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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Hurricane Guide, by William Radcliff Birt This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at
Title: The Hurricane Guide  Being An Attempt To Connect The Rotary Gale Or Revolving  Storm With Atmospheric Waves. Author: William Radcliff Birt Release Date: June 8, 2006 [EBook #18534] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 ** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE HURRICANE GUIDE *** *
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PREFACE. In introducing the following pages to the notice of the Public, it is the Author's wish to exhibit in as clear a light
as our present researches on the subjects treated of will allow, the connexion between one of the most terrific phænomena with which our globe is visited, and a phænomenon which, although but little known, appears to be intimately connected with revolving storms. How far he has succeeded, either in this particular object or in endeavouring to render the essential phænomena of storms familiar to the seaman, is left for the Public to determine. Should any advantage be found to result from the study of the Atmospheric Waves, as explained and recommended in this little work, or the seaman be induced by its perusal to attend more closely to the observations of those instruments that are calculated to warn him of his danger, an object will be attained strikingly illustrative of the Baconian aphorism, "Knowledge is Power." Bethnal Green, April 19, 1849.
CONTENTS. CHAP. I.--PHÆNOMENA OFREVOLVINGSTORMS7 " II.--PHÆNOMENA OFATMOSPHERICWAVES13 " III.--OVAERBSSONTI18  SECT.I. -Instruments19 - SECT. II.--Times of Observation28  SECT. III.--Localities for Additional Observations31  SECT. IV.--Storms, Hurricanes, and Typhoons43  SECT. V.--Seasons for Extra Observations48 " IV.--PRACTICALDIRECTIONS FORAVOIDING THECENTRES OFSTORMS52
NOTICE. In the pocket accompanying this work are two rings of stiff cardboard, on which will be found all the information contained in figures 1 and 2. When they are laid flatly upon a chart, the continuity of the lines on the chart is not materially interfered with, while the idea of a body of air rotating in the direction indicated by the arrows is conspicuously presented to the mind. These rings are more particularly referred to onpage 52.
CHAPTER I. PHÆNOMENA OF REVOLVING STORMS. It is the object of the following pages to exhibit, so far as observation may enable us, and in as brief a manner as possible, the connexion, if any, that exists between those terrific meteorological phænomena known as "revolving storms," and those more extensive and occult but not less important phænomena, "atmospheric waves." To the great body of our seamen, whether in her Majesty's or the mercantile service, the subject can present none other than the most interesting features. The laws that govern the transmission of large bodies of air from one part of the oceanic surface to another, either in a state of rapid rotation or presenting a more or less rectilineal direction, must at all times form an important matter of inquiry, and bear very materially on the successful prosecution of the occupation of the voyager. In order to place the subjects above alluded to in such a point of view that the connexion between them may be readily seen, it will be important to notice the principal phænomena presented by each. Without going over the ground so well occupied by those able writers on the subject of storms—Redfield, Reid, Piddington, and Thom—it will be quite sufficient for our present purpose simply to notice the essential phænomena of revolving storms as manifested by the barometer and vane. The usual indications of a storm in connexion with these instruments are thefallin of the barometer and thefreshenin the wind, and it is of enerall
considered that arapidregions invariably precedes the setting in of a of the mercury in the hurricane  fall storm. There are three classes of phænomena that present themselves to an observer, according as he is situated on line or axis of translation, or theinsemicircle of the storm. These will be the right or left hand  either rendered very apparent by a little attention to the annexed engraving, fig. 1.
In this figure the arrow-head is supposed to be directed true north, and the hurricane—as is the case in the American storms north of the 30th parallel—to be moving towards the N.E. on the line N.E.—S.W. If the ship take the hurricane with the wind S.E.,—the letters within the two larger circles indicatingthe direction of the wind in the storm to the rotation as shown by the circle of arrow-heads, and which it is to be according particularly noted is in the northern hemispherethe hands of a watch movecontrary to the direction in which : in the southern hemisphere the rotation is reversed—the only phænomena presented by the storm are as follows:—The wind continues to blow from the S.E., increasing considerably in force with the barometer falling to a very great extent until the centre of the storm reaches the ship, when the fury of the winds is hushed, and a lull or calm takes place, generally for about half an hour, after which the wind springs up mostly with increased violence, but from the opposite quarter N.W., the barometer begins to rise, and as the storm passes off, the force of the wind abates. The point to which we wish particularly to direct attention in connexion with this exposition of the phænomena attending the transmission of a storm is this:—If the observer so place himself at the commencement that the wind passesfrom his left hand towards his right, his face will be directed towards the centre of the storm; and the wind undergoing no change in direction, but only in force, will acquaint him with this important fact that thecentrewords, in the case before us, when heis not only gradually but surely approaching him: in other finds the wind from the S.E., and he places himself with his face to the S.W. he is looking towards the centre, and the wind rushes past himfrom his left to his right hand. Now the connexion of the barometer with this phase of the storm isfalling with the wind from left to right, the observer facing the centre while the first half is transiting.[1]the observer still keeping his position, hisDuring the latter half these conditions are reversed, face directed to the S.W., the barometerriseswith a N.W. wind, which rushes past himfrom his right to his left handwith a decreasing force. We have thereforea rising barometer with the wind from right to left during the latter half of the storm, the observer having his back to the centre. The abovegeneralbarometric and anemonal phænomena of a rotating storm hold goodenunciations of the with regard to thenorthernhemisphere, whatever may be the direction in which the hurricanes advance. This may be placed in a clearer light, as well as the remaining classes of phænomena shown, by consulting the following tables, constructed for the basin of the Northern Atlantic, and comparing them with fig. 1. In this basin, with lower latitudes than 25°, the usual paths of the hurricanes are towards the north-west, in higher latitudes than 30° towards the north-east. The tables exhibit the veering of the wind with the movements of the barometer, according as the ship is situated in the right or left hand semicircle of the hurricane. It must here be understood that the right and left hand semicircles are determined by the observer so placing himself that his face is directed towards the quarter to which the hurricane is advancing. LOWER LATITUDES. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. Axis line, wind N.E., barometer falling, first half of storm. Axis line, wind S.W., barometer rising, last half of storm. RIGHT-HAND SEMICIRCLE. Wind E.N.E., E., E.S.E., S.E., barometer falling, storm increasing. Wind S.S.W., S., S.S.E., S.E., barometer rising, storm passing off.
LEFT-HAND SEMICIRCLE. Wind N.N.E., N., N.N.W., N.W., barometer falling, storm increasing. Wind W.S.W., W., W.N.W., N.W., barometer rising, storm passing off. HIGHER LATITUDES. NORTHERN HEMISPHERE.[2] Axis line, wind S.E., barometer falling, first half of storm. Axis line, wind N.W., barometer rising, last half of storm. RIGHT-HAND SEMICIRCLE. Wind S.S.E., S., S.S.W., S.W., barometer falling, storm increasing. Wind W.N.W., W., W.S.W., S.W., barometer rising, storm passing off. LEFT-HAND SEMICIRCLE. Wind E.S.E., E., E.N.E., N.E., barometer falling, storm increasing. Wind N.N.W., N., N.N.E., N.E., barometer rising, storm passing off. N.B. The directions of the hurricane winds are so arranged as to show the points of commencement and termination. Thus in the lower latitudes a storm commencing at E.N.E. passes off at S.S.W. after the wind has veered E., E.S.E., S.E., S.S.E., and S., being in the order of the letters in the upper line and contrary to their order in the lower. One commencing at E.S.E. passes off at S.S.E. right-hand semicircle. In the higher latitudes a ship taking the storm at E.N.E. will be in the left-hand semicircle, and the hurricane will pass off at N.N.E. These changes are rendered very apparent by moving the hurricane circle in the direction in which the storm is expected to proceed. Fig. 2 represents the whirl and hurricane winds in the south.
CHAPTER II. PHÆNOMENA OF ATMOSPHERIC WAVES. Professor Dove of Berlin has suggested that in the temperate zones the compensating currents of the atmosphere necessary to preserve its equilibrium may be arranged as parallel currents on thesurface, and not superposed as in or near the torrid zone. His views may be thus enunciated:—That in the parallels of central Europe the N.E. current flowing towards the equator to feed the ascending column of heated air is not compensated by a current in the upper regions of the atmosphere flowing from the S.W. as in the border of the torrid zone, but there are also S.W. currents on each side the N.E., which to the various countries over which they pass appear as surface-winds, the winds in fact being disposed in alternate beds or layers, S.W., N.E., as in fig. 3.
The Professor also suggests that these parallel and oppositely directed winds are shifting,i. e.they gradually change their position with a lateral motion in the direction of the large arrow cutting them transversely. In the course of the author's researches on atmospheric waves he had an opportunity of testing the correctness of Professor Dove's suggestion, and in addition ascertained that there existed another set of oppositely directed winds at right angles to those supposed to exist by the Professor. These currents were N.W. and S.E. with a lateral motion towards the N.E. He also carefully discussed the barometric phænomena with relation to both these sets of currents, and arrived at the following conclusions. The details will be found in the author's third report, presented to the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Reports, 1846, pp. 132 to 162). During the period under examination the author found the barometer generally to rise with N.E. and N.W. winds, and fall with S.W. and S.E. winds, and that the phænomena might be thus illustrated:—Let the strataa' a', b' b' b ba a , fig. 3, represent two parallel aërial currents or winds,a a a' a' from S.W. or S.E., andb' b' b bboth to advance from the N.W. in thefrom N.E. or N.W. and conceive them first instance and from the S.W. in the second, in the direction of the large arrow. Now conceive the barometer to commence rising just as the edgeb bpasses any line of country, and to continue rising until the edgeb' b' arrives at that line, when the maximum is attained. It will be remarked that this rise is coincident with a N.E. or N.W. wind. The wind now changes and the barometer begins to fall, and continues falling until the edgea a coincides with the line of country on whichb bfirst impinged. During this process we have all the phænomena exhibited by an atmospheric wave: when the edgeb b passes a line of country the barometer is at a minimum, and this minimum has been termed theanterior trough. During the period the stratumb' b' b b transits, the barometer rises, and this rise has been called theanterior slope. When the conterminous edges of the strataa' a' b' b'pass, a barometricmaximumextends along the line of country formerly occupied by the anterior trough, and this maximum has been designated thecrest. During the transit of the stratuma' a' a a the barometerfalls, and this fall has been characterised as theposterior slope; and when the edgea a occupies the place ofb b, the descent of the mercurial column is completed, anotherminimumextends in the direction of the former, and this minimum has been termed theposterior trough. It will be readily seen that the lateral passage of the N.W. and S.E. currents towards the N.E. presents precisely the same barometric and anemonal phænomena as the rotatory storms when moving in the same direction. If the observer, when the barometer is at amaximumwith a N.W. wind, place himself in the same position with regard to the laterally advancing current as he did with regard to the advancing storm,i. e.with his facetowardsthe quarter from which it is advancing—S.W., he will find that with afalling barometer and S.E. wind the current passes him from the left to the right hand; but if at a barometricminimumhe place himself in the same position with his face directed to the quarter from which the N.W. current is advancing laterally, also S.W., he will find that with a rising barometerand N.W. wind the current passes him from right to left. Now the two classes of phænomena are identical, and it would not be difficult to show that, had we an instance of a rotatory storm in the northern hemisphere moving from N.W. to S.E., it would present precisely the same phænomena as to the direction of currents passing from left to right and from right to left with falling and rising barometers, increase and decrease in the force of the wind, &c., as the oppositely directed aërial currents do which pass over western central Europe. In the absence of direct evidence of the production of a revolving storm from the crossing of two large waves, as suggested by Sir John Herschel, although it is not difficult to obtain such evidence, especially from the surface of the ocean, the identity of the two classes of phænomena exhibited by the storms and waves as above explained amounts to a strong presumption that there is a close connexion between them, and that a more minute investigation of the phænomena of atmospheric waves is greatly calculated to throw considerable light on the laws that govern the storm paths in both hemispheres. The localities in which these atmospheric movements, the waves, have been hitherto studied, have been confined to the northern and central parts of Europe—the west of Ireland, Alten in the north of Europe, Lougan near the Sea of Azov, and Geneva, being the angular points of the included area. It will be remarked that the greatest portion of this area isinland, but there is one important feature which the study of the barometer has brought to light, and which is by no means devoid of significance, viz. that the oscillations are much greater in the neighbourhood ofwater, and this appears to indicate that the junction lines of land and water form by far the most important portions of the globe in which to study both the phænomena of storms and waves. It is also very desirable that our knowledge of these phænomena should, with immediate reference to the surface of the ocean, be increased, and in this respect captains and masters of vessels may render essential service by observing and recording the state of the barometer, and direction and force of the wind, several times in the course of the day and night;[3]and when it is considered that the immediate object in view is one in which the mariner is personally
interested, and one in which, it may be, his own safety is concerned, it is hoped that the keeping of a meteorological register having especial reference to the indications of the barometer, and force and direction of the wind, will not be felt as irksome, but rather will be found an interesting occupation, the instruments standing in the place of faithful monitors, directing when and where to avoid danger, and the record furnishing important data whereby the knowledge of general laws may be arrived at, having an essential bearing on the interests of the service at large.
CHAPTER III. OBSERVATIONS. In sketching out a system of observation having especial reference to atmospheric waves and rotatory storms, regard has been had—firstused, the observations to be made with, to the instruments that should be them, the corrections to be applied to such observations, and the form of registry most suitable for recording the results:second, to the times of observation:thirdto the more important localities that should be, submitted to additional observation:fourthto peculiar phænomena requiring extraordinary observations for, their elucidation: andfifth, to particular seasons, when the instruments should be watched with more than ordinary care. The more important objects of observation having especial reference to atmospheric waves are those points which have been termedcrests andtroughs. These are simply thehighest andlowest of the readings barometer, usually designatedmaxima andminima, and should for the object in view receive particular attention. Whenever there is reason to believe that the barometer is approaching either amaximum or minimum, additional observations should be resorted to, so as to secure as nearly as possiblethe precise timeposition, of its occurrence, as well as the altitude of the mercurial as reckoned at the ship, with her column at that time and place. By means of such observations as these on board several ships scattered over the surfaces of our great oceans, much valuable information may be accumulated of a character capable of throwing considerable light on thedirectionin which the lines of barometric maxima and minima stretch, and also a tolerably accurate notion may be formed of their progress, both as regards direction and rate. In immediate connexion with such observations particular attention should be paid to the direction of the wind according to the season. SECTION I.—INSTRUMENTS. Description and Position of Instruments.—The principal instrument requisite in these observations is the barometer, which should be of the marine construction, and as nearly alike as possible to those furnished to the Antarctic expedition which sailed under the command of Sir James Clark Ross. These instruments were similar to the ordinary portable barometers, and differed from them only in the mode of their suspension and the necessary contraction of the tubes to prevent oscillation from the motion of the ship. The barometer on shipboard should be suspended on a gimbal frame, which ought not to swing too freely, but rather so as to deaden oscillations by some degree of friction. To the upper portion of the tube in this construction of instrument light is alike accessible either in front or behind, and the vernier is furnished with a back and front edge, both being in precisely the same plane, nearly embracing the tube, and sliding up and down it by the motion of rack-work; by the graduation of the scale and vernier the altitude of the mercury can be read off to ·002 inch. When the barometer is placed in the ship, its position should be as near midships as possible, out of the reach of sunshine, but in a good light for reading, and in a situation in which it will be but little liable to sudden gusts of wind and changes of temperature. Great care should be taken to ascertain the exact height of its cistern above the water-line, and in order to facilitate night observations every possible arrangement should be made for placing behind it a light screened by white paper. Observations.—The first thing to be done is the reading off and recording the temperature indicated by the thermometer that in this construction of instrument dips into the mercury in the cistern. Sir John Herschel has suggested that "the bulb of the thermometer should be so situated as to afford the best chance of its indicating the exact mean of the whole barometric column, that is to say, fifteen inches above the cistern enclosed within the case of the barometer, nearly in contact with its tube, and with a stem so long as to be read off at the upper level." Previous to making an observation with the barometer the instrument should be slightly tapped to free the mercury from any adhesion to the glass; any violent oscillation should, however, be carefully avoided. The vernier should then be adjusted to the upper surface of the mercury in the tube; for this purpose its back and front edges should be made to coincide, that is, the eye should be placed in exactly the same plane which passes through the edges; they should then be brought carefully down until they form a tangent with the curve produced by the convex surface of the mercury and the light isjustexcluded from between them and the point of contact. It is desirable in making this adjustment that the eye should be assisted by a magnifying-glass. The reading of the scale should then be taken and entered in the column appropriated to it in the proper form. If the instrument have no tubular or double-edged index, the eye should be placed carefully at the level of the u er surface of the mercur and the index of the vernier brou ht entl down to the same level so as
apparently just to touch the surface, great care being taken that the eye index and surface of the mercury are all in the same plane. Each observation of the barometer should be accompanied by an observation of the direction of the wind, which should be noted in the usual manner in which it is observed at sea. In connexion with thedirectionthe forcewind should be recorded in accordance with the following scale, contrived by Admiral Sir Francisof the Beaufort:— 0. Calm 1. Light air or just sufficient to give steerage way. 2. Light breeze { or that in which a well-conditioned } 1 to 2 knots. 3. Gentle breeze { man of war, } 3 to 4 knots. 4.bModeezreate{with all sail set, and clean full,}5 to 6 knots. re  { would go in smooth water from. } 5. Fresh breeze } { Royals, &c. 6.Strong breeze} {sSianilgsle-reefed top- } { and top-gallant sails. -7.Moderate gale}or that in which such a{sDaoilus,ble-reefed top  } ship could just carry in { jib, &c. 8. Fresh gale } chase full and by ... { Triple-reefed top-sails,  } { &c. Close-reefed 9. Strong gale } { top-sails and courses. 10. Whole gale or that with which she could scarcely bear close-reefed main topsail and reefed  foresail. 11.Storm otr thsata ilwhich reduces her to storm   s ay s. 12. Hurricane or that which no canvas could withstand. Corrections.—As soon after the observations have been made as circumstances will permit, the reading of the barometer should becorrectedfor the relation existing between the capacities of the tube and cistern (if its construction be such as to require that correction), and for the capillary action of the tube; and then reduced the standard temperature of 32° Fahr., and to the sea-level, if on shipboard. For the first to correction theneutral pointis that particular height which, in itsshould be marked upon each instrument. It construction, has been actually measured from the surface of the mercury in the cistern, and indicated by the scale. In general the mercury will stand either above or below the neutral point; ifabove, a portion of the mercury must have left the cistern, and consequently must haveloweredthe surface in the cistern: in this case the altitude as measured by the scale will betoo short—vice versâ, if below. The relation of the capacities of the tube and cistern should be experimentally ascertained, and marked upon the instrument by the maker. Suppose the capacity to be 1/50, marked thus on the instrument, "Capacity 1/50:" this indicates that for every inch of variation of the mercury in the tube, that in the cistern will vary contrariwise 1/50th of an inch. When the mercury in the tube isabovedifference between it and the neutral point is to be reducedthe neutral point, the in the proportion expressed by the "capacity" (in the case supposed, divided by 50), and the quotientadded to the observed height; ifbelow, subtractedbarometers furnished with a fiducial point for adjustingfrom it. In the lower level, this correction is superfluous, and must not be applied. The second correction required is for the capillary action of the tube, the effect of which is always to depress the mercury in the tube by a certain quantity inversely proportioned to the diameter of the tube. This quantity should be experimentally determined during the construction of the instrument, and its amount marked upon it by the maker, and is always to beadded  tothe height of the mercurial column, previously corrected as before. For the convenience of those who may have barometers, the capillary action of which has not been determined, a table of corrections for tubes of different diameters is placed in the Appendix, Table I. The next correction, and in some respects the most important of all, is that due to the temperature of the mercury in the barometer tube at the time of observation, and to the expansion of the scale. Table II. of the Appendix gives for every degree of the thermometer and every half-inch of the barometer, the proper quantity to be added or subtracted for the reduction of the observed height to the standard temperature of the mercury at 32° Fahr. After these the index correction should be applied. This is the amount of difference between the particular instrument and the readings of the Royal Society's flint-glass barometer when properly corrected, and is generally known as thezero. It is impossible to pay too much attention to the determination of this point. For this purpose, when practicable, the instrument should be immediately compared with the Royal Society's standard, and the difference of the readings of both instruments, when corrected as above, carefully noted and preserved. Where, however, this is impracticable, the comparison should be effected by means either of some other standard previously so compared, or of an intermediate portable barometer, the zero point of which has beenwell determined. Suspend the portable barometer as near as convenient to the ship's barometer, and after at least an hour's quiet exposure, take as many readings of both instruments as may be
necessary to reduce the probable error of the mean of the differences below 0.001 inch. Under these circumstances the mean difference of all the readings will be therelativezero or index error, whence, if that of the intermediate barometer be known, that of the other may be found. As such comparisons will always be made when the vessel is in port, sufficient time can be allowed for making the requisite number of observations: hourly readings would perhaps be best, and they would have the advantage of forming part of the system when in operation, and might be accordingly used as such. It is not only desirable that the zero point of the barometer should be well determined in the first instance; it should also be carefully verified on every opportunity which presents itself; and in every instance, previous to sailing, it should be re-compared with the standard on shore by the intervention of a portable barometer, and no opportunity should be lost of comparing it on the voyage by means of such an intermediate instrument with the standard barometers at St. Helena, the Cape of Good Hope, Bombay, Madras, Paramatta, Van Diemen's Island, and with any other instruments likely to be referred to as standards, or employed in research elsewhere. Any vessel having a portable barometer on board, the zero of which has been well determined, would do well, on touching at any of the ports above named, to take comparative readings with the standards at those ports, and record the differences between the standard, the portable, and the ship barometers. By such means the zero of one standard may be transported over the whole world, and those of others compared with it ascertained. To do so, however, with perfect effect, will require that the utmost care should be taken of the portable barometer; it should be guarded as much as possible from all accident, and should be kept safely in the "portable" state when not immediately used for comparison. To transport a well-authenticated zero from place to place is by no means a point of trifling importance. Neither should it be executed hurriedly nor negligently. Some of the greatest questions in meteorology depend on its due execution, and the objects for which these instructions have been prepared will be greatly advanced by the zero points of all barometers being referred to one common standard. Upon the arrival of the vessel in England, at the termination of the voyage, the ship's barometer should be again compared with the same standard with which it was compared previous to sailing; and should any difference be found, it should be most carefully recorded. The correction for the height of the cisternabove orbelow the water-line isadditive the former case, in subtractivein the latter. Its amount may be taken, nearly enough, by allowing 0·001 in. of the barometer for each foot of difference of level. An example of the application of these several corrections is subjoined:— Attached Therm. 54°·3. Barometer reading 29·409 Corr. for capacity - ·017 ———   29·392 Corr. for capillarity + ·032 ———   29·424 Corr. for temperature - ·068 ———   29·356 Corr. for zero and water-line + ·040 ———  Aggregate = pressure at sea-level 29·396 ———  Data for the correction of the Instrument. Neutral point 30·123 Capacity 1/42 Capillary action + ·032 Zero to Royal Society + ·036 Corr. for altitude above water line + ·004 It would greatly facilitate the comparison of the barometric observations by projecting them in curves when all the proper corrections have been applied. This may be accomplished by a much smaller expenditure of time than may at first be supposed. A paper of engraved squares on which the observations of twelve days may be laid down on double the natural scale, would be very suitable for the purpose.[4]The projection of each day's observations would occupy but a short time; and should circumstances on any occasion prevent the execution of it, when the ship was becalmed or leisure otherwise afforded, it would form an interesting and useful occupation, and serve to beguile some of the tedium often experienced at such intervals. Registers.—For the particular object in view the register need not be very extensive. One kept in the annexed form will be amply sufficient. It should, however, be borne in mind that none butuncorrected observations should find admission; in point of fact it should be strictly a register of phænomena asobserved, and on no account whatever should any entry be made from recollection, or any attempt made to fill up a blank by the a arent course of the numbers before and after. The headin s of the columns will it is ho ed be sufficientl
explicit. It is desirable in practice that the column for remarks should embrace an entire page opposite the other entries, in order that occasional observations, as well as several other circumstances continually coming under review in the course of keeping a journal, may find entry. METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER kept on board ——— during her voyage from ——— to ——— by ——— Wind. Date. Lat. Long. Barom. Att. Ther. Remarks. Observer. Direction. Force.  h .m.                               The only difference between the above form and one for the reception ofcorrected will be the readings dispensing with the column for the attached thermometer, and placing under the word Barom. "corrected." II.—TIMES OF OBSERVATION. There can be no question that the greatest amount of information, the accuracy of the data supplied, and in fact every meteorological element necessary to increase our knowledge of atmospheric waves, may be best obtained by an uninterrupted series ofhourly made on board vessels from their leaving observations England until their safe arrival again at the close of their respective voyages; but from a variety of circumstances—the nature of the service in which the vessels may be employed, particular states of the weather, &c.—such a course of unremitting labour cannot be expected; it is therefore necessary to fix on some stated hours at which the instruments before particularized should be regularly observed throughout the voyage, and their indications faithfully recorded. The hours of 3 A.M., 9 A.M., 3 P.M., and 9 P.M., are now so generally known asmeteorological hours, that nothing should justify a departure from them; and it is the more essential that these hours should be adopted in the present inquiry, because the series of observations made at intervals terminated by these hours can the more readily be used in connexion with those made contemporaneously on land, and will also serve to carry on investigations previously instituted, and which have received considerable illustration by means of observations at the regular meteorological hours; we therefore recommend their general adoption in all observations conducted at sea. It is intended in the sequel to call attention to particular parts of the earth's surface where it is desirable that additional observations should be made, in order to furnish data of a more accurate character, and to mark more distinctly barometric changes than the four daily readings are capable of effecting. The best means of accomplishing this for the object in view appears to be the division of the interval of six hours into two equal portions, and to make the necessary observations eight times in the course of twenty-four hours. In the particular localities to which allusion has been made we recommend the following as the hours of observation:— A.M. 3, 6, 9, noon. P.M. 3, 6, 9, midnight. In other localities besides those hereafter to be mentioned, when opportunities serve, readings at these hours would greatly enhance the value of the four daily readings. There are, however, portions of the surface of our planet, and probably also phænomena that occur in its atmosphere, which require still closer attention than the eight daily readings. One such portion would appear to exist off the western coast of Africa, and we recommend the adoption ofhourlyreadings while sailing to the westward of this junction of aqueous and terrestrial surface; more attention will be directed to this point as we proceed. There are also phænomena the localities of which may be undetermined, and the times of their occurrence unknown, but so important a relation do they bear to the subject of our inquiries, that they demand the closest attention. They will be more particularly described under the head of accumulations of pressure preceding and succeeding storms, and minute directions given for the hourly observations of the necessary instruments. In the mean time we may here remark that hourly observations under the circumstances above alluded to are the more important when we consider that the barometer, the instrument employed in observing these moving atmospheric masses, is itself in motion. The ship may meet the accumulation of pressure and sail through it transversely; or she may sail along it, the course of the vessel being parallel to the line marking the highest pressure, the ridge or crest of the wave; or the ship may make any angle with this line: but whatever the circumstances may be under which she passes through or along with such an accumulation of pressure, it should ever be borne in mind that her position on the earth's surface is scarcely ever the same at any one observation as it was at the preceding, the barometer in the interval has changed itsposition as well as the line of maximum pressure, the rate of progress of which it is desirable to observe. It will, therefore, be at once apparent that in order to obtain the most accurate data on this head hourly observations are indis ensable. To these readin s should of course be a ended the laces of the shi from
hour to hour, especially if she alter her course much. There is another point to which we wish to call attention in immediate connexion with hourly readings—it is the observation of the instruments on the days fixed for that purpose: they were originally suggested by Sir John Herschel, whose directions should be strictly attended to: they are as follows:— The days fixed upon for these observations are the 21st of March, the 21st of June, the 21st of September, and the 21st of December, being those, or immediately adjoining to those of the equinoxes and solstices, in which thesolar influence either stationary or in a state of most rapid variation. isBut should any one of those 21st days fall on a Sunday, then it will be understood that the observations are to be deferred till the next day, the 22nd.The series of observations on board each vessel should commence at 6 o'clock A.M. of the appointed days, and terminate at 6 A.M. of the days following, according to the usual reckoning of time adopted in the daily observations. In addition to the twenty-five hourly readings at the solstices and equinoxes as above recommended, it would be desirable to continue the observations until a complete elevation and depression of the barometer had been observed at these seasons. This plan is adopted at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and would be attended with this advantage were it generally so—the progress of the elevation and depression would be more readily traced and their velocities more accurately determined than from the four or eight daily readings.
III.—LOCALITIES FOR ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS. In sketching out a system of barometric observation having especial reference to the acquisition of data from which thebarometric character certain large areas of the surface of the globe may be determined of —inasmuch as such areas are distinguished from each other, on the one hand by consisting of extensive spaces of the oceanic surface unbroken, or scarcely broken, by land; on the other by the proximity of such oceanic surface to large masses of land, and these masses presenting two essentially different features, the one consisting of land particularly characterized as continental, the other as insular, regard has been accordingly had to such distribution of land and water. As these instructions have especial reference to observations at sea, observations on land have not been alluded to; but in order that the data accumulated may possess that value which is essential for carrying on the inquiry in reference to atmospheric waves with success, provision is made to mark out more distinctly the barometric effects of the junction of large masses of land and water. It is well known that the oceanic surface, and even the smaller surfaces of inland seas, produce decided inflexions of the isothermal lines. They exercise an important influence on temperature. It has also been shown that the neighbourhood of water has a very considerable influence in increasing the oscillations of the mercurial column in the barometer, and in the great systems of European undulations it is well known that these oscillations increase especially towards the north-west. The converse of this, however, has not yet been subjected to observation; there has been no systematic co-operation of observers for the purpose of determining the barometric affections of large masses of water, such as the central portion of the basin of the northern Atlantic, the portion of oceanic surface between the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn, the Indian and Southern oceans, and the vast basin of the Pacific. Nor are we yet acquainted with the character of the oscillations, whether increasing or decreasing, as we recede from the central portions of the oceanic surfaces we have mentioned towards the land which forms their eastern, western, or northern boundaries. This influence of the junction line of land and water, so far as it is yet known, has been kept in view in framing these instructions, and, as it appears so prominently in Europe, it is hoped the additional observations between the four daily readings to which probably many observers may habitually restrict themselves, making on certain occasions and in particular localities a series of observations at intervals of three hours, will not be considered too frequent when the great importance of the problem to be solved is fully apprehended. It need scarcely be said that the value of these observations at three-hourly intervals will be greatly increased by the number of observers co-operating in them. Upon such an extensive system of co-operation a large space on the earth's surface, possessing peculiarities which distinguish it from others extremely unlike it in their general character, or assimilate it to such as possess with it many features in common, is marked out below for particular observation, occupying more than two-thirds of a zone in the northern hemisphere, having a breadth of 40°, and including every possible variety of terrestrial and aqueous surface, from the burning sands of the great African desert, situated about the centre, to the narrow strip of land connecting the two Americas on the one side, and the chain of islands connecting China and Hindostan with Australia on the other. On each side of the African continent we have spaces of open sea between 30° and 40° west longitude north of the equator, and between 60° and 80° east longitude, in or to the south of the equator, admirably suited for contrasting the barometric affections, as manifested in these spaces of open water, with those occurring in situations where the influence of the terrestrial surface comes into more active operation. The localities where three-hourly readings are chiefly desirable may be specified under the heads of Northern Atlantic, Southern Atlantic, IndianandSouthern Oceans,andPacific Ocean.
Northern Atlantic. Homeward-bound Voyages.—The discussion of observations made in the United Kingdom and the western border of central Europe, has indicated that off the north-west of Scotland a centre of reat barometric disturbance exists. This centre of disturbance a ears to be considerabl removed from
the usual tracks of vessels crossing the Atlantic; nevertheless some light may be thrown on the barometric phænomena resulting from this disturbance by observations during homeward-bound voyages, especially after the vessels have passed the meridian of 50° west longitude. Voyagers to or from Baffin and Hudson bays would do well during the whole of the voyage to read off the barometer every three hours, as their tracks would approach nearest the centre of disturbance in question. Before crossing the 50th meridian, the undulations arising from the distribution of land and water in the neighbourhood of these vast inland seas would receive considerable elucidation from the shorter intervals of observation, and after passing the 50th meridian the extent of undulation, as compared with that observed by the more southerly vessels, would be more distinctly marked by the three-hourly series. Surveying vessels stationed on the north-western coasts of Ireland and Scotland may contribute most important information on this head by a regular and, as far as circumstances will allow, an uninterrupted series either of six-hourly or three-hourly observations. The intervals of observation on board vessels stationed at the Western Isles, the Orkneys, and the Shetland Isles, ought not to be longer thanthreeprincipally on account of the great extent of oscillation observed in those hours, localities. Vessels arriving from all parts of the world as they approach the United Kingdom should observe at shorter intervals than six hours. As a general instruction on this head the series of three-hourly observations may be commenced on board vessels from America and the Pacific by the way of Cape Horn on their passing the 20th meridian, such three-hourly observations to be continued until the arrival of the vessels in port. Ships by the way of the Cape of Good Hope should commence the three-hourly series either on leaving or passing the colony, in order that the phænomena of the tropical depression hereafter to be noticed may be well observed.
Northern Atlantic. Outward-bound Voyages.—Vessels sailing to the United States, Mexico, and the West Indies, should observe at three hours' interval upon passing the 60th meridian. Observations at this interval, on board vessels navigating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, will be particularly valuable in determining the extent of oscillation as influenced by the masses of land and water in this portion of the torrid zone, as compared with the oscillation noticed off the western coast of Africa, hereafter to be referred to.
Southern Atlantic. Outward and homeward bound.—Without doubt the most interesting phænomenon, and one that lies at the root of the great atmospheric movements, especially those proceeding northwards in the northern hemisphere and southwards in the southern, is the equatorial depression first noticed by Von Humboldt and confirmed by many observers since. We shall find the general expression of this most important meteorological fact in the Report of the Committee of Physics and Meteorology, appointed by the Royal Society in 1840, as follows: "The barometer, at the level of the sea, does not indicate a mean atmospheric pressure of equal amount in all parts of the earth; but, on the contrary, the equatorial pressure is uniformly less in its mean amount than at and beyond the tropics." Vessels that are outward bound should, upon passing 40° north latitude, commence the series of three-hourly observations, with an especial reference to the equatorial depression. These three-hourly observations should be continued until the latitude of 40° south has been passed: the whole series will then include the minimum of the depression and the two maxima or apices forming its boundaries. (See Daniell's 'Meteorological Essays,' 3rd edition.) In passages across the equator, should the ships be delayed by calms, opportunities should be embraced for observing this depression with greater precision by means ofhourly and these readings will not only be readings; valuable as respects the depression here spoken of, but will go far to indicate the character of any disturbance that may arise, and point out, as nearly as such observations will allow, the precise time when such disturbance produced its effects in the neighbourhood of the ships. In point of fact they will clearly illustrate the diversion of the tendency to rise, spoken of in the Report before alluded to, as resulting in ascending columns and sheets, between which wind flaws, capricious in their direction and intensity, and often amounting to sharp squalls, mark out the course of their feeders and the indraft of cooler air from a distance to supply their void. Hourly observations, with especial reference to this and the following head of inquiry, should also be made off the western coast of Africa during the homeward-bound voyage. Immediately connected with this part of the outward-bound voyage, hourly observations, as often as circumstances will permit, while the ships are sailing from the Madeiras to the equator, will be extremely valuable in elucidating the origin of the great system of south-westerly atmospheric waves that traverse Europe, and in furnishing data for comparison with the amount of oscillation and other barometric phænomena in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, a portion of the torrid zone essentially different in its configuration and in the relations of its area to land and water, as contra-distinguished to the northern portion of the African continent; and these hourly observations are the more desirable as the vessels may approach the land. They may be discontinued on passing the equator, and the three-hourly series resumed. There are two points in the southern hemisphere, between 80° west longitude and 30° east longitude, that claim particular attention in a barometric point of view, viz., Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope; the latter is within the area marked out for the three-hourly observations, and too much attention cannot be paid to the indications of the barometer as vessels are approaching or leaving the Cape. The northern part of the South Atlantic Ocean has been termed thetrue Pacific Ocean of the world; and at St. Helena a gale was scarcely ever known; it is also said to be entirely free from actual storms (Col. Reid's 'Law of Storms,' 1st edition, p. 415). It may therefore be expected that the barometer will present in this locality but a small oscillation, and ships in sailing from St. Helena to the Cape will do well to ascertain, by means of the three-hourly observations, the increase of oscillation as they approach the Cape. The same thing will hold good with regard to Cape Horn: it appears from previous observation that a permanent barometric depression exists in
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