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China in Africa

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106 pages
The economic take-off of Beijing and other BRIC countries shakes the global economic map. To develop a sustainable economy, they need, as the old industrial countries, raw material that abounds Africa. This book proposes to disentangle the African partner's economic strategies and to penetrate the mysteries of diplomacy and international business relations.
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CHINA IN AFRICA
Competition between China, traditional trade partners of Africa and BRIC countries
© LHarmattan, 2011 5-7, rue de lEcole polytechnique, 75005 Paris
http://www.librairieharmattan.comdiffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr harmattan1@wanadoo.fr
ISBN : 978-2-296-56691-0 EAN : 978229656691-0
Julien Bokilo
CHINA IN AFRICA
Competition between China, traditional trade partners of Africa and BRIC countries
LHarmattan
Études Africaines Collection dirigée par Denis Pryen et François Manga Akoa
Dernières parutions
Constant SOKO,Les Entrepreneurs Informels en Côte dIvoire. Entre lÉtat, le marché et les circuits de financement, 2011. Alphonse NDJATE,La police des étrangers sous le règne du maréchal Mobutu, 2011. Pierre AKINWANDE,Négritude et francophonie, 2011. Arlète TONYE,Épargnants dAfrique, inquiétez-vous !, 2011. Patrice ITOUA « Lepatrick »,Le cinquantenaire économique du Congo-Brazzaville. Fonctionnariat et entreprenariat, 2011. Pape Moussa SAMBA,Léopold Sédar Senghor, philosophe de la culture, 2011. François Lonsény FALL, pari pour le Guinée. Le Mon changement est possible, 2011. Emmanuel YENSHU VUBO,Inventer un nouvel espace public en Afrique. Le défi de la diversité ethnique, 2011. Yaya KONE,Anthropologie de lathlétisme en Afrique de lOuest, La condition de lathlète, 2011. Anna M. DIAGNE, Sascha KESSELER, Christian MEYER (éd.),Communication Wolof et société sénégalaise. Héritage et création, 2011. Fabrice AGYUNE NDONE,Changement social chez les Makina du Gabon,2011. B. H. MOUSSAVOU,Prisons africaines. Le cas du Gabon, 2011. MOTAZE AKAM, La sociologie de Jean-Marc Ela, 2011. Léon Modeste NNANG NDONG,Leffort de guerre de lAfrique. Le Gabon dans la Deuxième Guerre mondiale (1939-1947), 2011.
THANKS
Most sincere thanks to Mrs. Françoise Pessiot Mokele, Mr. Jean-Marie Pessiot, Mr. Armand Moyikoua, Mr. Thierry PAIRAULT, Mr. Emmanuel Okamba, Mr. Jean Pierre Cabestan, Mr. Felix Ndely Ibara, Mr. Manga-François Akoa. I would also like to thank Mr. Ngouébé Lauric, Mr. Jean-Marie Adowa, Mr. Damase Bienvenu Bokilo, Miss Mireille Opa-Elion, Mr. André-George Sassé and Mrs. Jorlin Gassongo Mireille, for the many tips they provided me. The work environment is crucial for the vitality of a research. I was able to benefit the friendly and stimulating spirit of graduate schools: among all the teams to be thanked, Mrs. Elisabeth Alles, Mr. Henri-Joseph Parra, Mr. Remy-Bazenguissa Ganga, Mr. Pap Ndiaye, Mrs. Elisabeth Dubois, Mr. François Durpaire and Mr. Roger Meunier.
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Sommary
Preface:Once upon a time, Africa and China ............. 9
GENERAL INTRODUCTION ........................................... 17
I- Power struggle between China and traditional allies: The United States and France ........................................20
1  The race for African raw materials deteriorates relations between the two superpowers: The United States and China .......................................................................36
a) - Origin of the U.S. and China strategy and Africa .......................................................................44 b) - Oil and raw materials are the root causes of tensions ......................................................................48 c)  Chinese boycott of the decision of the Security Council supported by the U.S. .......................................59 Conclusion .....................................................................62
II- Can America use African-Americans and evangelical lobbies to slow Chinese progression in Africa? .............63 7
1  Impact of the return of African-Americans to Africa .........................................................................65 2  Can evangelists lobbies serve as network for American local implementation strategy is Africa? .......................70 a) - How will Americans achieve their strategies? ........73 Conclusion ....................................................................74
III- Some BRIC join the quest for African market .......76 1 - Economic cooperation between emerging and African countries .........................................................................78 2 Differentiating factors ..............................................88 Conclusion .....................................................................92
GENERAL CONCLUSION ..........................................95
REFERENCES ..............................................................99
8
PREFACE Once upon a time, Africa and China
Relations between China and Africa are often subject to more emotional than rational reactions. Everyone reads and remembers that China is the second world power. This association is extremely unfortunate, as it is reminiscence of the cold war era when everyone knew who the "good" and "bad guys" were. It tries to resurrect this period by assigning a role to China immediately intelligible: all its actions are necessarily ill-intentioned as were those of the Soviet Union or of Japan. While China is the second largest economy (and not "power") behind the United States  the European Union is not taking into account here but would be the first. Despite its success, China is still basically a developing country. If China was an African country, it would rank as the tenth position on the continent in terms of wealth creation per capita, behind Algeria, Tunisia, South Africa, the Mauritius, Botswana and Gabon, and even further behind Libya, Seychelles and 9
Equatorial Guinea ... The human development index would give China a slightly more favorable position (the fifth largest of African) and the 89th row of the 169 countries assessed by the UNDP for 2010. Given its economic weight, China the fact that it plays an increasingly role in the global economy does not mean ipso facto that it can convert its race for raw materials and opportunities in a systematic strategy of domination (of African States in particular). Conversely, Chinas natural resources demand and it new markets research inevitably lead to more or less influence the strategic choices of partner States. It then is no wonder that some see China's presence as an opportunity for Africa, while others consider it harmful and contrary to peace, prosperity and democracy.
It is therefore extremely difficult to look coldly at China's economic involvement in Africa. In addition, detailed statistical data of China's economic involvement in African countries are extremely rare and disparate on the Chinese side but also on from international authorities. Related to crude oil, Chinese data indicate that over the first eight months of 2011 almost half of the Chinese supply comes from three countries: Saudi Arabia (19.6%), 10