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Technology Review: Biological Treatment of Hazardous Landfill Leachates - Project No. 339rr

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236 pages
/#^3TECHNOLOGYREVIEW:BIOLOGICALTREATMENTOFHAZARDOUS LANDFILLLEACHATESResearch Study for the Ontario Ministry ofEnvironmentProject No. 339RRBYJared Fein, Ph.D. and PeterYu, Ph.D.Diversified Research Laboratories,Ltd.1047Yonge Street, Toronto, Ont.M4W2L2MARCH 31, 1988(%S 5TECHNOLOGYREVIEW:BIOLOGICALTREATMENTOFHAZARDOUS LANDFILLLEACHATESResearch Study for the Ontario Ministry ofEnvironmentProject No. 339RRBYJared Fein, Ph.D. and PeterYu, Ph.D.Diversified Research Laboratories,Ltd.1047Yonge Street, Toronto, Ont.M4W2L2MARCH 198831,. 1TABLEOFCONTENTSI. Executive Summary 1H. Introduction „„ 2HI. Review of Physical and Chemical Treatment Processes 17for Hazardous Landfill LeachatesA. Physical Removal Mechanisms 181. Air Stripping 182. Carbon Absorption 193 Chemical Precipitation 204. Reverse Osmosis 215. Ion Exchange 236. Resin Absorption .. 24B. Chemical Conversion Processes 251. Chemical Oxidation .........^.^.......^.^., 25Wet Oxidation2. .... _263. Reduction ..... .......28'.2. Vitrification and in Situ Vitrification 29I Irf< I It 1113 . „„((MtMtMt MltHM«tMIIII ltmMMHMMMHMHMIIHHHIHMHMM«Jvff -"^r** n H»tMtWIM»»J*^"Destruction ........^........^........«.....3D. Thermal31Transportable Rotary Kiln Incinerator2.3Pyrolysis ..^..^.......^.......3.334. Infrared Incineration34Fluid ExtractionE. SupercriticaluTnTT^r ~...~...... 36F. S y1B. Anaerobic Biological Treatment Processes 139Anaerobic Digester1. 141Process Descriptiona) ...
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/#^3 TECHNOLOGYREVIEW: BIOLOGICALTREATMENTOF HAZARDOUS LANDFILLLEACHATES Research Study for the Ontario Ministry ofEnvironment Project No. 339RR BY Jared Fein, Ph.D. and PeterYu, Ph.D. Diversified Research Laboratories,Ltd. 1047Yonge Street, Toronto, Ont.M4W2L2 MARCH 31, 1988 (%S 5 TECHNOLOGYREVIEW: BIOLOGICALTREATMENTOF HAZARDOUS LANDFILLLEACHATES Research Study for the Ontario Ministry ofEnvironment Project No. 339RR BY Jared Fein, Ph.D. and PeterYu, Ph.D. Diversified Research Laboratories,Ltd. 1047Yonge Street, Toronto, Ont.M4W2L2 MARCH 198831, . 1 TABLEOFCONTENTS I. Executive Summary 1 H. Introduction „„ 2 HI. Review of Physical and Chemical Treatment Processes 17 for Hazardous Landfill Leachates A. Physical Removal Mechanisms 18 1. Air Stripping 18 2. Carbon Absorption 19 3 Chemical Precipitation 20 4. Reverse Osmosis 21 5. Ion Exchange 23 6. Resin Absorption .. 24 B. Chemical Conversion Processes 25 1. Chemical Oxidation .........^.^.......^.^., 25 Wet Oxidation2. .... _26 3. Reduction ..... .......28 '.2. Vitrification and in Situ Vitrification 29 I Irf< I It 1113 . „„((MtMtMt MltHM«tMIIII ltmMMHMMMHMHMIIHHHIHMHMM«Jv ff -"^r** n H»tMtWIM»»J*^" Destruction ........^........^........«.....3D. Thermal 31Transportable Rotary Kiln Incinerator2. 3Pyrolysis ..^..^.......^.......3. 334. Infrared Incineration 34Fluid ExtractionE. Supercritical uTnTT^r ~...~...... 36F. S y 1 B. Anaerobic Biological Treatment Processes 139 Anaerobic Digester1. 141 Process Descriptiona) 141 Advantages andb) Disadvantages 143 c) Case Studies 144 i. Halifax, N.S. (Anaerobic Digester) 144 ii. Guelph, Ont. Filter) 149 2. The Fluidized Bed Anaerobic System 15 Process Description.a) 151 Advantagesb) and Disadvantages 152 Studiesc) Case 152 i. Anitron Fluidized Bed (Fluidized Anaerobic Bed) 152 3. Upward Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Processes 153 a) Process Description 153 b) Advantages and Disadvantages 155 c) Case Studies 156 i. MacMillan Bloedel (UASB) 156 4. Anaerobic Biodégradation ofPCB's 159 a} Process Description . 159 Advantages Disadvantagesb) & 162 Studiesc) Case 162 - i. Laboratory Study Dr. J. Tiedje 162 - ii. Study Dr. S. Woods 163 C. Immobilized Bacteria Biorectors 164 1. Immobilized Cells 164 a) Process Description. 164 165b) Advantages and Disadvantages 165c) Case Studies „ 1662. Zeolite 166a) Process Description 166b) Advantages and Disadvantages 167c) Case Studies D. Hybrid Biological and Non-BiologicalSystems Employing 167Treatments 167a} Process Description 168b) Advantages and Disadvantages Studies 168c) Case PontPACT System) 168i. Deepwater, NJ (Du E. In Situ Biological Treatment 171 171Process Descriptiona) 171b) Advantages and Disadvantages 172c) Case Studies situ Bioremediation) 172i. Biosystems Inc. (In 174(In situii.ECOVA Corp. 174(In situiii.O.H. Materials Corp. 175F. Solid-Phase Soil Bioremediation. 175a} Process Description 175Disadvantagesb) Advantages and 176 c) Case Studies 177BioreactorG. Slurry-Phase 177Process Descriptiona) 177Advantages and Disadvantagesb) 177Studiesc) Case 179VI. Risk Assessment 179A Introduction. 180RegulationsB. Environmental 181Assessment ArtOntario Environmental1. The 181Protection Art2. The Canadian 182Information Review ArtHazardous Materials3. The 182309 (MOE)4. Regulation 183- for AbatementIndustrial Strategy5. The Municipal 184AssessmentBiological RiskC. 186Chemical AssessmentD. 189ConclusionE. 191RecommendationsVII. I94 ReferencesVm. 22° GlossaryDC 1 LISTOFTABLES Contaminants Found in Landfill1. Leachates 5 Effect of Landfill Depth on Leachate Composition2. 8 The Effect ofTime onRaw Leachate3. 9 for4. List of Persons Contacted this Study 1 5. Physical, Chemical and Biological Factors Influencing Microbial Biodégradation 44 6. Survey of Biologically Treatable Xenobiotic Substances and Metals 48 Microorganisms7. Examples of Pollutant-Degrading 56 8. Biodégradation Enhanced by the Interaction of Microbes 66 9. Types of Microbial Community 69 10. Examples of Co-metabolism 72 11. Types of Interactions Between Microorganisms 76 12. Characteristics of Ideal Commercial Seed Culture 86 13. List ofSome Plasmids Encoding Hydrocarbon Biodégradation 92 14. Analysis ofContaminant Concentrations in Activated Sludge Plant Fluid and Effluent at Petro-Canada 114Trafalgar 15. Full Scale SBR Performance Data. 137 14216. Effect ofHeavy on Anaerobic SystemsMetals . 1 LISTOFFIGURES 1. SimplifiedRO Flow Diagram 22 2. Wet Oxidation Process 27 3. Plasma Arc Reaction Vessel 32 4. Modar Process forSCW Oxidative Detoxification ofWaste Streams 37 5. Schematic Flow Diagram of the Conventional Activated Sludge Process 106 6. Schematic of Petro-Canada, Trafalgar Biological Waste Water Treatment Plant 11 7. Schematic ofTrafalgar Refinery Liquid Effluent Drainage & Treatment System 112 8. Schematic Diagram ofa Trickling Filter 119 9. End View of aRBC 121 10. Schematic Diagrams ofRBC Unit and Medium 124 11. StringfellowRBCFlow Schematic 128 12. The Five Cycles ofSBR 133 13. Schematic ofCECOS SBR System 136 14. Microbial Groups in Anaerobic Digestion , 140 15 Halifax Site Plan. 146 Halifax Process Schematic 14716. Schematic 15017. Guelph ESL Diagram ofUASB 15418. Schematic Bloedel Plant Schematic 15819. MacMillan Wastewater Treatment Pfant 17020. Du Pont