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Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism

De
232 pages
Undoubtedly, the events of September 11, 2001 served as a wake-up call to the scourge of global terrorism facing twenty-first century societies. But was the attack on the World Trade Center a crime or an act of war? Is seemingly indiscriminate violence inflicted on civilians ever morally justified? And should society's response always be in kind – with blind, destructive violence? For that matter, are all civilians truly ‘innocent’? The answers are not always so simple.

Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: Ethics and Liberal Democracy provides sobering analyses of the nature of terrorism and the moral justification – or lack thereof – of terrorist actions and counter-terrorism measures in today's world. Utilizing a variety of thought-provoking philosophical arguments, the historic roots of terrorism and its contemporary incarnations are explored in depth. Detailed analyses of organizations such as the IRA, the ANC, Hamas and Al-Qaeda will reveal the many faces of terrorism and its disparate motives and tactics. Discussion of the nature and scope of terrorism and whether it can ever be morally justified is balanced with analysis of counter-terrorism strategies and the methods and moral limits of counter-terrorism.

Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism will greatly broaden our understanding of the nature and morality of terrorism and counter-terrorist pursuits – a crucial precondition for establishing any form of enduring peace between nations in the twenty-first century world.

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Acknowledgements
Introduction
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Contents
The Varieties of Terrorism Al-Qaeda Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism and the IRA in Northern Ireland The African National Congress’s Armed Struggle in Apartheid South Africa Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in India Conclusion
Defining Terrorism The Definition of Terrorism in Terms of Innocents The Definition of Terrorism in Terms of Non-Combatants Terrorism, Combatants and Authoritarian States The Definition of Terrorism: An Indirect Strategy Conclusion
Terrorism and Collective Responsibility Moral Justification for the Use of Deadly Force Civilian Immunity and Human Rights Violations Civilian Immunity and Culpable Omissions Terrorism and Non-Violent Rights Violators Conclusion
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20 23 26
30 36 41 46 50 58
60 64 68 75 79 81
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Contents
Terrorism-as-Crime Terrorism-as-Crime Terrorism-as-Crime and Police Institutions Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights in Liberal Democracies at Peace Freedom of Speech Shooting to Kill Right Not to SelfIncriminate Freedom of Action Privacy Conclusion
Terrorism, War and States of Emergency Terrorist Attacks, Disasters and States of Emergency Terrorism, Internal Armed Struggles and Theatres of War Targeted Killings Targeted Killings and the Problem of Dirty Hands Conclusion
Torture Definition of Torture What Is Wrong with Torture? The Moral Justification for One-Off Acts of Torture in Emergencies The Moral Justification for Legalized and Institutionalized Torture Conclusion
Bioterrorism and the Dual-Use Dilemma (with Michael Selgelid) The Biological Weapons Convention Experiments of Concern Dual-Use Research: The Ethical Issues Dissemination of Dual-Use Research Results The Regulation of Dual-Use Research An Independent Authority Conclusion
Bibliography Index
83 84 88
97 97 99 104 104 109 115
117 120 132 139 145 150
152 153 160
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170 179
181 186 187 189 197 202 206 207
209 215