
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.4.2
.
the
.
D
.
F
.
on
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
.
Contents
.
7.1
.
.
.
.
v
.
.
96
.
.
.
.
.
.
tz
.
.
(La,
.
.
Cu
125
of
8.2
6.1.1
.
.
.
137
y
.
.
.
.
.
.
ladders
.
.
.
.
.
.
e
.
.
.
.
.
Ph
.
.
.
ng
.
.
.
Details
a
.
.
.
olishing
Optical
Optical
.
.
.
.
114
.
.
.
.
.
.
D
.
.
hole
.
hains
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Ellipsometry
129
transformation
.
.
.
.
121
y
.
.
.
.
.
SrCuO
123
77
cedure
Ozielle
.
.
.
141
.
.
ler-Matrix
ru
.
.
.
.
4.5.2
erimen
.
.
4.5.1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
114
77
of
.
.
y
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Conclusions
.
setup
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
84
.
.
.
ude-
7.2
.
of
.
in
.
spin
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Preparation
.
.
.
72
.
.
121
.
Danksagung
5.3
Bibliography
F
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Sp
.
.
SrCuO
.
.
.
.
(La,Sr,Ca)
.
.
.
.
.
Ellipsometry
.
O
.
111
App
.
Calibration
of
.
Ph
.
.
.
.
.
(La,Sr,Ca)
.
.
.
Cu
.
.
a
O
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
71
.
.
111
70
Exp
.
145
Cle
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ving
.
.
.
P
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.2
.
Conductiviy
5.2
SrCuO
.
.
Conductivit
.
.
.
b
.
.
.
Ellipsometry
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7
.
121
Sample
Ellipsometry
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.2.1
.
.
.
r
.
.
121
Loren
In
.
estigation
t
electron
.
excitations
.
spin
.
and
.
c
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ts
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
.
.
7.2.1
.
Ca,Sr)
86
Cu
and
O
Kramers-Kronig
.
.
.
.
.
ouri
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
r
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ectroscop
7.2.2
.
126
.
.
.
.
on
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Abstract
.
.
.
.
.
6
.
143
.
on
.
.
.
Erklä
.
Zusammenfassung
8
6.1
endix
.
8.1
ysics
Pro
5.1
.
SrCuO
.
.
.
.
.
ysics
.
.
ten
4.5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
125
.
Measuring
.
Muel
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6
tal
Con
14 24 41
14 24 41
2
2
2
14 24 41
2xide
e
eld
material
12
these
b
strong
on
are
h
is
].
[
theory
e
Muc
es
comp
They
n
n
w
estigated
y
in
hole-dop
discussed
sup
sup
harge
in
oun
bands
hole
exist
].
with
can
has
ladders
v
ions
understand
1D
the
crucial
n
t
or
O
whic
is
degrees
ed.
e
e
erimen
th
an
prominen
F
with
3
the
the
ladders
y
teractions
RIXS
metal
is
eha
c
comp
s
a
,
to
d
a
cuprate
tal
as
can
y
en
y
condensed
couple
o
b
h
b
vior
eect
v
sp
questions.
systems
terpla
w
is
,
rons
Ca
neous
b
spin,
e
the
comp
ties
b
v
sho
ro
s
considered
fully
u
[
cal
e
d
sup
transition
w
9
e-ordered
ound
are
h
[
as
v
ev
the
all
and
c
here,
ulation
tional
].
transi-
,
strong,
this
xides.
P
s
i
man
electron-phonon
fail
h
ground
een
formed
[
le
,
omp
spin
phase
r
of
to
exp
y
half-lled
e
theoretical
w-dimensional
and
the
een
materials.
e
formed
in
copp
ysic
hains
transition
o
In
nei
t
c
can
a
b
w
correlated
2D.
has
dimensionalit
elec
electronic
to
i
x
correlated
in
discussed
metall
hapter
n
Un
b
da
these
comple
are
n
hom
Cu
c
that
the
in
prop
the
leads
this
and
only
that
in
the
doping
these
ac
freedom
comp
ha
man
ending
p
b
ha
man
y
a
een
despite
complexit
erous
e
and
].
In
lling.
spin
2D
r
The
to
it
Ca
the
orted
the
11
example
the
comp
=
er,
y
erconductivit
pressure
temp
a

orted
the
Ho
,
without
y
sho
ed
of
ctron-electron
i.e.
v
r
magneto-resistance
mo
(CMR)
real
b

the
recen
are
[
tion
]
picture,
evidence
o
harge
band
of
In
t
ph
19
materials,
ng
can
harge-ordered
y
or
are
crystal
eting
a
and
b
states
pr
vior
dicted
that
5
c
7
ad
8
in
The
complicated
la
ound
de
diagrams.
s
of
elong
h
the
a
famil
erimen
and
crystal
b
and
regarded
band
lo
eort
relativ
the
of
b
high-
b
b
sp
The
the
are
t
b
a
one-dimensional
the
er-o
duction
c
of
that
insulator.
via
metal
xygen
ound
to
xides
gh
suc
oring
o
hains.
alence
build
their
bridge
strongly
et
eha
een
ha
and
and
The
systems,
of
ofte
y
matter
the
led
excitation
comple
ectrum
more
s
e
in
One
electron
in
as
teresting
i
t
c
di
t
y
o.
g
til
ic
o
that
y
et
the
materials
x
al
Sr
not
e
een
driv
oge-
not
insulating
i.e.
on
has
harge,
een
nanoscale
v
of
within
h
scop
lattice
of
to
thesis,
er-
the
idea
spin-ladder
orbital
ound
man
whic
ruled
hole
of
could
of
e
in
hiev
dep
This
estigations
ound
p
ws
v
y
building
teresting
to
hase
duces
that
e
v
on
not
in
et
y
b
broader
understo
d
of
n
teresting
m
y
exp
band
tal
1
theoreti-

eorts.
In
the
In
ed
e
la
cts.
de
cuprate
s
Ho
insulator
erconductors
metal
most
with
is
substitution
y
rep
that
[
t

strip
].
ev
or
phase
comp
s
x
etes
13.6
con
erconductivit
sup
under
high-transition
ydrostatic
y
of
if
GP
2
w
erature
rep
4
[
ertie
].
Similarly
w
erconductivit
er,
in
Ca
ele
material
hole-dop
ws
(HTSC)
signatures
spin
c
en
ordering,
in
a
colossal
harge-carrie
estigated
densit
in
d-
Intro
The
prop
b
atoms.
the
in-
range
o
a
in
comp
space
etition
13
b
16
et
A
w
t
een
study
sup
17
erconductivit
18
y
f
[
d
5
that
,
c
6
ordering
]
not
and
a
an
eierls
i
yp
n
[
sula
],
t
7
state
1
TC
14 x x 24 41to
transform
discussion,
region
y
a
structure,
The
deliv
doping
as
the
endence
pr
energy
dop
11
des.
erimen
ound
the
sp
the
terband
spin-c
ysics
hapter
v
.
tem
b
unied
from
to
La
resp
x
tains
In
new
harge-c
p
tr
in
hange
are
the
optical
ourier
SCCO
V
zig-zag
5
y
es
orted
with
and
resonance
optical
are
e
e
tec
mplicated
sp
sp
m
In
co
1D
the
us
ted
tec
Cu
in
Ca
optical
8
similar
erimen
T
collec
of
tra-band
to
excitations
y
in
cuses
in
p
excitons
the
ectra.
matter
microscopic
b
solids.
c
acquired
as
y
o
V
In
ellipsometry
ev
w
infrared
thesis
is
second
has
erview
ab
re
22
s
excitonic
comp
cuprates.
and
some
ed
with
ound
ted
[
sp
con
the
e
ourier
densit
fo
exci
in
hea
colleague
hing
hapter
structure
of
the
far
still
efore
sp
ellipsometry
so
troscop
erful
ed
region
Ca
the
(LCO)
y
ladders
electron
O
also
x
y
terpretation
to
accoun
20
al
y
a
to
e
in
the
t
free
c
ri
op
plasmons
n
t
thesis
sp
hole
and
a
transitions,
As
pairs
estigation
drastically
unit
absorption
structure
these
r
v
comp
ab
among
structure
means
op-
fact,
w
ectroscop
y
n
sp
function
the
o
10
temp
2
subsystem
b
the
the
spin
b
hain
0.8
to
V.
whic
organize
mo
ws:
sepa-
hapter
dis-
o
een
the
o
co
21
electron
where
c
is
the
tions
In
in
lo
w
an
third
com-
dedicated
as
tals
w
ectroscop
ab
cus
c
impl
the
t
with
hnique
].
ellipsom-
a
four
the
erimen
t
of
erature
sp
that
ellipsometry
the
on
erature
ellipsometer
i
op
y
m
in
Göÿling
y
In
r
e
and
p
scription
spin
there
ounds
excitations
the
in
summarized
2D.
results
lo
w-temp
y
F
y
p
o
are
for
the
erimen
comp
spin-ladder
and
of
=
observ
O
tro
the
sho
spi
of
carried
far
Cu
The
eigh
w
0
conductivit
5
con
An
[
the
man
in
,
other
la
and
].
follo
signatures
to
rying
ectral
ers
tiv
shed
mo
a
Regarding
ligh
in
one-dimensional
to
on
c
exp
ar
the
er
hains.
or
en
lead
n
prominen
this
features
six
the
fo
ec
t.
a
on
concerning
carriers
terband
systematic
b
e
electron-hole
v
or
er
can
of
c
a
the
electronic
sp
cell
All
of
features
b
er
spin-ladder
aluable
distributed
information
ounds
out
of
electronic
y
of
the
The
of
tical
i
ectra
sp
ere
hai
b
y
F
calling
transform
a
ectroscop
and
in
of
energy
coupling
from
and
me
ladder
to
erature.
e
a
and
addition,
y
and
in
one-dimensional
in
dic
region
c
et
en
een
SrCuO
-
ladder
e
for
This
da
is
h
d
dy
follo
harge
The
the
c
ration
giv
an
an
b
v
cussion
of
rep
ph
dulation
of
[
r
out
lated
,
systems
v
fo
]
u
the
on
in
in
excita-
estigated.
and
are
eects
this
one-dimensional
This
t
ound,
o-dimensional
cated
The
excitonic
c
the
is
w
to
ho
fundamen
observ
of
p
sp
closely
y
they
fo-
o
on
teractions
newly
e
emen
redistributed
measuremen
gap
t
is
c
23
of
Ca
ectroscopic
W
etry
harge
Chapter
address
addresses
ten
exp
t
tal
co
hniques
mp
F
or
transform
dep
ectroscop
b
and
of
and
p
cuses
electronic
the
la
ectroscopic
tat
put
is
to
on
eration
y
y
ectrum
y
vil
Alexander
searc
and
er
yself.
fo
c
debated.
v
a
the
al
o
de-
erties
addition,
the
of
ladder
that
mp
electron-hole
(La,Sr,Ca)
are
Cu
in
O
th
are
and
b
unexplained
the
Optical
of
addition
lo
ectroscop
erature
w
and
is
ourier
ductio
s
p
ec-
absorptions
y
w
presen
the
for
exp
undop
x
spin-ladder
tal
ound
should
8
hnique
5,
8
0,
studying
x
la
for
elec-
out
ed
and
dynamic
hole
lead
ed
onse
n
the
Sr
correlated
is
ers
analysis
systems.
t
infrared
for
I
tro
but
in
of
ersimplication.
holes
v
terband
optical
=
conductivit
(SCO),
y
=
con
and
tains
(SCCO).
con
in
tributions
of
of
electronic
lattice
taking
vibrations,
to
electronic
t
i
exp
n
tal
tra-band
theoretic
and
results,
in
ws.
terband
addition
transitions,
that,
magnetic
sp
excitations
w
or
8
excitations,
1

2
14 24 41
5:2 8:8 24 41
14 x x 24 41endence
endix.
5
estigated.
out
results
temp
terband
excitations
V).
results
Some
ws
in
V
].
the
dep
range
the
e
in
transitions
l
Chapter
summarized
sev
sho
details
me
are
the
ered
in
23
of
The
to
erature
undop
of
energy
of
(10
six
c
ed
electron-hole
one-dimensional
is
zig-
v
zag
Al
c
our
hain
are
SrCuO
in
app
hapter
where
en.
an
more
excitonic
ab
resonance
ellipsometry
is
found
disco
the
v
9
[
the
21
I
n
tro
ductio
n
10

Un pour Un
Permettre à tous d'accéder à la lecture
Pour chaque accès à la bibliothèque, YouScribe donne un accès à une personne dans le besoin