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Who's minding the baby? : quality and availability problems in child care for America's children : hearing before the Subcommittee on Regulation, Business Opportunities, and Technology of the Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, Washington, DC, February 11, 1994

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234 pages
09 WHO'S MINDING THE BABY? QUALIH ANDV AVAIUBIUTY PROBLEMS IN CHILD CARE FOR AMERICA'S CHILDREN 1:103-66Y4.SM ninding the Baby? Quality and...Ubo's HhJAKlNG BEFOKE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON REGUIATION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES, AND TECHNOLOGY OF TIIE COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS OF REPRESENTATIVESHOUSE ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS SECOND SP]SSION 1994WASHINGTON, DC, FEBRUARY 11, use of the Committee on Small BusinessPrinted for the Serial No. 103^«fi)ftlJfc(te&j)0ht;y/;,,-.p,, OCT 26m —-S^S.^, OFFICEU.S. GOVKKNMENT PRINTING WASHINGTON 1994 : For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office 20402of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington,DCSuperintendent 0-16-044875-1ISBN y WHO'S MINDING THE BABY? QUALIH AND\ AVAILABIUTY PROBLEMS IN CHILD CARE FOR CHILDRENAMERICA'S 1:103-66Y 4. SM Quality and...Uho's ninding the Baby? HEAKING BEFOKE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON REGUMTION, BUSINESS AND TECHNOLOGYOPPORTUNITIES, OF THE COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS REPRESENTATIVESHOUSE OF THIRD CONGRESSONE HUNDRED SECOND SP]SSION WASHINGTON, DC, FEBRUARY 11, 1994 Printed for the use of the Committee on Small Business Serial No. 103^m)HimB4)Oti)m> ^ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1994 Government Printing OfficeFor sale by the U.S. Congressional Sales Office, Washington,DC 20402Superintendent of Documents, 0-16-044875-1ISBN COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS New York, ChairmanJOHN J. LaFALCP:, Iowa JAN MEYF:RS, KansasNEAL SMITH, IKE SKELTON, Missouri LARRY COMBEST, Texas ROMANO L.
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09
WHO'S MINDING THE BABY? QUALIH ANDV
AVAIUBIUTY PROBLEMS IN CHILD CARE FOR
AMERICA'S CHILDREN
1:103-66Y4.SM
ninding the Baby? Quality and...Ubo's
HhJAKlNG
BEFOKE THE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON REGUIATION, BUSINESS
OPPORTUNITIES, AND TECHNOLOGY
OF TIIE
COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS
OF REPRESENTATIVESHOUSE
ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS
SECOND SP]SSION
1994WASHINGTON, DC, FEBRUARY 11,
use of the Committee on Small BusinessPrinted for the
Serial No. 103^«fi)ftlJfc(te&j)0ht;y/;,,-.p,,
OCT 26m
—-S^S.^,
OFFICEU.S. GOVKKNMENT PRINTING
WASHINGTON 1994
:
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
20402of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington,DCSuperintendent
0-16-044875-1ISBN
yWHO'S MINDING THE BABY? QUALIH AND\
AVAILABIUTY PROBLEMS IN CHILD CARE FOR
CHILDRENAMERICA'S
1:103-66Y 4. SM
Quality and...Uho's ninding the Baby?
HEAKING
BEFOKE THE
SUBCOMMITTEE ON REGUMTION, BUSINESS
AND TECHNOLOGYOPPORTUNITIES,
OF THE
COMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS
REPRESENTATIVESHOUSE OF
THIRD CONGRESSONE HUNDRED
SECOND SP]SSION
WASHINGTON, DC, FEBRUARY 11, 1994
Printed for the use of the Committee on Small Business
Serial No. 103^m)HimB4)Oti)m> ^
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1994
Government Printing OfficeFor sale by the U.S.
Congressional Sales Office, Washington,DC 20402Superintendent of Documents,
0-16-044875-1ISBNCOMMITTEE ON SMALL BUSINESS
New York, ChairmanJOHN J. LaFALCP:,
Iowa JAN MEYF:RS, KansasNEAL SMITH,
IKE SKELTON, Missouri LARRY COMBEST, Texas
ROMANO L. MAZZOLI, Kentucky RICHARD H. BAKER, Louisiana
RON WYDEN, Oregon JOEL HEFLEY, Colorado
NORMAN SISISKY, Virginia RONALD K. MACHTLEY, Rhode Island
JIM RAMSTAD, MinnesotaJOHN CONYERS, Jr., Michigan
Nevada SAM JOHNSON, TexasJAMES H. BILBRAY,
KWEISI Maryland WILLIAM H. ZELIFF, Jr., New HampshireMFUME,
New York MICHAEL A. "MAC" COLLINS, GeorgiaFLOYD H. FLAKE,
BILL SARPALIUS, Texas SCOTT McINNIS, Colorado
GLENN POSHARD, Illinois HUFFINGTON, California
EVA M. CLAYTON, North Carolina JAMES M. TALENT. Missouri
MARTIN T. MEEHAN, Massachusetts JOE KNOLLENBERG, Michigan
PAT DANNER, Missouri JAY DICKEY, Arkansas
TED STRICKLAND, Ohio JAY KIM, California
IllinoisNYDIA M. VELAZQUEZ, New York DONALD A. MANZULLO,
CLEO FIELDS, Louisiana PETER G. TORKILDSEN, Massachusetts
OhioMARJORIE MARGOLIES-MEZVINSKY. ROB PORTMAN,
Pennsylvania
WALTER R. TUCKER III, California
RON KLINK. Pennsylvania
LUCILLE ROYBAI^ALLARD, California
EARL F. HILLIARD, Alabama
H. MARTIN LANCASTER, North Carolina
THOMAS H. ANDREWS, Maine
MAXINE WATERS, California
BENNIE G. THOMPSON. Mississippi
DirectorJeanne M. Roslanowick. Staff"
Lynch, MinorityStephen P. Sta/f
Business Opportunities, and TechnologySubcommittee on Regulation,
RON WYDEN, Oregon. Chairman
LARRY COMBEST. TexasIKE SKELTON, Missouri
STRICKLAND. Ohio SAM JOHNSON. TexasTED
NORMAN SISISKY, Virginia JAY DICKEY, Arkansas
JAMES H. BILBRAY. Nevada JAY KIM. California
MARTIN T. MEEHAN, Massachusetts PETER G. TORKILDSEN, Massachusetts
WALTER R. TUCKER III. California MICHAEL HUFFINGTON, California
THOMAS H. ANDREWS. Maine
DirectorSteve Jenning, Subcommittee Staff
MemberRobert LlEHMAN. Minority Professional Staff"
(II)CONTENTS
Page
Hearing held on February 11, 1994 1
WITNESSES
February ii, 1994
Bates, Carolyn, Baltimore, Maryland 5
Health and HumanBrown, June, Inspector General, U.S. Department of
Services, Washington, DC accompanied by Jack Ferris, Assistant Inspector
Audits 19General for Administrations of Children, Family and Aging
North CarolinaClifTord, Richard, director. Division of Child Development,
52Department ofHuman Resources
General Account-Delfico, Joseph, Director, Income Security Issues, The U.S.
17ing Office, Washington, DC
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC .. 6Ebb, Nancy, senior staff attorney
Child Care Division, Oregon Employment De-Elliot, Janice, administrator,
47partment
Commissioner, Administration for Children, Youth, and Fami-Golden, Olivia,
Department of Health and Human Services 30Hes, U.S.
PolicyGormley, William, professor, Georgetown University Graduate Public
Program 57
44Topol, Dee, president. The Travelers Foundation
APPENDIX
Opening statement:
62Wyden, Hon. Ron
Prepared statements:
89Bates, Carolyn
66Brown, June
94Clifford, Richard
128Delfico, Joseph
98Ebb, Nancy
109Elliot, Janice
138Golden, Olivia
157Gormley, William
168Majoy-Young, Toni
173Topol, Dee
Additional Material
189Castillo, Peter
193Hackley, Sandra
from Beth Phillips 196Letter to Chairman
of Pediatrics 199American Academy
213Carolina Voice for Child Care, IncNorth
178Maryland Child Care Resources Network Backgrounder
(III)THE BABY? QUALITY ANDWHO'S MINDING
CHILD CARE FORAVAILABILITY PROBLEMS IN
CHILDRENAMERICA'S
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1994
House of Representatives,
BusinessSubcommittee on Regui>ation,
Opportunities, and Technology,
Committee on Small Business,
Washington, DC.
a.m., in roomThe subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10
Building, Hon. Ron Wyden (chair-2359-A, Rayburn House Office
ofthe subcommittee) presiding.man
order.Chairman Wyden. The subcommittee will come to
witnesses,that I am very glad that our guests, ourI want to say
are here andadministration, journalists and othersmembers of the
dire peril that is outside.here safely, given the
like take special note of our recorder, our stenog-I would also to
hearGovernment is closed today, and you arapher. The Federal
dedication of Federal employees, and I think it isgreat deal about
our stenographer is here when, as I understandworth noting that
here, because she is a Federal employee.it, she doesn't have to be
dedication.We very much appreciate your
Business Opportunities,Today the subcommittee on Regulation,
relating to the qual-Technology is going to examine problemsand
not only forand availability of child care. This is a concernity
the country, butthousands of working families aroundcountless
employers who are dependentalso for of small business
workers.on these
house-era marked by growing numbers of single-parentIn an
down jobsfamilies in which both parents must holdholds, and of
func-meet, child care is fundamental to the smoothto make ends
billion perof our economic system. Child care is now a $20tioning
sec-of the fastest growing in the small businessyear industry, one
heavily subsidized by the Federal taxpayers.tor, and it is
ofchild care will be a key to efforts in this sessionAdditionally,
welfare, andmove hundreds of millions of families offCongress to
nur-employment. Insuring a safe, clean, andinto self-supporting
for the children of families on welfare must beturing environment
welfare reform.an integral part of
part of the approximatelyA place must be found for kids who are
Federal Aid to Families with4.5 million American households on
may represent an additional 9Dependent Children. These families
(1)million children who will require part-time or full-time care when
welfare reform is enacted.
chair has fewNow, in beginning our hearing, the a observations
make our inquiry. Our investigation has foundto about that Amer-
ica's child care system not work for many workingdoes families.
It is overburdened and it is under financed. It is fragrnented, and
it is creaking toward breakdown. Approximately 12 million children
already are in part-time or full-time care, with only about 15 per-
cent of them in homes or centers licensed by any governmental
body.
Many kids are getting care well below quality standards rec-
ommended as bare minimum. Many parents have too few choices,
and Government has often failed to protect children in day care
against poor facilities, shoddy operators and even plainly criminal
conduct.
The chair would like to note, and we are going to hear more
about it, that June Brown, who is the Inspector General for the De-
partment of HHS and who, in my view, has done an outstanding
service for the taxpayers of this country has compiled an analysis
survey that she did of background checks of child careof a recent
providers. Now this was done at random. We will hear from Ms.
Brown that it is not intended to be statistically perfect, but what
Ms. Brown found in this survey ought to frighten and concern the
parents of this country.
She found that 1 of 10 people in licensed facilities randomly se-
convic-lected has a criminal background which relates to checks or
As Itions, and that ought to concern the families of our country.
this more. She and I both feel that itsay, Ms. Brown will detail
statistically perfect analysis, but it certainlyis not intended to be a
ought send powerful message to those in Government and reg-to a
ulators, that there is considerable work to be done in the area of
ensuring that these facilities have good oversight.
Now, any welfare program which is likelv to put all or most of
the adults heading AFDC families out of tne house and into jobs
could create a veritable tidal wave of kids seeking day care and re-
sult in the collapse of an already faltering system.
against reforming wel-Now, this, in my view, is not an argument
Clinton substan-fare. In my view, the President and Mrs. deserve
tial credit for zeroing in on welfare reform as a priority, and we
prerequisite successfulwish them to succeed. But the fact is, a to
must child care reform.welfare reform be
we would have heard testimony from Ms. Toni Majoy-Today
Young of Columbia, Maryland, a mother who has had the worst of
all possible experiences, the death of a child in day care. This was
a place which, from all outward appearances, was safe, secure and
well-run. The murder trial of that caregiver begins in April.
today. TheLet me note that several of our witnesses are absent
quality child carefact is, in many parts of our country, getting good
outside. Theis perfect 70-degree dayis hard to do, even when it a
they couldn'tnumber of our witnesses decided thatfact is that a
a weather stormwhen it wasleave their youngsters stranded
Washington DC, and I hopeemergency such as we are having in
ofalso absent today becausethat both staff and Members who are
ofreview the written testimonythe weather will have a chance towitnesses who isand at least one of our otherMs. Majoy-Young,
also absent.
testimony underscores testimony we expect todayMs. Young's
andGeneral of the Department of Healthfrom both the Inspector
the U.S. General Accounting Office pointingHuman Services, and
growing problems involving deteriorating care,out significant and
deteriorating oversight.deteriorating facilities, and
found in the appendix.][Ms. Majoy-Young's statement may be
points out that the informationChairman Wyden. The chair
agencies is doublythese two Federal investigativegathered by
facilities, centersin that it pertains primarily to licensedtroubling
thecome under certification and inspection bythat supposedly
receivescare is unlicensed, and thereforeState. By far, most day
other than problems which may be per-no scrutiny whatsoever,
themselves.ceived by the parents
hearing the testimony from Ms. CarolynWe also look forward to
her way through the perils outside. She is aBates, who did make
struggled persistently to leave public as-Baltimore mother who has
employment for most of her adult life,sistance for self-supporting
welfare rolls because of problemsonly to be brought back to the
care for her three children.finding and maintaining decent quality
Nancy Ebb of theBates' testimony will be given context byMs.
child care is anDefense Fund, who says that help withChildren's
pur-ensuring that many poor parents are able toessential part of
and employment they need to leave thesue the education, training,
them avoid welfare in thewelfare rolls and to keep jobs that help
first place.
and thoseThe parents that are going to give us testimony today
tell. Butcould not be with us and have important stories tothat
andis the same. Our families, our businesses,the central theme
shoulder a tremendous burden and pay a substantialour society
farthat is inadequate, sometimes unsafe, andprice for child care
what an individual's income level, de-too difficult to find no matter
family situation.mographic group or particular
Care Action Campaign seems toBarbara Reisman of the Child
that bridgessum it and I quote: Ultimately we need a systemup,
costs, andbetween what parents can pay and what qualitythe gap
all families that need it.assures that quality care is accessible to
reform and several other na-Otherwise, we risk failing at welfare
competitive,goals, such as school readiness and creating ational
force.word-class work
Federal child care subsidy pro-At home in my State of Oregon,
Development and Block Grantgrams, particularly the Child Care
poor are significantlyfunds for child care for the working
Oregonians who need thisoversubscribed. As in many other States,
there is a long queue thathelp in order to work have to wait, and
testifying today, toldis getting longer. Janice Elliot, a State official
lesson whensubcommittee staff that Oregon learned a staggering
availability of thisservice offices actually made public thesocial
program.
thesewas more than a $10 million budget shortfall forThe result
In Alabama,story across this country:programs. It is the same
for sub-who are at risk are on waiting lists8,000 to 9,000 kids1
sidized child care. Florida has a waiting line of some 25,000 chil-
dren. Illinois has 30,000 on its list.
Some 15,000 families wait for subsidized child care services in
have simply takingNew Jersey. Some States stopped names all to-
gether. They have closed their programs to new applicants and
have literally slammed the door shut on many of these families
that need child care in order to work.
Providing decent care at an affordable price to everyone will be
an enormous undertaking. This is an area where the Federal Grov-
ernment and the States need to seek out, identity and recruit the
expertise of the Nation's small businesses. Several business coali-
tions already banded together and developed programs like the one
will hear from Travelers Foundation. Thesewe about today the
business groups understand that their own interests coincide with
society's interest in developing and supporting decent child services
for all of our families.
Clearly, there are several ways that the Federal Gk)vernment can
be a better partner in working with the States, local governments,
importantlythe private sector, and most parents.
First, given the important investigative work done by Ms. Brown
and the Inspector Greneral, the Federal Government should work
with the States to ensure an administratively convenient way to do
criminal background checks on those individuals who work with
most precious resource, the children of America.our
Second, the Federal Government should work with business or-
ganizations to promote the use of Federal dependent care assist-
ance plans, which according to Nation's Business magazine is an
excellent approach that provides a payroll deduction that allows
employees to use pre-tax dollars for child care expenses.
Third, the Department of Health and Human Services should col-
dissemination of the most successful childlect data and. to States
programs in across our country. It is clear that pub-care operation
lic-private partnerships for quality child care are the way to travel
for a variety of reasons, and we appreciate our witnesses braving
the weather today to come out to give us some good road maps in
this regard.
Before we begin, I would like to also note that this is the final
day of subcommittee staff counsel, Grady Forrer. Grady is going to
be joining the Department of Agriculture where we look forward to
having a chance to work with him on many matters as we have
over the years. He too is an extraordinary example, in my view, of
what public service is all about, and I want to express to him my
appreciation that we were able to have this hearing to recognize
final working familiesyour day and your efforts to go to bat for
across the country.
[Chairman Wyden's statement may be found in the appendix.
wit-Chairman Wyden. So let us, having said that, bring our
Batesnesses forward. On our first panel, let us have Ms. Carolyn
senior staff attorneyof Baltimore, Maryland and Ms. Nancy Ebb,
Washington.of the Children's Defense Fund here in
your being with us.We thank you both very much and appreciate
all of the witnessesto swearIt is the practice of this subcommittee
have any objectionDo either of youwho do come before us today.
witness?to being sworn as a

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