Penser la guerre

De
Publié par

Les hypothèses traditionnelles dans l'explication de la violence internationale - la guerre pour la sécurité et la guerre pour le profit - ne sont pas nécessairement les plus pertinentes. Par contre, la perspective de la guerre pour l'affirmation identitaire permet de poser de nouvelles questions à l'égard de l'éclosion des conflits armés. Quel est le rôle des identités et des normes dans le déclenchement des guerres ? La violence est-elle générée par des comportements de stigmatisation ?
Publié le : samedi 1 novembre 2008
Lecture(s) : 218
EAN13 : 9782336262499
Nombre de pages : 232
Voir plus Voir moins
Cette publication est uniquement disponible à l'achat

4GOGTEKGOGPVU /GTEK FµCDQTF i OGU HKFpNGU COKU ¨KPVGTPCVKQPCNKUVGU© i ,GCP -NGKP ,QUGRJC .CTQEJG GV 2CUECN 8GPPGUUQP RQWT FGU EQTTGEVKQPU GV EQPUGKNU FWTCPV WPG RoTKQFG DKGP NQPIWG /GTEK CWUUK i $GTVTCPF $CFKG &CPKGN $QWTOCWF 2JKNKRRG $TCWF )WKNNCWOG &GXKP 1NKXKGT &WDQU 'NKUCDGVJ 'VKGPPG 'FF[ (QWIKGT #ZGN *QPPGVJ ,GCP2KGTTG /CTKEJ[ 8KPEGPV *QHHOCP/CTVKPQV 5NQDQFCP /KNCEKE 4oO[ /CTVKPQV.GTQ[ %JTKUVKCP 1NUUQP 2CVTKEM .G $KJCP 'TKM 4KPIOCT %NCWFG 5QTDGVU GV #NGZCPFGT 9GPFV /GTEK i NC 4GXWG (TCPnCKUG FG 5EKGPEG 2QNKVKSWG 4CKUQPU 2QNKVKSWGU %WNVWTGU GV %QPHNKVU GV CWZ oFKVKQPU FG $TW[NCPV FG RGTOGVVTG WPG ¨PQWXGNNG XKG© i OGU CTVKENGU RCTWU /GTEK i ;XGU 5WTGN RQWT UC RCVKGPEG ¨CPIoNKSWG© GV i %JTKUVKPC 'JNGTU RQWT NµKNNWUVTCVKQP FG NC EQWXGTVWTG 7P OGTEK NQPI GV UQWVGPW i %oEKNG (QWNSWKGT

#TVKENGU RCTVKGNNGOGPV WVKNKUoU RQWT NµQWXTCIG ¨.GU PoQKFoCNKUVGU GV NµoVWFG FG NC IWGTTG© 4GXWG (TCPnCKUG FG 5EKGPEG 2QNKVKSWG XQN PQ LWKP
RQWT NG EJCRKVTG ¨+FGPVKVoU FoOQETCVKSWGU GV EJQKZ UVTCVoIKSWGU© 4GXWG (TCPnCKUG FG 5EKGPEG 2QNKVKSWG XQN PQ QEVQDTG
EJCRKVTG 8+ ¨5CWXGT NC RCKZ .GU XGTVWU FG NC RQNKVKSWG FG TGEQPPCKUUCPEG FCPU NGU ETKUGU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU© KP 2 %NCTGV , 2 FW $QKU FW )CWFWUUQP /oNCPIGU GP JQPPGWT FG 5NQDQFCP /KNCEKE $TWZGNNGU $TW[NCPV R
EJCRKVTG 8++ ¨'PVTG CHHKTOCVKQP KFGPVKVCKTGU GV KPVoTqV PCVKQPCN .GU IWGTTGU COoTKECKPGU FCPU NµCRTpU IWGTTG HTQKFG© 4CKUQPU 2QNKVKSWGU HoXTKGT
EJCRKVTG 8+++ ¨&GU IWGTTKGTU RQWT HCKTG NC RCKZ© %WNVWTG GV %QPHNKVU PQ CWVQOPG
EJCRKVTG +:

+PVTQFWEVKQP %GV QWXTCIG EQTTGURQPF i WPG GZRoTKGPEG RoFCIQIKSWG #NQTU SWG NµCRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG GUV RGWV qVTG FoLi FGXGPWG GP 'WTQRG NG RCTCFKIOG FQOKPCPV GP TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU KN PµGZKUVG VQWLQWTU RCU FµQWXTCIG FCPU NG OQPFG HTCPEQRJQPG UWT EG EQWTCPV %GTVCKPGU VGPVCVKXGU FG U[PVJpUGU UQPV EGTVGU GZEGNNGPVGU OCKU NGWT ECTCEVpTG CDUVTCKV ° UQWXGPV F i NC EQORNGZKVo FW EQPUVTWEVKXKUOG RGWV FoTQWVGT NGU oVWFKCPVU #KPUK NµCWVGWT FG EGU NKIPGU C UQWXGPV GPVGPFW NC SWGUVKQP UWKXCPVG ¨i SWQK nC UGTV EGVVG CRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG! %GV QWXTCIG VGPVGTC WPG ToRQPUG SWK UG XGWV OQFGUVG i EGVVG KPVGTTQICVKQP GP GZRQUCPV UKORNGOGPV SWGNSWGU CRRNKECVKQPU GORKTKSWGU FW EQPUVTWEVKXKUOG 0QWU CXQPU EJQKUK NGU QTKIKPGU FG NC IWGTTG GPVTG 'VCVU EQOOG QDLGV GORKTKSWG RQWT ¨EQPEToVKUGT© NGU VJoQTKGU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU UQWXGPV RGTnWGU EQOOG CDUVTCKVGU %GV QWXTCIG UµCFTGUUG GP UGEQPF NKGW CWZ oVWFKCPVU GV CWZ EJGTEJGWTU ¨EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU© GWZOqOGU 0QWU XQWNQPU EQPVTKDWGT i UQTVKT EGVVG VJoQTKG FG UC VQWT FµKXQKTG GP NC EQPHTQPVCPV GPEQTG RNWU i NC ToCNKVo GORKTKSWG %QPVTCKTGOGPV i WP RToLWIo VGPCEG KN GZKUVG FoUQTOCKU WPG VTpU ITCPFG XCTKoVo FµGPSWqVGU FµKPURKTCVKQP EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG 6QWVGHQKU NµKPXGUVKUUGOGPV VJoQTKSWG FGU EJGTEJGWTU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU TGUVG UCPU FQWVG UWRoTKGWT i NGWTU GPSWqVGU FG ¨VGTTCKP© %GVVG RQUVWTG PµGUV RCU UCPU FCPIGT ECT NC XKCDKNKVo FµWPG VJoQTKG VKGPV HKPCNGOGPV i UC ECRCEKVo i OKGWZ GZRNKSWGT NC ToCNKVo SWG FGU CRRTQEJGU CNVGTPCVKXGU 'PHKP PQWU PQWU CFTGUUQPU CWUUK i EGWZ SWK UµKPVoTGUUGPV RNWU RCTVKEWNKpTGOGPV CWZ QTKIKPGU FG NC IWGTTG 0QVTG CODKVKQP UGTC FG NGWT OQPVTGT SWG NGU UWRRQUKVKQPU VTCFKVKQPPGNNGU FCPU NµGZRNKECVKQP FG NC XKQNGPEG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG PQVCOOGPV EGNNG FG NµJQOQ RQNKVKEWU EJGTEJCPV i OCZKOKUGT NG RQWXQKT GV EGNNG FG NµJQOQ GEQPQOKEWU i NC TGEJGTEJG FW RTQHKV PG UQPV RCU PoEGUUCKTGOGPV NGU RNWU RGTVKPGPVGU %QPVTCKTGOGPV i FG VGNNGU XKUKQPU OCVoTKCNKUVGU GV WPKFKOGPUKQPPGNNGU FG NC TCVKQPCNKVo JWOCKPG EGV QWXTCIG XKUG i ToGZCOKPGT NC XKQNGPEG CTOoG FCPU NGU TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU UQWU NµCPING FG NµKFGPVKVo GV FG NC ¨TGEQPPCKUUCPEG© %GNNGEK RGWV qVTG FoHKPKG EQOOG NG FoUKT FµQDVGPKT NC EQPHKTOCVKQP FµWPG KFGPVKVo GV FµWPG KOCIG XCNQTKUoG FG UQK CWRTpU FGU CWVTGU .C ¨NWVVG RQWT NC TGEQPPCKUUCPEG© C oVo VJoOCVKUoG FCPU FGU VTCXCWZ RJKNQUQRJKSWGU
# *QPPGVJ UQEKQNQIKSWGU
' )QHHOCP # 2K\\QTPQ ¨RQNKVKUVGU©
2 $TCWF GV ¨EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU©
# 9GPFV ' 4KPIOCT 5GNQP PQVTG VJpUG RTKPEKRCNG NC RTQDCDKNKVo FG NC XKQNGPEG RQNKVKSWG FoRGPF CWUUK FGU EQVU GV FGU ICKPU U[ODQNKSWGU CUUQEKoU i NµQRVKQP

¨DGNNKSWGWUG© %GVVG RGTURGEVKXG RGTOGV FG RQUGT FG PQWXGNNGU SWGUVKQPU i NµoICTF FG NµoENQUKQP FG NC XKQNGPEG 2CT GZGORNG NGU CEVGWTU TGEQWTGPVKNU CWUUK i NC XKQNGPEG RQWT FoHGPFTG QW OCKPVGPKT WPG KOCIG XCNQTKUoG FG UQK QW FG NGWT EQNNGEVKXKVo! 3WGN GUV NG TzNG FGU PQTOGU GV FGU KFGPVKVoU RCTVCIoGU EQOOG KPJKDKVKQP OQTCNG
GP VGTOGU FµKOCIG FG UQK i NC XKQNGPEG! 3WGN GUV NG NKGP GPVTG ¨FoPKU FG TGEQPPCKUUCPEG© FGU FKUETKOKPCVKQPU OWNVKRNGU GV FGU QHHGPUGU OCKU CWUUK FGU CEVGU FG OoRTKU EQPVTG FGU KFGPVKVoU ¨RCTVKEWNKpTGU©
FGU EWNVWTGU GVE GV oENQUKQP FG NC XKQNGPEG! .C XKQNGPEG GUVVGNNG WPG RTQRJoVKG CWVQToCNKUCVTKEG FCPU NC OGUWTG Q~ NGU EQORQTVGOGPVU FG UVKIOCVKUCVKQP UQPV UWUEGRVKDNGU FG RTQFWKTG FGU KFGPVKVoU GZENWUKXGU SWK TKUSWGPV i NGWT VQWT FG UG OWGT GP CITGUUKXKVo!



+ .µKPVGTRToVCVKQP EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG FG NC IWGTTG

%JCRKVTG + .µCRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG

.oVWFG FGU TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU C NQPIVGORU oVo FQOKPoG RCT FGU CRRTQEJGU QDLGEVKXKUVGU SWK OGVVCKGPV GP CXCPV NKPHNWGPEG FGU HCEVGWTU OCVoTKGNU UWT NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG EQOOG NC RWKUUCPEG
NGU EQPVTCKPVGU FW U[UVpOG KPVGTPCVKQPCN GV NC TGEJGTEJG FG NC RWKUUCPEG QW NC TGEJGTEJG FG ICKPU oEQPQOKSWGU HCXQTKUCPV NC EQQRoTCVKQP GPVTG NGU dVCVU GP TCKUQP FGU KPVGTFoRGPFCPEGU OWNVKRNGU GV FG NC OQPFKCNKUCVKQP /CNITo NGWT QRRQUKVKQP EGU CRRTQEJGU FKPURKTCVKQP ToCNKUVG QW PoQNKDoTCNG UG TGLQKIPGPV UWT NG TGHWU FCEEQTFGT CWZ PQTOGU KFGPVKVoU QW U[UVpOGU FG XCNGWTU WPG GZKUVGPEG RTQRTG 1T FGRWKU NC HKP FGU CPPoGU SWCVTGXKPIV FGU EQWTCPVU UCHHKTOGPV UWTVQWV CWZ dVCVU7PKU SWK KPUKUVGPV UWT NC PoEGUUKVo FG FoRCUUGT EGV QDLGEVKXKUOG GP KPVoITCPV NG TzNG FGU UVTWEVWTGU KPVGTUWDLGEVKXGU FGU EWNVWTGU FGU U[UVpOGU FG ETQ[CPEGU FGU XCNGWTU QW FGU KFoGU FCPU NC XKG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG /CNITo NGWT FKXGTUKVo EGU VTCXCWZ CHHKTOGPV SWG EG PG UQPV RCU VQWLQWTU NGU HCEVGWTU QDLGEVKHU GP VCPV SWG VGNU SWK EQORVGPV FCPU NC XKG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG OCKU CWUUK NC RGTEGRVKQP SWGP QPV NGU CEVGWTU .G EQPVGZVG KPVGTPCVKQPCN FG NCRTpUIWGTTG HTQKFG TGPF
8QKT * , /QTIGPVJCW 2QNKVKEU COQPI PCVKQPU 0GY ;QTM #NHTGF -PQRH
oF 4 #TQP 2CKZ GV IWGTTG GPVTG NGU PCVKQPU 2CTKU %CNOCP .oX[
oOG -0 9CNV\ 6JGQT[ QH +PVGTPCVKQPCN 2QNKVKEU 0GY ;QTM 4GCFKPI 8QKT 41 -GQJCPG ,QUGRJ 5 0[G 6TCPUPCVKQPCN 4GNCVKQPU CPF 9QTNF 2QNKVKEU %CODTKFIG *CTXCTF 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU 2QWT NC (TCPEG ,QUGRJC .CTQEJG 2QNKVKSWG +PVGTPCVKQPCNG 2CTKU .)&, 8QKT 0KEJQNCU )TGGPYQQF 1PWH 9QTNF QH QWT OCMKPI %QNWODKC 7PKXGTUKV[ QH 5QWVJ %CTQNKPC 2TGUU # 9GPFV #PCTEJ[ KU YJCV UVCVGU OCMGU QH KV +PVGTPCVKQPCN 1TICPK\CVKQP 5RTKPI R ,WFKVJ )QNFUVGKP 4 -GQJCPG oF +FGCU CPF (QTGKIP 2QNKE[ +VJCEC %QTPGNN 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU 2 , -CV\GPUVGKP oF 6JG %WNVWTG QH 0CVKQPCN 5GEWTKV[ 0GY ;QTM %QNWODKC 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU 2 8GPPGUUQP .GU TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU FCPU NC UEKGPEG RQNKVKSWG CWZ 'VCVU7PKU 2QNKVKZ 2TGOKGT 6TKOGUVTG R 2QWT WPG CRRTQEJG EWNVWTCNKUVG GP (TCPEG $ $CFKG /% 5OQWVU .G TGVQWTPGOGPV FW OQPFG 2CTKU 2TGUUGU FG 5EKGPEGU 2Q
oF 6JQOCU .KPFGOCPP .G FCTYKPKUOG GV NC 2TGOKpTG )WGTTG OQPFKCNG 2CTKU 'EQPQOKEC
i RCTCuVTG CKPUK SWG NC TGXWG %WNVWTGU GV EQPHNKVU FKTKIo RCT &KFKGT $KIQ

NoNCDQTCVKQP FWPG VGNNG CRRTQEJG RCTVKEWNKpTGOGPV WTIGPVG .GU dVCVU GV NGU ITQWRGU UWDPCVKQPCWZ FKURQUGPV FoUQTOCKU FWPG RNWU ITCPFG OCTIG FG OCPQGWXTG RQWT GZRTKOGT NGWTU RCTVKEWNCTKUOGU KFGPVKVCKTGU EGU FGTPKGTU UG RTqVCPV UQWXGPV OCN i WPG CPCN[UG RWTGOGPV TCVKQPPGNNG GP VGTOGU FG RWKUUCPEG QW FKPVoTqV oEQPQOKSWG .GU VWTDWNGPEGU KFGPVKVCKTGU NG TGVQWT GP HQTEG FGU EWNVWTGU PG OGVVGPV RCU UKORNGOGPV GP ECWUG NC RToFQOKPCPEG FG NCEVGWT oVCVKSWG OCKU CWUUK NC ETQ[CPEG NCTIGOGPV ToRCPFWG GV GVJPQEGPVTKSWG SWKN GZKUVG WPG ¨TCVKQPCNKVo WPKXGTUGNNG© +N EQPXKGPV FQPE RNWU SWG LCOCKU FG VGPKT EQORVG FW UGPU RCTVKEWNKGT SWG EJCSWG CEVGWT EQPHpTG CWZ ECVoIQTKGU HQPFCOGPVCNGU FW LGW KPVGTPCVKQPCN (QTEG GUV FG EQPUVCVGT SWG NG RCTCFKIOG ToCNKUVG C CWUUK FW OCN i GZRNKSWGT NC RGTUKUVCPEG FG N16#0 QW NC EWNVWTG FG TGVGPWG FG N#NNGOCIPG WPKG UWT NC UEpPG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG OCNITo UC OQPVoG GP RWKUUCPEG .GU dVCVU PG UGODNGPV RCU PQP RNWU CIKT GP HQPEVKQP FWPG TCVKQPCNKVo oEQPQOKSWG NQTUSWG NQP RGPUG i NC XKQNGPEG RCUUKQPPGNNG FGU EQPHNKVU KFGPVKVCKTGU SWK QRRQUGPV CEVWGNNGOGPV NGU dVCVU UWEEGUUGWTU GP GZ ;QWIQUNCXKG FCPU NG %CWECUG QW GP #HTKSWG EGPVTCNG $KGP SWG NGU CRRTQEJGU KFoCNKUVGU EQPPCKUUGPV WP TGPQWXGCW ToEGPV GNNGU UKPUETKXGPV FCPU WPG NQPIWG VTCFKVKQP FG ToHNGZKQP UWT NC FKOGPUKQP JWOCKPG FCPU NGU TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU SWKN UCIKUUG FGU HQTEGU OQTCNGU
%CTN X %NCWUGYKV\ QW FG NC HQTEG FGU XCNGWTU FoOQETCVKSWGU
NG ToRWDNKECPKUOG FG + -CPV QW NKFoCNKUOG YKNUQPKGP %GVVG VTCFKVKQP C NQPIVGORU oVo oENKRUoG RCT NGUUQT FG NoEQNG ToCNKUVG CWZ 'VCVU7PKU i UQP VQWT HCXQTKUo RCT NoEJGE FG NC 5QEKoVo FGU 0CVKQPU FCPU UC VGPVCVKXG FµKPUVCWTGT WP U[UVpOG FG UoEWTKVo EQNNGEVKXG +N HCNNCKV FQPE TGRGPUGT NGU CZKQOGU FG NKFoCNKUOG ENCUUKSWG SWK QRRQUCKV FWPG OCPKpTG VTQR PCvXG NGU KFoGU CWZ HQTEGU OCVoTKGNNGU .C PQVKQP FG RGTEGRVKQPU GUV i PQVTG UGPU RCTHCKVGOGPV CFCRVoG RQWT TGOoFKGT i EGVVG ECTGPEG ECT GNNG TGPXQKG CWUUK DKGP CW OQPFG GZVoTKGWT NGU EJQUGU RQWT UQK
-CPV SWCWZ



8QKT $GTVTCPF $CFKG /CTKG%NCWFG 5OQWVU .G TGVQWTPGOGPV FW OQPFG QR EKV
pOG R +DKF R 8QKT 6JQOCU 4KUUG-CRRGP %QNNGEVKXG +FGPVKV[ KP C &GOQETCVKE %QOOWPKV[ 6JG ECUG QH 0CVQ FCPU -CV\GPUVGKP QR EKV R ,GCP -NGKP .C EQQRoTCVKQP HTCPEQCNNGOCPFG GV NKFGPVKVo GWTQRoGPPG GP OCVKpTG FG FoHGPUG 4GXWG F#NNGOCIPG V PQ CXTKNLWKP RR R 6JQOCU 7 $GTIGT 0QTOU +FGPVKV[ CPF 0CVKQPCN 5GEWTKV[ KP )GTOCP[ CPF ,CRQP FCPU -CV\GPUVGKP QR EKV R 8QKT 6JQOCU .KPFGOCPP +PVTQFWEVKQP FCPU %CTN X %NCWUGYKV\ 6JoQTKG FW %QODCV 2CTKU 'EQPQOKEC + -CPV 2TQLGV FG RCKZ RGTRoVWGNNG



TGRToUGPVCVKQPU FG EGNWKEK FCPU NG UWLGV JWOCKP UCPU NCSWGNNG NGU EJQUGU GZVoTKGWTGU TGUVGTCKGPV KPEQORToJGPUKDNGU .G EQWTCPV RGTEGRVWGN SWK UGUV PQVCOOGPV CHHKTOo FGRWKU NQWXTCIG HQPFCOGPVCN FG 4 ,GTXKU UWT NGU 2GTEGRVKQP CPF OKURGTEGRVKQP FCPU NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG HWV NG RTGOKGT i TGOGVVTG GP ECWUG NQDLGEVKXKUOG FGU CRRTQEJGU FQOKPCPVGU ,GTXKU CXCKV i NoRQSWG OKU GP FQWVG NG RCTCFKIOG FG NCEVGWT TCVKQPPGN 5QP CRRTQEJG EQIPKVKXG C OQPVTo NG RQKFU FGU RGTEGRVKQPU HCWUUoGU FCPU NC XKG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG %GNNGUEK ToUWNVGPV UWTVQWV FG NC FKHHKEWNVo FCUUKOKNGT EQTTGEVGOGPV NGU FQPPoGU SWK EQPVTGFKUGPV WPG XKUKQP FW OQPFG QW WP U[UVpOG FG ETQ[CPEGU %G EQPUVCV UCRRWKG UWT NC VJoQTKG FG NC FKUUQPCPEG EQIPKVKXG
. (GUVKPIGT SWK FoOQPVTG NC FKHHKEWNVo JWOCKPG i UWRRQTVGT FGU KPHQTOCVKQPU CODKIWrU + ,CPKU RToHoTC FG UQP EzVo WPG CRRTQEJG OQVKXCVKQPPGNNG SWK UWIIpTG SWG EG UQPV UWTVQWV NGU OKURGTEGRVKQPU TGNCVKXGU CWZ FoUKTU CWZ ETCKPVGU GV CW UVTGUU SWK FoVGTOKPGPV NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG 2QWT NWK NqVTG JWOCKP GUV FQPE UWTVQWV i NC FKHHoTGPEG FG EGNWK FG ,GTXKU WP qVTG RCUUKQPPGN SWK PG XQKV RCU EG SWKN CVVGPF FG XQKT OCKU EG SWKN FoUKTG QW ETCKPV FG XQKT /CNITo EGU FKHHoTGPEGU ,GTXKU GV ,CPKU CEEQTFGPV FQPE VQWU FGWZ WPG ITCPFG KORQTVCPEG CWZ OoECPKUOGU RU[EJQNQIKSWGU FCPU NG RTQEGUUWU FG RTKUG FG FoEKUKQP /CNITo FGU ToUWNVCVU UWIIGUVKHU NC XCNGWT GZRNKECVKXG FG EGVVG CRRTQEJG TGUVG NKOKVoG FCPU NC OGUWTG Q~ GNNG UG HQECNKUG WPKSWGOGPV UWT NC FKOGPUKQP CPVJTQRQNQIKSWG FGU RGTEGRVKQPU HCWUUoGU 7PG VGNNG RGTURGEVKXG PG RGTOGV RCU FG EQORTGPFTG RQWTSWQK KN [ C FGU dVCVU SWK UGODNGPV RNWU HQTVGOGPV GZRQUoU i FGU RGTEGRVKQPU FoHQTOoGU FG NC ToCNKVo SWG FCWVTGU 'P QWVTG KN PGUV RCU UT SWKN UQKV RQUUKDNG FG RGTEGXQKT EQTTGEVGOGPV NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG EGUViFKTG KPFoRGPFCOOGPV FW UGPU SWG PQWU NWK CVVTKDWQPU ,GTXKU GV ,CPKU KIPQTCKGPV CWUUK NCTIGOGPV NG EQPVGPW FGU U[UVpOGU FG ETQ[CPEGU ECT GP FGTPKpTG KPUVCPEG EGWZEK PoVCKGPV RCU EQPUKFoToU EQOOG FGU HQTEGU CWVQPQOGU &CPU NGWT QRVKSWG PKORQTVG SWGN U[UVpOG FG ETQ[CPEGU RTQFWKUCKV FGU RGTEGRVKQPU HCWUUoGU

4 ,GTXKU 2GTEGRVKQP CPF /KURGTEGRVKQP KP +PVGTPCVKQPCN 2QNKVKEU 0GY ;GTUG[ 2TKPEGVQP 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU 8QKT KDKF R + . ,CPKU .GQ /CPP &GEKUKQP /CMKPI 0GY ;QTM (TGG 2TGUU 8QKT 5CO[ %QJGP &oEKUKQP 2QWXQKT GV 4CVKQPCNKVo FCPU N#PCN[UG FG NC 2QNKVKSWG 'VTCPIpTG FCPU /CTKG%NCWFG 5OQWVU .GU PQWXGNNGU TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU 2CTKU 2TGUUGU FG 5EKGPEGU 2Q R



.GU VTCKVU EQOOWPU FGU CRRTQEJGU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU 'P TGXCPEJG NGU CRRTQEJGU ToEGPVGU FKPURKTCVKQP EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG EQPUCETGPV DGCWEQWR RNWU FCVVGPVKQP CWZ XCNGWTU KFoGU GV PQTOGU RCTVCIoGU
¨KPVGTUWDLGEVKXGU© FG NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG 5GNQP WPG KFoG EGPVTCNG FG NµCRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG NC RNWRCTV FGU CEVGU PµQPV FG UGPU RQWT PQWU SWG RCTEG SWµKNU TGRQUGPV UWT FGU ¨EQPXGPVKQPU© #KPUK WP DKNNGV FG GWTQU PG HCKV UGPU SWG RCTEG SWG PQWU PQWU UQOOGU OKU FµCEEQTF UWT NG HCKV SWµWP DKNNGV PµGUV RCU WP UKORNG OQTEGCW FG RCRKGT OCKU WP OQ[GP FG RCKGOGPV 5GNQP EGTVCKPU QP CUUKUVGTCKV i WPG TGRTKUG FG NC SWGTGNNG VTCFKVKQPPGNNG GPVTG NGU KFoCNKUVGU GV NGU VGPCPVU FW RCTCFKIOG ToCNKUVG 7P VGN LWIGOGPV OoEQPPCuV EGRGPFCPV NQTKIKPCNKVo FW PQWXGN KFoCNKUOG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG FQPV NGU CZKQOGU RGWXGPV qVTG ToUWOoU FG NC OCPKpTG UWKXCPVG .G RQUVWNCV ¨KFoCNKUVG© FG NµKPVGTUWDLGEVKXKVo 'P TGRTGPCPV WP RQUVWNCV FG *GTDGTV $NWOGT NGU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU GUVKOGPV SWG NGU CEVGWTU CIKUUGPV GP HQPEVKQP FG NC UKIPKHKECVKQP SWµQPV NGU QDLGVU RQWT GWZ .G PQP FoVGTOKPKUOG FGU UVTWEVWTGU OCVoTKGNNGU UWT NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG GUV WP VTCKV OCTSWCPV FGU PQWXGNNGU CRRTQEJGU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU 1P UG UQWXKGPV FG NC OoVCRJQTG FG # 9QNHGTU UGNQP NCSWGNNG NG U[UVpOG KPVGTPCVKQPCN UGTCKV CWUUK EQPVTCKIPCPV RQWT NGU CEVGWTU oVCVKSWGU SWWP HGW CW VJojVTG RQWT NGU URGEVCVGWTU SWK UG RToEKRKVGTCKGPV VQWU XGTU NC UQTVKG 1T WPG CRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG TGPXGTTCKV FCDQTF i NC FKHHKEWNVo FG UG OGVVTG FCEEQTF UWT NC PCVWTG FGU OGPCEGU GP RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG SWK PG UKORQUGPV RCU VQWLQWTU CXGE NC OqOG oXKFGPEG SWWP HGW CW VJojVTG #KPUK NGU FoEKFGWTU CNNGOCPFU ETWTGPV RGPFCPV NC ETKUG FG SWG NC 4WUUKG CXCKV NKPVGPVKQP FCVVCSWGT N#NNGOCIPG FCPU WP CXGPKT RTQEJG
GV SWGP TCKUQP FGU ECRCEKVoU ITCPFKUUCPVGU FG NC 4WUUKG N#NNGOCIPG HGTCKV OKGWZ FCIKT OCKPVGPCPV SWG RNWU VCTF 1T FµCRTpU NGU TGEJGTEJGU JKUVQTKSWGU NC 4WUUKG PG RTQLGVCKV RCU FCITGUUGT N#NNGOCIPG GV GNNG PµoVCKV RCU PQP RNWU WPG RWKUUCPEG KTToUKUVKDNGOGPV OQPVCPVG .C RGTEGRVKQP FWP HGW EQORVG FQPE UQWXGPV FCXCPVCIG SWG NC ToCNKVo FW HGW &CKNNGWTU OqOG UK NQP TGEQPPCuV SWG NG HGW GZKUVG KN [ C FG PQODTGWUGU HCnQPU FG ToCIKT
8QKT 9GPFV #PCTEJ[ KU YJCV UVCVGU OCMG QH KV QR EKV -CV\GPUVGKP QR EKV GV 1PWH QR EKV *GTDGTV $NWOGT 5[ODQNKE +PVGTCEVKQPKUO 2GTURGEVKXG CPF /GVJQF 7PKXGTUKV[ QH %CNKHQTPKC 2TGUU R ²6JG HKTUV RTGOKUG KU VJCV VJG JWOCP DGKPIU CEV VQYCTF VJKPIU QP VJG DCUKU QP VJG OGCPKPIU VJCV VJG VJKPIU JCXG HQT VJGO³ # 9QNHGTU &KUEQTF CPF %QNNCDQTCVKQP $CNVKOQTG R



%GU ToRQPUGU UGTQPV i NGWT VQWT KPHNWGPEoGU RCT NGU U[UVpOGU FG ETQ[CPEGU FGU CEVGWTU 3WK UG RToEKRKVG FCDQTF XGTU NC UQTVKG NGU HGOOGU NGU GPHCPVU NGU PQVCDNGU NGU RNWU HQTVU! &G NC OqOG OCPKpTG WP dVCV C RNWUKGWTU RQUUKDKNKVoU RQWT ToRQPFTG i NoXGPVWCNKVo FWPG CITGUUKQP EJQKUKTCVKN RCT GZGORNG WPG UVTCVoIKG FoHGPUKXG QW QHHGPUKXG FGPFKIWGOGPV QW FG TGHQWNGOGPV! 6QWU EGU EJQKZ PG UGTQPV RCU WPKSWGOGPV EQPFKVKQPPoU RCT FGU EQPVTCKPVGU QDLGEVKXGU OCKU oICNGOGPV RCT FGU EWNVWTGU UVTCVoIKSWGU %QPVTCKTGOGPV CWZ CWVTGU RCTCFKIOGU NCRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG CHHKTOG FQPE SWKN GZKUVG WPG RNWTCNKVo FG UGPU GV FKFGPVKVoU 2QWT EGVVG TCKUQP NGU OqOGU UVTWEVWTGU QDLGEVKXGU RGWXGPV EQPFWKTG i FGU EJQKZ RQNKVKSWGU FKHHoTGPVU 7P FGWZKpOG CTIWOGPV HQTV GUV SWG PQWU PG FoHKPKUUQPU RCU NGU OGPCEGU GP HQPEVKQP FGU ECRCEKVoU OCVoTKGNNGU FWP CWVTG dVCV OCKU CWUUK GP HQPEVKQP FGU KPVGPVKQPU SWG PQWU NWK CVVTKDWQPU i PQVTG oICTF #KPUK NG RQVGPVKGN PWENoCKTG FG NC %QToG FW 0QTF PG EQPUVKVWG RCU GP UQK WPG OGPCEG RQWT NGU dVCVU7PKU RWKUSWKNU PG UG UGPVGPV RCU OGPCEoU RCT NG RQVGPVKGN DKGP RNWU KORQTVCPV FG N#PINGVGTTG %G SWK GUV FoEKUKH KEK EµGUV NC RGTEGRVKQP SWG NGU KPVGPVKQPU FG NCWVTG UQPV JQUVKNGU QW COKECNGU i OQP oICTF # NKPXGTUG KN GUV ENCKT SWG NC UKORNG JQUVKNKVo PG EQPUVKVWG RCU WPG OGPCEG UWHHKUCPVG 'P TCKUQP FG UGU ECRCEKVoU NKOKVoGU 5CFFCO *WUUGKP PG RQWXCKV RCU HCKTG ETCKPFTG CWZ #OoTKECKPU WP DQODCTFGOGPV OCUUKH FG NGWT VGTTKVQKTG 2NWVzV SWG FQRRQUGT CTVKHKEKGNNGOGPV NGU HCEVGWTU OCVoTKGNU CWZ HCEVGWTU KFoGNU KN EQPXKGPV FQPE FG UKPVGTTQIGT UWT NGWT KPHNWGPEG ToEKRTQSWG #KPUK NCTOGOGPV FWP dVCV LWIo JQUVKNG RGWV GPEQTG TGPHQTEGT NCXGTUKQP GV NGU UQWRnQPU ToEKRTQSWGU 'P TGXCPEJG FGU OGUWTGU WPKNCVoTCNGU GV ToRoVoGU FG DQPPG EQPFWKVG RGWXGPV UWEEGUUKXGOGPV FoVTWKTG NKOCIG FG NGPPGOK EQOOG EG HWV NG ECU RQWT NC RQNKVKSWG IQTDCVEJoXKGPPG 7P CWVTG CTIWOGPV GUV SWG NG TCRRQTV FG HQTEGU PGUV RCU UWHHKUCPV RQWT GZRNKSWGT SWWP dVCV UG EQORQTVG EQOOG RWKUUCPEG ToXKUKQPPKUVG VCPFKU SWWP CWVTG UG EQPVGPVG FW UVCVW SWQ VGTTKVQTKCN OCNITo UGU RQUUKDKNKVoU FG NG OQFKHKGT # NC FKHHoTGPEG FG NKFoCNKUOG VTCFKVKQPPGN KN PGUV RNWU SWGUVKQP FQRRQUGT NGU XCNGWTU QW NGU KFoGU CWZ HQTEGU QW CWZ KPVoTqVU OCVoTKGNU .C RNWRCTV FGU CWVGWTU ¨EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU© SWK CEEQTFGPV WPG CVVGPVKQP RCTVKEWNKpTG CWZ HQTEGU KOOCVoTKGNNGU KPUKUVGPV UWT NKPVGTCEVKQP GPVTG NGU HCEVGWTU OCVoTKGNU GV KFoGNU 0QWU PG RQWXQPU RCU RGTEGXQKT NG OQPFG GZVoTKGWT KPFoRGPFCOOGPV FG PQU U[UVpOGU FG ETQ[CPEGU .GU CEVGWTU CIKUUGPV FCPU EGVVG QRVKSWG UGNQP NGWTU
,.CTQEJG EQORVGTGPFW
(TGF *CNNKFC[ 4GXWG (TCPnCKUG FG 5EKGPEG 2QNKVKSWG XQN PQ R #NGZCPFGT 9GPFV &CPKGN (KGFJGKO *KGTCTEJ[ WPFGT CPCTEJ[ KPHQTOCN GORKTG CPF VJG 'CUV )GTOCP UVCVG +PVGTPCVKQPCN 1TICPK\CVKQP #WVWOP RR




KPVoTqVU OCKU EG SWKNU RGTnQKXGPV GV FoHKPKUUGPV EQOOG KPVoTqV GUV NCTIGOGPV FoRGPFCPV FG NGWT U[UVpOG FG ETQ[CPEGU .C FoHKPKVKQP FGU KPVoTqVU GUV GP HCKV OCNNoCDNG GV FoRGPF GP RCTVKG FW IGPTG FKPVoTqV
OKNKVCKTG oEQPQOKSWG OQTCN KPVoTKGWT SWK GUV HCXQTKUo RCT PQU ETQ[CPEGU .G RQUVWNCV ¨JQNKUVG© FG NC EQPUVTWEVKQP PQTOCVKXG GV KFGPVKVCKTG FGU KPVoTqVU FGU CEVGWTU %QPVTCKTGOGPV i NµKFoG EQWTCPVG UGNQP NCSWGNNG VQWU NGU CEVGWTU CWTCKGPV KPVoTqV i OCZKOKUGT NGWTU ICKPU oEQPQOKSWGU QW RQNKVKSWGU NGU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU OGVVGPV GP CXCPV NG HCKV SWG NG EJQKZ GPVTG NC HQTEG OKNKVCKTG
NC %QToG FW 0QTF NG DKGPqVTG oEQPQOKSWG
NC 5WKUUG QW NC FoHGPUG FGU FTQKVU JWOCPKVCKTGU
NC 5WpFG NG %CPCFC GUV XCTKCDNG GV FoRGPF PQVCOOGPV FW ToHoTGPVKGN KFGPVKVCKTG CW UGKP FG NC EQOOWPCWVo KPVGTPCVKQPCNG
RCT GZGORNG SWµGUVEG SWK EQPUVKVWG WPG ITCPFG RWKUUCPEG UGNQP NGU oRQSWGU! QW CW UGKP FµWPG oNKVG PCVKQPCNG
SWGN TzNG NGU FoEKFGWTU FµWP 'VCV CURKTGPVKNU i LQWGT UWT NC UEpPG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG RWKUUCPEG ¨EKXKNG© RWKUUCPEG OKNKVCKTG RWKUUCPEG OQPFKCNG QW EQPVKPGPVCNG GVE! 'P EG UGPU NGU PQTOGU PµQPV RCU UKORNGOGPV WPG HQPEVKQP ¨ToIWNCVTKEG© RQWT NGU CEVGWTU GP NGWT KPVGTFKUCPV QW GP NGWT RGTOGVVCPV FG HCKTG FGU EJQUGU UCPU EJCPIGT NGWT KFGPVKVo KPFKXKFWGNNG FµJQOQ RQNKVKEWU QW FµJQOQ GEQPQOKEWU 'NNGU QPV CWUUK WP GHHGV ¨EQPUVKVWVKH© 'NNGU FoVGTOKPGPV EG SWK GUV ¨CRRTQRTKo© RQWT WP CEVGWT UµKN CURKTG i XCNKFGT WPG KFGPVKVo #KPUK WP IGPVNGOCP CWTC ¨KPVoTqV© i QWXTKT NC RQTVG CWZ XKGKNNGU FCOGU ECT UKPQP KN RQWTTCKV FKHHKEKNGOGPV HCKTG XCNQKT EGVVG KFGPVKVo FG TzNG FGXCPV NGU CWVTGU GV NWK OqOG .GU VTCXCWZ FGU ¨PoQ KPUVKVWVKQPCNKUVGU© VGNU SWG &K/CIIKQ GV 2QYGNN i NµKPUVCT FG EGWZ RNWU CPEKGPU FG $GTIGT GV .WEMOCPP CKPUK SWG EGWZ Fµ'TXKPI )QHHOCP ToXpNGPV SWG NGU KPFKXKFWU GV NGU QTICPKUCVKQPU CIKUUGPV UQWXGPV RNWU RQWT EQPHKTOGT WPG KFGPVKVo FG TzNG SWµGP HQPEVKQP FµKPVoTqVU RTooVCDNKU #KPUK WP 'VCV ¨OQFGTPG© GUV CWLQWTFµJWK EGPUo TGURGEVGT NGU FTQKVU FG NµJQOOG GV UQWUETKTG CWZ PQTOGU ¨RCEKHKSWGU© .µKPVoTqV FG Nµ7MTCKPG FW -C\CMJUVCP QW FG Nµ#HTKSWG FW 5WF RQWT NC TGPQPEKCVKQP i NµCTOG PWENoCKTG GUV FKHHKEKNGOGPV EQORToJGPUKDNG UK NµQP KIPQTG NGU PQTOGU SWK EQPUVKVWGPV CWLQWTFµJWK WP ¨'VCV OQFGTPG© %GVVG RToOKUUG FG NC OQVKXCVKQP KFGPVKVCKTG GV OQTCNG FCPU NGU KPVGTCEVKQPU UQEKCNGU GUV UQWULCEGPVG FCPU NC RNWRCTV FGU VTCXCWZ
2QWT WPG KPVTQFWEVKQP EQPEGTPCPV NGU OQVKXCVKQPU ²KFGPVKVCKTGU³ FCPU NC RQNKVKSWG oVTCPIpTG 2 8GPPGUUQP ¨ +FGPVKVo © FCPU /% 5OQWVU & $CVVKUVGNNC 2 8GPPGUUQP &KEVKQPPCKTG FGU TGNCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU 2CTKU &CNNQ\
pOG R



EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU #KPUK (TKGFTKEJ -TCVQEJYKN GUVKOG SWG NGU qVTGU JWOCKPU QPV TGEQWTU i FGU ECVoIQTKGU OQTCNGU FCPU NGWT KPVGTRToVCVKQP FW OQPFG +N UQWVKGPV SWG NC TCVKQPCNKVo KORNKSWG CWUUK NC EQORCVKDKNKVo FG PQU EQORQTVGOGPVU CXGE FGU PQTOGU GV FGU UGPVKOGPVU OQTCWZ &CPU NG EQPVGZVG FG NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG QP RQWTTCKV UG FGOCPFGT RQWTSWQK NµKPVoTqV PCVKQPCN FQKV EQPUKUVGT FCPU NC TGEJGTEJG FµWP DKGP CWUUK ¨CDUVTCKV© SWG NG RQWXQKT .C RToUGTXCVKQP FµWP ToHoTGPVKGN KFGPVKVCKTG EQOOG NµCHHKTOCVKQP FµWPG URoEKHKEKVo EWNVWTGNNG QW KFoQNQIKSWG UGODNG VQWV CWUUK RNCWUKDNG #KPUK PµoVCKVKN RCU RNWU KORQTVCPV RQWT )QTDCVEJGX GV UQP oSWKRG FG VGPVGT FG TGPFTG Nµ7PKQP UQXKoVKSWG RNWU VTCPURCTGPVG oEQPQOKSWGOGPV RGTHQTOCPVG GV ¨QEEKFGPVCNG© SWG FG EQPUGTXGT NGU RC[U UCVGNNKVGU GP 'WTQRG EGPVTCNG GV QTKGPVCNG! .C OGPCEG UQXKoVKSWG oVCKV i NµQTKIKPG CRRToJGPFoG PQP RCU EQOOG WPG OGPCEG OKNKVCKTG OCKU ¨EQOOG WPG OGPCEG RQWT NC UQEKoVo COoTKECKPG GV UC TGRToUGPVCVKQP EQOOG EQOOWPCWVo NKDTG© 6QWVGHQKU i NC FKHHoTGPEG FGU VTCXCWZ SWG PQWU CXQPU EKVoU GP UQEKQNQIKG GV GP RJKNQUQRJKG NGU CWVGWTU FµKPURKTCVKQP EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG UG UQPV VTpU RGW RToQEEWRoU FG UCXQKT RQWTSWQK NC EQPHKTOCVKQP FµWPG KFGPVKVo KORQTVG CWZ CEVGWTU %GTVCKPU UQWNKIPGPV NGU F[PCOKSWGU oOQVKQPPGNNGU KFGPVKHKoGU FCPU NGU VTCXCWZ Fµ#ZGN *QPPGVJ GV FG 2JKNKRRG $TCWF #KPUK EQPVTG NG RQUVWNCV UGNQP NGSWGN UGWNG NC RToUGTXCVKQP FG NµKPVoITKVo RJ[UKSWG FGXTCKV ¨EQORVGT© FCPU NC FoHKPKVKQP FG NµKPVoTqV PCVKQPCN ,CPKEG $KCNN[ /CVVGTP UQWVKGPV NC RWKUUCPEG RU[EJQNQIKSWG FGU FQOOCIGU ¨KFGPVKVCKTGU© ¨FGU OGPCEGU i NµKPVoITKVo RU[EJKSWG UQPV EGTVCKPGOGPV CWUUK ToGNNGU SWG NGU OGPCEGU i NµKPVoITKVo FW EQTRU© &CPU WPG RGTURGEVKXG CWUUK GZRNKEKVGOGPV ¨RU[EJQNQIKSWG© EGV CURGEV oOQVKQPPGN FGU KFGPVKVoU GUV RCTVKEWNKpTGOGPV TGNGXo RCT 2CWN 5CWTGVVG 5GNQP NC VGTOKPQNQIKG IQHHOCPKGPPG UK PQVTG HCEG GUV TGLGVoG PQWU HCKUQPU RKpVTG HKIWTG 0QWU PQWU UGPVQPU JWOKNKoU JQPVGWZ QW TQWIKUUCPVU 6QWVG QRRQUKVKQP CWZ VJoQTKGU FW EJQKZ TCVKQPPGN ENCUUKSWG
PQVCOOGPV EGNNGU SWK GZENWGPV NµKPVoTqV U[ODQNKSWG UGTCKV HWVKNG UK NµQP PG TGORNCnCKV RCU NG OQDKNG FG
( -TCVQEJYKN ¨4WNGU 0QTOU 8CNWGU CPF VJG .KOKVU QH ´4CVKQPCNKV[µ #TEJKX HT 4GEJVU WPF 5Q\KCNRJKNQUQRJKG
R R EKVo RCT / <GJHWUU %QPUVTWEVKXKUO KP +PVGTPCVKQPCN 4GNCVKQP 6JG 2QNKVKEU QH 4GCNKV[ %CODTKFIG %CODTKFIG 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU %CODTKFIG 5VWFKGU KP +PVGTPCVKQPCN 4GNCVKQPU R ( -TCVQEJYKN ²+U VJG UJKR QH EWNVWTG CV UGC TGVWTPKPI!³ FCPU ; .CRKF ( -TCVQEJYKN 6JG TGVWTP QH EWNVWTG CPF KFGPVKV[ KP +4 6JGQT[ .[PPG 4KGPPGT 1WDNKUJGTU R US +DKF R US #ZGN *QPPGVJ -CORH WO #PGTMGPPWPI 5WJTMCOR (TPEHQTV C / 2JKNKRRG $TCWF .µoOQVKQP GP RQNKVKSWG 2CTKU 2TGUUGU FG 5EKGPEGU 2Q , $KCNN[ /CVVGTP ¨6JG 2QYGT 2QNKVKEU QH +FGPVKV[© 'WTQRGCP ,QWTPCN QH +PVGTPCVKQPCN 4GNCVKQPU RR R 2 5CWTGVVG ¨;QW FKUUKP OG! *WOKNKCVKQP CPF RQUV INQDCN RQNKVKEU© 4GXKGY QH +PVGTPCVKQPCN 5VWFKGU RR



NC SWqVG FGU ICKPU OCVoTKGNU RCT EGNWK VQWV CWUUK RNCWUKDNG FG NC EQPHKTOCVKQP FµWPG KFGPVKVo 'PHKP QP RGWV FKHHKEKNGOGPV PKGT SWG EGTVCKPGU PQTOGU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU
RCT GZGORNG NKPVGTFKEVKQP FG NGORNQK FGU CTOGU EJKOKSWGU GV DKQNQIKSWGU QPV QDVGPW WPG VGNNG TGEQPPCKUUCPEG SWKN GUV FKHHKEKNG RQWT WP dVCV FG NGU KIPQTGT # 9GPFV C OQPVTo SWG OqOG NCPCTEJKG FCPU NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG EJpTG CWZ ToCNKUVGU UWRRQUG WP EQPUGPVGOGPV GV PQVCOOGPV NC TGEQPPCKUUCPEG FG NC UQWXGTCKPGVo FCWVTGU dVCVU %GVVG UVTWEVWTG KPVGTUWDLGEVKXG GZRNKSWG RQWTSWQK NGZ7455 PG RQWXCKV RCU HCEKNGOGPV KPEQTRQTGT UQP INCEKU GUV GWTQRoGP ECT WPG VGNNG GPVTGRTKUG NCWTCKV FoNoIKVKOo CWZ [GWZ FG NQRKPKQP RTQITGUUKUVG %GUV NC TCKUQP RQWT NCSWGNNG KN GUVKOG SWQP PG RGWV RCU CUUKOKNGT NGU TGNCVKQPU UQXKoVKSWGU CXGE NGU RC[U FG N'UV CW OQFpNG FW DKNNCTF 9GPFV GUVKOG SWG OCNITo NGWT HCKDNGUUG GP VGTOGU FG TCRRQTVU FG HQTEGU DTWVGU EGU RC[U XCUUCWZ CXCKGPV DKGP FGU OQ[GPU FG UG UQWUVTCKTG i WPG KPHNWGPEG VQVCNKUCPVG FW ITCPF HTpTG .C RToOKUUG FGU KFGPVKVoU EQOOG RTQRJoVKG CWVQ ToCNKUCVTKEG #W FGNi FµWPG XKUKQP RNWU ¨TGNCVKXKUVG© FGU KFGPVKVoU UQWXGPV OCNNoCDNGU NµCRRTQEJG EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG PQWU KPXKVG i CEEQTFGT CWUUK PQVTG CVVGPVKQP CWZ KPVGTCEVKQPU SWK EQPUVTWKUGPV NGU KFGPVKVoU # 9GPFV CHHKTOG FCPU WP CTVKENG TGVGPVKUUCPV SWG NCPCTEJKG FW U[UVpOG KPVGTPCVKQPCN PG UGTCKV RCU WPG FQPPoG GP UQK OCKU UGTCKV VTKDWVCKTG FGU RTCVKSWGU GV FGU PQTOGU FGU CEVGWTU oVCVKSWGU
#PCTEJ[ KU YJCV UVCVGU OCMG QH KV 'P FCWVTGU VGTOGU OqOG WPG UVTWEVWTG CPCTEJKSWG PGZENWV RCU WPG CVVKVWFG EQQRoTCVKXG GV DKGPXGKNNCPVG i NoICTF FGU CWVTGU dVCVU .C EQPUVTWEVKQP KFGPVKVCKTG RGWV qVTG U[UVoOKSWG EµGUVi FKTG FoRGPFTG FG EG SWG NGU 'VCVU HQPV GPVTG GWZ .C XKUKQP ¨EQPUVTWEVKXKUVG© NQKP FG PCVWTCNKUGT NGU KFGPVKVoU NGU EQPUKFpTG GP ITCPFG RCTVKG EQOOG WPG RTQRJoVKG CWVQToCNKUCVTKEG .C PoEGUUKVo FG HCKTG EQPHKTOGT WPG KFGPVKVo RCT NGU CWVTGU GZRNKSWG RQWTSWQK NGU CEVGWTU EQPUVTWKUGPV NGWTU KFGPVKVoU GP UG TGICTFCPV i VTCXGTU NGU [GWZ FµCWVTWK
) * /GCF 2QWT #NGZCPFGT 9GPFV NGU KFGPVKVoU ¨PoICVKXGU© VGNNGU SWG NG PCVKQPCNKUOG CNNGOCPF CRTpU NC 2TGOKpTG )WGTTG OQPFKCNG UQPV GP ITCPFG RCTVKG NG ToUWNVCV FµWP RTQEGUUWU FG UVKIOCVKUCVKQP CW DQWV FWSWGN CWVTWK VTCPUHQTOG UC FKHHoTGPEG FµCDQTF PoICVKXG GP SWCNKVo

8QKT , 0 4QUGPCW '1 %\GORKGN )QXGTPCPEG YKVJQWV IQXGTPGOGPV %CODTKFIG %CODTKFIG 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU # 9GPFV QR EKV



CTKUVQETCVKSWG %QPEGTPCPV NC TCFKECNKUCVKQP FG NµKUNCOKUOG KTCPKGP i RCTVKT FG # 9GPFV FKTCKV RTQDCDNGOGPV SWG Nµ+TCP GUV FGXGPW EG SWG PQWU GP CXQPU HCKV .C UVKIOCVKUCVKQP FG Nµ'VCV C EQPFWKV i WP TGOQFGNCIG FG UQP KFGPVKVo KPVGTPG 2NWU KORNKEKVGOGPV NC EQPUVTWEVKQP FGU KFGPVKVoU ¨PoICVKXGU© TGRQUG UWT FGU EQORQTVGOGPVU OoRTKUCPVU .C RJTCUG ¨#PCTEJ[ KU YJCV UVCVGU OCMG QH KV© HCKV WPKSWGOGPV UGPU NQTUSWG NµQP RToUWRRQUG SWµKN GZKUVG FGU EQORQTVGOGPVU FG TGEQPPCKUUCPEG SWK UQPV UWUEGRVKDNGU FG HCKTG FG NµCPCTEJKG ¨JQDDKGPPG©
NC NWVVG FG VQWU EQPVTG VQWU Q~ CWVTWK GUV RGTnW EQOOG TCFKECNGOGPV FKHHoTGPV WPG CPCTEJKG MCPVKGPPG
NµKFGPVKHKECVKQP RQUKVKXG CXGE CWVTWK 'P TGXCPEJG # 9GPFV UG FoUKPVoTGUUG FGU KPVGTCEVKQPU i NµKPVoTKGWT FGU 'VCVU SWK RQWTTCKGPV GZRNKSWGT NGU OWVCVKQPU KFGPVKVCKTGU %G PKXGCW FµCPCN[UG GUV RTKXKNoIKo RCT FGU CWVGWTU EQOOG 6GF *QRH QW /NCFC $WMCXCPUM[ %GVVG FGTPKpTG C GHHGEVWo WPG oVWFG RCUUKQPPCPVG UWT NKFGPVKVo COoTKECKPG SWK KNNWUVTG EG RQKPV FG XWG $WMCXCPUM[ EQPUKFpTG SWG NC FoHGPUG CEJCTPoG FGU #OoTKECKPU RQWT NG FTQKV FGU PGWVTGU FCPU NG EQOOGTEG OCTKVKOG GP VGORU FG IWGTTG
ToUWNVG FWPG XKUKQP PCVKQPCNG 'NNG TGVTCEG NCVVCEJGOGPV ITCPFKUUCPV FGU FKTKIGCPVU COoTKECKPU CW FTQKV FGU PGWVTGU GP EQPUVCVCPV SWG EGNWKEK FGXGPCKV RTQITGUUKXGOGPV WP RTKPEKRG XQKTG WPG RCTVKG EQPUVKVWCPVG FG NKFGPVKVo COoTKECKPG # NQTKIKPG NCFJoUKQP CW FTQKV FGU PGWVTGU oVCKV WP EQORTQOKU GPVTG NGU RCTVKUCPU FG ,GHHGTUQP RCTVKEWNKpTGOGPV UGPUKDNGU CW RTKPEKRG ToRWDNKECKP FW PQPGPVCPINGOGPV
PQPKORNKECVKQP FCPU NGU CHHCKTGU EQTTQORWGU FG N'WTQRG GV NGU RCTVKUCPU FG *COKNVQP RNWU HCXQTCDNGU CW FoXGNQRRGOGPV KPFWUVTKGN GV CW EQOOGTEG GZVoTKGWT %G ENKXCIG HWV UWTOQPVo RCT WP EQPUGPUWU UWT NKFGPVKVo COoTKECKPG .GU dVCVU7PKU FGXCKGPV qVTG WPG 4oRWDNKSWG NKDTG EGUViFKTG PQP KORNKSWoG FCPU NGU CHHCKTGU GWTQRoGPPGU GV GZRCPUKQPPKUVG FW RQKPV FG XWG EQOOGTEKCN %GVVG XKUKQP RQWXCKV WPKSWGOGPV UG ToCNKUGT RCT NCFJoUKQP CW FTQKV FGU PGWVTGU $WMCXCPUM[ FoOQPVTG VTpU DKGP SWG NCHHKTOCVKQP FG EG RTKPEKRG UWT NC UEpPG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG EQORQTVCKV FG PQODTGWZ KPEQPXoPKGPVU 'NNG GPVTCuPC NGU dVCVU7PKU FCPU WPG IWGTTG CXGE N#PINGVGTTG GP /qOG NG VTCKVo FG ,C[
PG EQPVTGFKV RCU EGVVG CPCN[UG ECT $WMCXCPUM[ ToXpNG i SWGN RQKPV EG VTCKVo HWV TGUUGPVK
# 9GPFV 5QEKCN 6JGQT[ QH +PVGTPCVKQPCN 2QNKVKEU QR EKV R ²6Q UWOOCTK\G WR HTQPV VJG DCUKE KFGC KU VJCV KFGPVKVKGU CPF VJGKT EQTTGURQPFKPI KPVGTGUVU CTG NGCTPGF CPF VJGP TGKPHQTEGF KP TGURQPUG VQ JQY CEVQTU CTG VTGCVGF D[ UKIPKHKECPV 1VJGTU³ 8QKT CWUUK R 6 *QRH 5QEKCN %QPUVTWEVKQP QH +PVGTPCVKQPCN 2QNKVKEU +FGPVKVKGU CPF (QTGKIP 2QNKEKGU /QUEQY %QTPGNN 7PKXGTUKV[ 2TGUU /NCFC $WMCXCPUM[ #OGTKECP KFGPVKV[ CPF PGWVTCN TKIJVU HTQO KPFGRGPFCPEG VQ VJG 9CT QH +PVGTPCVKQPCN 1TICPKUCVKQP 5RTKPI R



EQOOG WPG JQPVG PCVKQPCNG GV HWV RQWT EGVVG TCKUQP TCRKFGOGPV CPPWNo 'P NQEEWTTGPEG NGU KFGPVKVoU EQPUVTWKVGU UQPV FGXGPWGU RCT NC UWKVG WPG ToCNKVo GP UQK SWK C RTQFWKV WPG EQPVKPWKVo FCPU NC RQNKVKSWG GZVoTKGWTG LWUSWGP 8W UQWU NCPING FG NKFGPVKVo RQNKVKSWG QP EQORTGPF RQWTSWQK NC (TCPEG N#NNGOCIPG GV NC )TCPFG$TGVCIPG PG UG UQPV RCU QRRQUoGU i NJoIoOQP COoTKECKP CRTpU NC &GWZKpOG IWGTTG OQPFKCNG OCKU QPV RToHoTo UQRRQUGT i WPG RWKUUCPEG RNWU HCKDNG N7455 SWK OGVVCKV GP ECWUG NC NoIKVKOKVo FG NGWT QTICPKUCVKQP RQNKVKSWG oEQPQOKSWG GV UQEKCNG 'P TGXCPEJG WPG EQPEGRVKQP EQOOWPG QW RTQEJG GP SWK EQPEGTPG NQTICPKUCVKQP KPVGTPG FWPG UQEKoVo HCXQTKUG NC EQQRoTCVKQP GPVTG NGU dVCVU VCPFKU SWWPG EQPEGRVKQP CPVCIQPKUVG GUV IoPoTCVTKEG FG EQPHNKVU 5GNQP # 9GPFV WPG EQPXGTIGPEG VTCPUPCVKQPCNG UWT FGU XCNGWTU KPVGTPGU GPEQWTCIG NC EQQRoTCVKQP GP RCTVCPV FW RQUVWNCV =? KNU PG UQPV RCU UK FKHHoTGPVU FG PQWU &G OqOG NC RTKUG GP EQORVG FG NC NoIKVKOKVo RQNKVKSWG FWP IQWXGTPGOGPV CWZ [GWZ FG NC UQEKoVo GUV GUUGPVKGNNG RQWT FKCIPQUVKSWGT NC HCKDNGUUG QW NC HQTEG FGU dVCVU FCPU NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG #KPUK NGHHQPFTGOGPV FG NGZ4&# oVCKV F CW HCKV SWG UC NoIKVKOKVo RQNKVKSWG oVCKV CXCPV VQWV HQPFoG UWT NGU oNKVGU GV NCTIGOGPV FoHCKNNCPVG CW UGKP FG NC UQEKoVo EKXKNG .GU CEVGWTU PQPoVCVKSWGU RGWXGPV CWUUK RCTVKEKRGT i NC EQPUVTWEVKQP KFGPVKVCKTG GV PQTOCVKXG # -NQV\ OQPVTG EQOOGPV NKPVGTCEVKQP GPVTG NGU PQTOGU INQDCNGU GV PCVKQPCNGU RGWV HCXQTKUGT WP EJCPIGOGPV FG RQNKVKSWG 5GNQP GNNG PK NGU KPVoTqVU oEQPQOKSWGU
OKPGTCK OCTEJoU PK NGU KPVoTqVU UVTCVoIKSWGU
#PIQNC PG RGWXGPV oENCKTGT NC FoEKUKQP COoTKECKPG FG UCPEVKQPPGT NG ToIKOG FCRCTVJGKF GP #HTKSWG FW 5WF GP # NGPEQPVTG FG NC VJoQTKG FGU ToIKOGU GNNG CHHKTOG SWG NGU UCPEVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU EQPVTG NG ToIKOG UWFCHTKECKP PG ToUWNVCKGPV RCU FWP NGCFGTUJKR COoTKECKP CW UGKP FGU QTICPKUCVKQPU KPVGTPCVKQPCNGU 1P PG RGWV RCU PQP RNWU EQORTGPFTG EGVVG FoEKUKQP RCT WPG CPCN[UG GP VGTOGU FG EQVU GV DoPoHKEGU .KPVoTqV i NQPI VGTOG FG UG EQPHQTOGT CWZ PQTOGU FWPG QTICPKUCVKQP KPVGTPCVKQPCNG EQOOG EGNNGU FGU 0CVKQPU 7PKGU oVCKV NKOKVo RWKUSWG NGU dVCVU7PKU QPV NQPIVGORU ToWUUK i ToUKUVGT CWZ PQTOGU QPWUKGPPGU # UGU [GWZ KN oVCKV FoVGTOKPCPV SWG FGU ITQWRGU FG RTGUUKQP VTCPUPCVKQPCWZ RCTXKGPPGPV i TGFoHKPKT NKPVoTqV PCVKQPCN FGU dVCVU7PKU )TjEG CWZ CEVKXKVoU FG ITQWRGU CPVKTCEKUVGU NC OCLQTKVo FGU FoRWVoU FW %QPITpU QPV CDQWVK i NC


8QKT KDKF R 9GPFV %QNNGEVKXG +FGPVKV[ (QTOCVKQP CPF VJG +PVGTPCVKQPCN 5VCVG #OGTKECP 2QNKVKECN 5EKGPEG 4GXKGY
RR R H #WFKG -NQV\ QR EKV R 8QKT 4QDGTV 1 -GQJCPG #HVGT *GIGOQP[ %QQRGTCVKQP CPF &KUEQTF KP VJG 9QTNF 2QNKVKECN 'EQPQO[ 2TKPEGVQP



EQPENWUKQP SWG NGWTU KPVoTqVU UGTCKGPV OKGWZ UGTXKU RCT WPG CNNKCPEG CXGE NC OCLQTKVo PQKTG RQWT PG RCU qVTG VTCKVoU FG TCEKUVGU %GVVG TGFoHKPKVKQP FG NKPVoTqV PCVKQPCN UµGZRNKSWG GP TCKUQP FW HQTV UQWVKGP RQWT NoICNKVo FGU TCEGU CWZ 'VCVU7PKU HKPCNGOGPV FoEKUKH RCTEG SWGNNG HCKUCKV CRRGN CWZ KFoCWZ FG NC FoOQETCVKG GV FG NC LWUVKEG RTKPEKRGU EJGTU CWZ EQPUGTXCVGWTU ToRWDNKECKPU .C RToOKUUG FG NC EQEQPUVKVWVKQP FGU CEVGWTU GV FGU UVTWEVWTGU .GU CWVGWTU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU RCTVGPV INQDCNGOGPV FµWP RQUVWNCV ¨JQNKUVG© GP CVVTKDWCPV CWZ UVTWEVWTGU KFoGNNGU FG NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG WP RQKFU CWVQPQOG FCPU NC EQPFWKVG FGU CEVGWTU %G PG UQPV RCU FGU KFGPVKVoU GV FGU PQTOGU KPFKXKFWGNNGU SWK KPHNWGPEGPV NC OCPKpTG FQPV NGU dVCVU FoHKPKUUGPV NGWTU KPVoTqVU OCKU FGU KFoGU KPVGTUWDLGEVKXGU #KPUK UK Nµ#NNGOCIPG GV NC (TCPEG EQPVGORQTCKPGU PµGPXCJKUUGPV RCU NC $GNIKSWG EµGUV CWUUK GP TCKUQP FG NC PQTOG INQDCNG FG NC UQWXGTCKPGVo SWK GUV FGXGPWG UK ¨PCVWTGNNG© SWG NGU CEVGWTU Pµ GPXKUCIGPV OqOG RNWU NµoXGPVWCNKVo FµWPG VGNNG KPXCUKQP XQKTG CPPGZKQP .GU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU ToEWUGPV FQPE NC RGTURGEVKXG SWG NGU KFoGU KPVGTUWDLGEVKXGU UGTCKGPV WPKSWGOGPV FGU LWUVKHKECVKQPU C RQUVGTKQTK QW FGU KPUVTWOGPVU FG OCPKRWNCVKQP 2QWTVCPV WPG PQTOG INQDCNG GV WPG KFGPVKVo UQEKCNG PG UQPV LCOCKU i VGN RQKPV EQPVTCKIPCPVGU GV ¨EQPETpVGU© SWG NGU CEVGWTU PG EQPUGTXGPV RCU WPG EGTVCKPG CWVQPQOKG FCPU NGWT OKUG GP QGWXTG 7PG UQEKCNKUCVKQP ¨FoXKCPVG© FµWP CEVGWT KORQTVCPV EQOOG EGNNG FG / )QTDCVEJGX GV FG UGU EQPUGKNNGTU GUV RCT GZGORNG UWUEGRVKDNG FG OQFKHKGT NGU UVTWEVWTGU KPVGTUWDLGEVKXGU FG NC RQNKVKSWG KPVGTPCVKQPCNG
GP NµQEEWTTGPEG NµKFoG FµWP EQPHNKV KPoXKVCDNG GPVTG RC[U ECRKVCNKUVGU GV EQOOWPKUVGU %QPVTCKTGOGPV CWZ ¨EWNVWTCNKUVGU© NGU CRRTQEJGU EQPUVTWEVKXKUVGU PµGZENWGPV RCU PQP RNWU FGU F[PCOKSWGU UVTCVoIKSWGU FCPU NµoNCDQTCVKQP FGU PQTOGU .C PQVKQP FG EWNVWTG GUV FGXGPWG DGCWEQWR RNWU OCNNoCDNG GV FG PQODTGWZ CWVGWTU UKPVoTGUUGPV FoUQTOCKU FCXCPVCIG CWZ UWDEWNVWTGU SWi NC EWNVWTG PCVKQPCNG ' -KGT oVWFKG NKORCEV FG NC EWNVWTG OKNKVCKTG HTCPnCKUG UWT NoNCDQTCVKQP FG NC UVTCVoIKG HTCPnCKUG GPVTG NGU FGWZ IWGTTGU 5QP oVWFG HCKV oVCV FW RQKFU FGU GZRoTKGPEGU JKUVQTKSWGU GV FGU ECNEWNU RQNKVKSWGU -KGT CHHKTOG SWG NG TzNG GV NG RTGUVKIG UQEKCN FGU OKNKVCKTGU CW UGKP FWPG UQEKoVo TGHNpVGPV NCTIGOGPV NC FGTPKpTG GZRoTKGPEG FWP dVCV CXGE NG UGTXKEG

# -NQV\ QR EKV R H 2GVGT , -CV\GPUVGKP
GF QR EKV R 5WT NG FoXGNQRRGOGPV ToEGPV FGU CRRTQEJGU FG NC UQEKQNQIKG OKNKVCKTG $ $QrPG % &CPFGEMGT .GU CTOoGU GP 'WTQRG .C &oEQWXGTVG 2CTKU GV .C TGXWG 6QESWGXKNNG XQN :8++ 0Q
PQVCOOGPV NGU CTVKENGU FG /. /CTVKP GV FG & 4 5GICN






Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.