La lecture en ligne est gratuite
Lire Télécharger
THE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF VOLITIONAL EMOTION REGULATION
DISSERTATIONSSCHRIFTzurErlangungdesakademischenGradesDoctorrerumnaturalium(Dr.rer.nat.)
vorgelegtDERFAKULTÄTMATHEMATIKUNDNATURWISSENSCHAFTENDERTECHNISCHENUNIVERSITÄTDRESDENvonDipl.Psych.DinaMariaSchardtgeborenam11.Juli1981inHanauamMaineingereichtam06.Oktober2009verteidigtam11.Dezember20091.Gutachter:Prof.Dr.ThomasGoschke(TechnischeUniversitätDresden)2.Gutachter:Prof.Dr.Dr.HenrikWalter(UniversitätBonn)
DANKSAGUNG MeinherzlicherDankgiltalldenvielenMenschen,dieimLaufederZeitzumGelingendieserDissertationbeigetragenhaben.ZuerstmöchteichmichganzbesondersbeiProf.Dr.ThomasGoschkefürdieÜbernahmederBetreuungderArbeit,aberauchfürdieAnregungenzumdarauserwachsenengemeinsamenManuskriptbedanken.EinweitererDankgiltProf.Dr.Dr.HenrikWalter,indessenArbeitsgruppedieseDissertationentstandenist.DievielenmethodischenundinhaltlichenGesprächeundDiskussionen,unddievielenMöglichkeiten,überdenTellerrandzuschauen,dieichdorterhaltenhabe,habenmeineDoktorandenzeitsehrbereichert.BesondersbedankenmöchteichmichauchbeiPDDr.SusanneErkfürdievielfältigemethodische,inhaltliche,undmotivationaleUnterstützung.DieseArbeitentstandalsTeildesProjektesanimalemotionale,fürdessenfinanzielleUnterstützungimRahmender“SchlüsselthemenderGeisteswissenschaften”ichmichbeiderVWStiftungbedanke.Auchdenanderen„Emotionalen“giltandieserStelleeinDankfürdievielenfruchtbarenundinteressantenDiskussionenwährendunserertäglichenArbeitundwährendderProjekttreffen.FürdiegenetischenAnalysen,sowiedieBeiträgezumgemeinsamenManuskript,dankeichProf.Dr.MarkusNöthenundProf.Dr.MarcellaRietschel,sowieallenbeteiligtenMitarbeitern.BeiPDDr.SvenCichonundDr.JensTreutleinmöchteichmichbesondersfürihreBeiträgezurBeschreibungderMethodikbedanken.MeinenehemaligenKolleginnenCorinnaNüsser,LiobaSchmitz,ChristinaJakobs,AlmutKestingundLuciaKrings,aberauchunserenvielenProbandenmöchteichmeinenDankfürdieeffizienteundangenehmeDatenerhebungaussprechen.EinganzbesondererDankgiltDir,liebsterMatthias ‐fachlich,aberinersterLinieauchpersönlich.Wirwaren,sind,undbleibeneinfacheinsuperTeam.MeinerganzenFamilieundmeinenliebenFreundeninFrankfurt,Hanau,Berlin,München,Bremen,Bonnundwoihralleseidmöchteichdafürdanken,dassihrmirdiesenWeggeebnethabtundimmeranmeinerSeitegewesenseid.
SUMMARY
Happiness,anger,surprise,irritation…ifwenotedowntheemotionsthatwegothroughonagivenday,thelistwillmostprobablybequitelong.Asurgeofstudiesonthebidirectionalinteractionbetweenemotionandcognitionsuggeststhatweneedemotionalappraisalsinordertoleadasuccessfullifeandmaintainourpersonal,socialandeconomicintegrity(Bechara,2005;Damasio,1994;Fox,2008;Gross&Thompson,2007;Walter,2005).Andyet,weseldom‘just’experienceemotions,butoftentrytoinfluencethemtobestfitourcurrentgoals.Basedontheassumptionthatemotionalreactionsentailchangesonvariouslevels,andthatthesechangeshappeninoroutsideofourawareness,affectivesciencehasadoptedemotionregulationasoneofitsmajorresearchtopics(Beauregard,Levesque,&Paquette,2004;Gross,1999;Ochsner,2007).Infact,
neural(e.g.amygdalaactivation)andbehavioral(e.g.feelingofnegativity)correlatesofemotionalreactionsareeffectivelyreducedbytopdownprocessesofexplicitandimplicitcontrol(Drabant,McRae,Manuck,Hariri,&Gross,2009;Levesque,etal.,2003;Ochsner,Ray,etal.,2004).Furthermore,evidencefromstudiesinvestigatingvoluntarythoughtcontrolsuggeststhatcontrolstrategiesmayhavelastingandparadoxicalconsequences(Abramowitz,Tolin,&Street,2001;Wegner,2009).Inaveryrecentinvestigation,lastingeffectsofregulationwerealsoshownafterthecognitivecontrolofemotions:theactivationtimecourseoftheamygdalawassignificantlyincreasedimmediatelyfollowingregulation,andthisdifferencewasalsorelatedtotheactivationoftheamygdalatothesamestimuliafewminuteslater(Walter,etal.,2009).Asidefromthesecontextualorqualitativeinfluences,emotionalprocessingalsodiffersbetweenindividuals:geneticvariationwithintheserotonergicsystemforinstanceis
SUMMARY
knowntoaffectemotionalreactivitybothonthebehavioralandontheneurallevel(Hariri,etal.,2005;Hariri,etal.,2002;Lesch,etal.,1996).
Inthepresentwork,thetemporaldynamicsofvolitionalemotionregulationwereinvestigatedinthreestudies.Itwashypothesizedthatboththesubjectiveexperienceofnegativityandtheamygdalaactivationcanbeattenuatedbythedetachmentfromnegativeemotions,whichinturnleadstoanimmediateneuralaftereffectaftertheoffsetofregulation.Furthermore,volitionalemotionregulationwasexpectedtobecapableofreducingorevenobliteratinggeneticallymediatedamygdalahyperreactivitytonegativeemotionalcues.
Similartopreviousinvestigations(Walter,etal.,2009),picturesofaversiveorneutralemotionalcontentwerepresentedwhileparticipantswereinstructedtoreactnaturallytohalfofthepictures,andtoregulatetheiremotionalresponseupontheotherhalfofthestimuli.Thefirsttwostudiesofthepresentworkweredesignedtofurthercharacterizetheimmediateaftereffectofvolitionalregulationintheamygdala:Study1includedbehavioralratingsofnegativityatpictureoffsetandatfixationoffsetinordertoprovidebehavioralmeasuresofexperientialchanges,whileinStudy2,participantscontinuedtoexperienceorregulatetheiremotionsduringa“maintain”phaseafterpictureoffset.TheprimarygoalofStudy3wastoevaluatewhethervolitionalemotionregulationcanreducegeneticallymediatedamygdalahyperreactivitytoaversiveemotionalmaterialinindividualswiththeshortvariantoftheserotonintransportergenotype(Hariri,etal.,2005;Hariri,etal.,2002),andwhethertheimmediateaftereffectisalsoinfluencedbytheserotonintransportergenotype.
Inallthreestudies,theamygdalawassignificantlyactivatedbyaversiveversusneutralstimuli,whilecognitiveemotionregulationattenuatedtheactivationintheamygdalaandincreasedtheactivationinafrontalparietalnetworkofregulatorybrainregions.Thisneuraleffectwascomplementedbythebehavioral
SUMMARY
ratingswhichshowthatthesubjectiveexperienceofnegativitywasalsoreducedbydetachment(Study1).Alsoinallthreestudies,animmediateaftereffectwasobservedintheamygdalafollowingtheendofregulation.Moreover,thepreoccupationwiththepreviouslyseenpicturesafterthescanningsessionvariedacrosstheexperimentalconditions(Studies2and3).Volitionalregulationprovedeffectiveinreducingamygdalaactivationtonegativestimulievenin5HTTLPRshortallelecarriersthatshowanincreasedreactivitytothistypeofcue.Atthesametime,functionalcouplingoftheventrolateralandmedialorbitalprefrontalcortex,thesubgenualandtherostralanteriorcingulatewiththeamygdalawashigherinthesgroup.However,inStudy3theimmediateaftereffectwasfoundonlyinl/lhomozygoteindividualsfollowingtheregulationoffear.
Takentogether,theresultsofthethreestudiesclearlyshowthatvolitionalregulationiseffectiveinreducingbehavioralandneuralcorrelatesoftheexperienceofnegativeemotions(Levesque,etal.,2003;Ochsner,Bunge,Gross,&Gabrieli,2002;Ochsner,Ray,etal.,2004),eveninthecaseofageneticallymediatedhyperreactivitytosuchmaterials.Thus,itseemsreasonabletoassumethatconsciouswillcaneffectivelycounteractgeneticdeterminantsofemotionalbehavior.Moreover,thepresentresultssuggestthatthetemporaldynamicsofvolitionalemotionregulationarecharacterizedbyaparadoxicalreboundinamygdalaactivationafterregulation,andthattheimmediateaftereffectisamarkeroftheefficiencyoftheinitialandthesustainedeffectsofemotionregulation(Walter,etal.,2009).
Insummary,thesuccessfulreplicationoftheimmediateaftereffectofemotionregulationinallthreestudiesofthisdissertationopensupexcitingnewresearchperspectives:acomparisonoftheshortandlongtermeffectsofdifferentregulatorystrategies,andtheinvestigationoftheseeffectsalsoinpositive
SUMMARY
emotionswouldcomplementthepresentresults,sincetheneuralmechanismsinvolvedintheseprocessesshowsomecharacteristicdifferences(Ochsner,2007;Staudinger,Erk,Abler,&Walter,2009).Acomprehensivecharacterizationofthisneuralmarkeranditsimplicationsforemotionalexperiencemightalsobeusefulwithrespecttoclinicalapplications.Thedetailedexaminationofthevarioustimescalesofemotionalregulationmightforinstanceinformthediagnosticandtherapeuticinterventionsinaffectivedisordersthatareassociatedwithemotionaldysfunctions(Brewin,Andrews,&Rose,2000;Johnstone,vanReekum,Urry,Kalin,&Davidson,2007).Ultimately,wemightthuscometounderstandtheneuralunderpinningsofwhatthefeelingswehavetodayhavetodowiththefeelingswehadyesterdayandwiththefeelingswithmighthavetomorrow.
Abramowitz,J.S.,Tolin,D.F.,&Street,G.P.(2001).Paradoxicaleffectsofthoughtsuppression:ametaanalysisofcontrolledstudies.ClinPsycholRev,21(5),683703.
Beauregard,M.,Levesque,J.,&Paquette,V.(2004).Neuralbasisofconsciousandvoluntaryselfregulationofemotion.InM.Beauregard(Ed.),Consciousness,EmotionalSelfRegulationandtheBrain.AdvancesinConsciousnessResearch(pp.163194):JohnBenjamins.
Bechara,A.(2005).Decisionmaking,impulsecontrolandlossofwillpowertoresistdrugs:aneurocognitiveperspective.NatNeurosci,8(11),14581463.
Brewin,C.R.,Andrews,B.,&Rose,S.(2000).Fear,helplessness,andhorrorinposttraumaticstressdisorder:investigatingDSMIVcriterionA2invictimsofviolentcrime.JTraumaStress,13(3),499509.
Damasio,A.R.(1994).DescartesʹError:Emotion,Reason,andtheHumanBrain.NewYork:Avon.
Drabant,E.M.,McRae,K.,Manuck,S.B.,Hariri,A.R.,&Gross,J.J.(2009).IndividualDifferencesinTypicalReappraisalUsePredictAmygdalaandPrefrontalResponses.BiologicalPsychiatry,65(5),367373.
Fox,E.(2008).EmotionScience ‐CognitiveandNeuroscientificapproachestounderstandinghumanemotions.Houndmills,Basingstoke,NewHampshire:PalgraveMacmillan.
Gross,J.J.(1999).EmotionRegulation:Past,Present,Future.Cognition&Emotion,13(5),551573.
SUMMARY
Gross,J.J.,&Thompson,R.A.(2007).Emotionregulation:Conceptualfoundations.InJ.J.Gross(Ed.),Handbookofemotionregulation(pp.324).NewYork:GuilfordPress.
Hariri,A.R.,Drabant,E.M.,Munoz,K.E.,Kolachana,B.S.,Mattay,V.S.,Egan,M.F.,etal.(2005).Asusceptibilitygeneforaffectivedisordersandtheresponseofthehumanamygdala.ArchGenPsychiatry,62(2),146152.
Hariri,A.R.,Mattay,V.S.,Tessitore,A.,Kolachana,B.,Fera,F.,Goldman,D.,etal.(2002).Serotonintransportergeneticvariationandtheresponseofthehumanamygdala.Science,297(5580),400403.
Johnstone,T.,vanReekum,C.M.,Urry,H.L.,Kalin,N.H.,&Davidson,R.J.(2007).Failuretoregulate:counterproductiverecruitmentoftopdownprefrontalsubcorticalcircuitryinmajordepression.JNeurosci,27(33),88778884.
Lesch,K.P.,Bengel,D.,Heils,A.,Sabol,S.Z.,Greenberg,B.D.,Petri,S.,etal.(1996).Associationofanxietyrelatedtraitswithapolymorphismintheserotonintransportergeneregulatoryregion.Science,274(5292),15271531.
Levesque,J.,Eugene,F.,Joanette,Y.,Paquette,V.,Mensour,B.,Beaudoin,G.,etal.(2003).Neuralcircuitryunderlyingvoluntarysuppressionofsadness.BiolPsychiatry,53(6),502510.
Ochsner,K.N.(2007).Howthinkingcontrolsfeeling:Asocialcognitiveneuroscienceapproach.InE.H.Jones&P.Winkielmann(Eds.),SocialNeuroscience:Integratingbiologicalandpsychologicalexplanationsofbehavior(pp.106136).NewYork:GuilfordPress.
Ochsner,K.N.,Bunge,S.A.,Gross,J.J.,&Gabrieli,J.D.(2002).Rethinkingfeelings:anFMRIstudyofthecognitiveregulationofemotion.JCognNeurosci,14(8),12151229.
Ochsner,K.N.,Ray,R.D.,Cooper,J.C.,Robertson,E.R.,Chopra,S.,Gabrieli,J.D.,etal.(2004).Forbetterorforworse:neuralsystemssupportingthecognitivedownandupregulationofnegativeemotion.Neuroimage,23(2),483499.
Staudinger,M.R.,Erk,S.,Abler,B.,&Walter,H.(2009).Cognitivereappraisalmodulatesexpectedvalueandpredictionerrorencodingintheventralstriatum.Neuroimage,47(2),713721.
Walter,H.(2005).Emotionaldysfunctionandantisocialpersonalitydisorders.Areviewoffindingsincognitiveneuroscience.Nervenarzt,76(5),557+.
Walter,H.,vonKalckreuth,A.,Schardt,D.M.,Stephan,A.,Goschke,T.,&Erk,S.(2009).TheTemporalDynamicsofVoluntaryEmotionRegulation.PLoSONE,4(8),e6726.
Wegner,D.M.(2009).Howtothink,say,ordopreciselytheworstthingforanyoccasion.Science,325(5936),4850.