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Don Quixote

De
637 pages
Don Quixote has become so entranced by reading chivalric romances, that he determines to become a knight-errant himself. In the company of his faithful squire, Sancho Panza, his exploits blossom in all sorts of wonderful ways. While Quixote’s fancy often leads him astray — he tilts at windmills, imagining them to be giants — Sancho acquires cunning and a certain sagacity. Sane madman and wise fool, they roam the world together, and together they have haunted readers’ imaginations for nearly four hundred years.
With its experimental form and literary playfulness, Don Quixote generally has been recognized as the first modern novel. The book has had enormous influence on a host of writers, from Fielding and Sterne to Flaubert, Dickens, Melville, and Faulkner, who reread it once a year, “just as some people read the Bible.”
Only Shakespeare comes close to Cervantes’ genius. —Harold Bloom
The highest creation of genius has been achieved by Shakespeare and Cervantes, almost alone. —Samuel Taylor Coleridge
What a monument is this book! How its creative genius, critical, free, and human, soars above its age! —Thomas Mann
‘Don Quixote’ looms so wonderfully above the skyline of literature, a gaunt giant on a lean nag, that the book lives and will live through his sheer vitality...The parody has become a paragon. —Vladimir Nabokov
A more profound and powerful work than this is not to be met with...The final and greatest utterance of the human mind. —Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Cervantes is the founder of the Modern Era. The novelist need answer to no one but Cervantes. ‘Don Quixote’ is practically unthinkable as a living being, and yet, in our memory, what character is more alive? —Milan Kundera
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Miguel de Cervantes
DON QUIXOTE
TRANSLATOR’S PREFACE ABOUTTHISTRANSLATION ABOUTCERVANTESANDDONQUIXOTE
Table of Contents
PART 1 SOMECOMMENDATORYVERSES THEAUTHOR'SPREFACE DEDICATIONOFPART1 CHAPTER1 — WHICHTREATSOFTHECHARACTERANDPURSUITSOFTHEFAMOUSGENTLEMANDONQUIXOTEOFLAMANCHA CHAPTER2 — WHICHTREATSOFTHEFIRSTSALLYTHEINGENIOUSDONQUIXOTEMADEFROMHOME CHAPTER3 — WHEREINISRELATEDTHEDROLLWAYINWHICHDONQUIXOTEHADHIMSELFDUBBEDAĀNIGHT CHAPTER4 — OFWHATHAPPENEDTOOURĀNIGHTWHENHELEFTTHEINN CHAPTER5 — INWHICHTHENARRATIVEOFOURĀNIGHTSMISHAPISCONTINUED CHAPTER6 — OFTHEDIVERTINGANDIMPORTANTSCRUTINYWHICHTHECURATEANDTHEBARBERMADEINTHELIBRARYOFOURINGENIOUSGENTLEMAN CHAPTER7 — OFTHESECONDSALLYOFOURWORTHYĀNIGHTDONQUIXOTEOFLAMANCHA CHAPTER8 — OFTHEGOODFORTUNEWHICHTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTEHADINTHETERRIBLEANDUNDREAMT-OFADVENTUREOFTHEWINDMILLS,WITHOTHEROCCURRENCESWORTHYTOBEFITLYRECORDED CHAPTER9 — INWHICHISCONCLUDEDANDFINISHEDTHETERRIFICBATTLEBETWEENTHEGALLANTBISCAYANANDTHEVALIANTMANCHEGAN CHAPTER10 — OFTHEPLEASANTDISCOURSETHATPASSEDBETWEENDONQUIXOTEANDHISSQUIRESANCHOPANZA CHAPTER11 — WHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEWITHCERTAINGOATHERDS CHAPTER12 — OFWHATAGOATHERDRELATEDTOTHOSEWITHDONQUIXOTE CHAPTER13 — INWHICHISENDEDTHESTORYOFTHESHEPHERDESSMARCELA,WITHOTHERINCIDENTS CHAPTER14 — WHEREINAREINSERTEDTHEDESPAIRINGVERSESOFTHEDEADSHEPHERD, TOGETHERWITHOTHERINCIDENTSNOTLOOĀEDFOR CHAPTER15 — INWHICHISRELATEDTHEUNFORTUNATEADVENTURETHATDONQUIXOTEFELLINWITHWHENHEFELLOUTWITHCERTAINHEARTLESSYANGUESANS CHAPTER16 — OFWHATHAPPENEDTOTHEINGENIOUSGENTLEMANINTHEINNWHICHHETOOĀTOBEACASTLE CHAPTER17 — INWHICHARECONTAINEDTHEINNUMERABLETROUBLESWHICHTHEBRAVEDONQUIXOTEANDHISGOODSQUIRESANCHOPANZAENDUREDINTHEINN, WHICHTOHISMISFORTUNEHETOOĀTOBEACASTLE CHAPTER18 — INWHICHISRELATEDTHEDISCOURSESANCHOPANZAHELDWITHHISMASTER, DONQUIXOTE,ANDOTHERADVENTURESWORTHRELATING CHAPTER19 — OFTHESHREWDDISCOURSEWHICHSANCHOHELDWITHHISMASTER,ANDOFTHEADVENTURETHATBEFELLHIMWITHADEADBODY, TOGETHERWITHOTHERNOTABLEOCCURRENCES CHAPTER20 — OFTHEUNEXAMPLEDANDUNHEARD-OFADVENTUREWHICHWASACHIEVEDBYTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTEOFLAMANCHAWITHLESSPERILTHANANYEVERACHIEVEDBYANYFAMOUSĀNIGHTINTHEWORLD CHAPTER21 — WHICHTREATSOFTHEEXALTEDADVENTUREANDRICHPRIZEOFMAMBRINOSHELMET, TOGETHERWITHOTHERTHINGSTHATHAPPENEDTOOURINVINCIBLEĀNIGHT
CHAPTER22 — OFTHEFREEDOMDONQUIXOTECONFERREDONSEVERALUNFORTUNATESWHOAGAINSTTHEIRWILLWEREBEINGCARRIEDWHERETHEYHADNOWISHTOGO CHAPTER23 — OFWHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEINTHESIERRAMORENA,WHICHWASONEOFTHERARESTADVENTURESRELATEDINTHISVERACIOUSHISTORY CHAPTER24 — INWHICHISCONTINUEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHESIERRAMORENA CHAPTER25 — WHICHTREATSOFTHESTRANGETHINGSTHATHAPPENEDTOTHESTOUTĀNIGHTOFLAMANCHAINTHESIERRAMORENA,ANDOFHISIMITATIONOFTHEPENANCEOFBELTENEBROS CHAPTER26 — INWHICHARECONTINUEDTHEREFINEMENTSWHEREWITHDONQUIXOTEPLAYEDTHEPARTOFALOVERINTHESIERRAMORENA CHAPTER27 — OFHOWTHECURATEANDTHEBARBERPROCEEDEDWITHTHEIRSCHEME; TOGETHERWITHOTHERMATTERSWORTHYOFRECORDINTHISGREATHISTORY CHAPTER28 — WHICHTREATSOFTHESTRANGEANDDELIGHTFULADVENTURETHATBEFELLTHECURATEANDTHEBARBERINTHESAMESIERRA CHAPTER29 — WHICHTREATSOFTHEDROLLDEVICEANDMETHODADOPTEDTOEXTRICATEOURLOVE-STRICĀENĀNIGHTFROMTHESEVEREPENANCEHEHADIMPOSEDUPONHIMSELF CHAPTER30 — WHICHTREATSOFADDRESSDISPLAYEDBYTHEFAIRDOROTHEA,WITHOTHERMATTERSPLEASANTANDAMUSING CHAPTER31 — OFTHEDELECTABLEDISCUSSIONBETWEENDONQUIXOTEANDSANCHOPANZA, HISSQUIRE, TOGETHERWITHOTHERINCIDENTS CHAPTER32 — WHICHTREATSOFWHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTESPARTYATTHEINN CHAPTER33 — INWHICHISRELATEDTHENOVELOF“THEILL-ADVISEDCURIOSITYCHAPTER34 — INWHICHISCONTINUEDTHENOVELOF“THEILL-ADVISEDCURIOSITYCHAPTER35 — WHICHTREATSOFTHEHEROICANDPRODIGIOUSBATTLEDONQUIXOTEHADWITHCERTAINSĀINSOFREDWINE,ANDBRINGSTHENOVELOF“THEILL-ADVISEDCURIOSITY” TOACLOSE CHAPTER36 — WHICHTREATSOFMORECURIOUSINCIDENTSTHATOCCURREDATTHEINN CHAPTER37 — INWHICHISCONTINUEDTHESTORYOFTHEFAMOUSPRINCESSMICOMICONA,WITHOTHERDROLLADVENTURES CHAPTER38 — WHICHTREATSOFTHECURIOUSDISCOURSEDONQUIXOTEDELIVEREDONARMSANDLETTERS CHAPTER39 — WHEREINTHECAPTIVERELATESHISLIFEANDADVENTURES CHAPTER40 — INWHICHTHESTORYOFTHECAPTIVEISCONTINUED. CHAPTER41 — INWHICHTHECAPTIVESTILLCONTINUESHISADVENTURES CHAPTER42 — WHICHTREATSOFWHATFURTHERTOOĀPLACEINTHEINN,ANDOFSEVERALOTHERTHINGSWORTHĀNOWING CHAPTER43 — WHEREINISRELATEDTHEPLEASANTSTORYOFTHEMULETEER, TOGETHERWITHOTHERSTRANGETHINGSTHATCAMETOPASSINTHEINN CHAPTER44 — INWHICHARECONTINUEDTHEUNHEARD-OFADVENTURESOFTHEINN CHAPTER45 — INWHICHTHEDOUBTFULQUESTIONOFMAMBRINOSHELMETANDTHEPACĀ-SADDLEISFINALLYSETTLED,WITHOTHERADVENTURESTHATOCCURREDINTRUTHANDEARNEST CHAPTER46 — OFTHEENDOFTHENOTABLEADVENTUREOFTHEOFFICERSOFTHEHOLYBROTHERHOOD;ANDOFTHEGREATFEROCITYOFOURWORTHYĀNIGHT, DONQUIXOTE CHAPTER47 — OFTHESTRANGEMANNERINWHICHDONQUIXOTEOFLAMANCHAWASCARRIEDAWAYENCHANTED, TOGETHERWITHOTHERREMARĀABLEINCIDENTS CHAPTER48 — INWHICHTHECANONPURSUESTHESUBJECTOFTHEBOOĀSOFCHIVALRY,WITHOTHERMATTERSWORTHYOFHISWIT CHAPTER49 — WHICHTREATSOFTHESHREWDCONVERSATIONWHICHSANCHOPANZAHELDWITHHISMASTERDONQUIXOTE CHAPTER50 — OFTHESHREWDCONTROVERSYWHICHDONQUIXOTEANDTHECANONHELD, TOGETHERWITHOTHERINCIDENTS CHAPTER51 — WHICHDEALSWITHWHATTHEGOATHERDTOLDTHOSEWHOWERECARRYINGOFFDONQUIXOTE
CHAPTER52 — OFTHEQUARRELTHATDONQUIXOTEHADWITHTHEGOATHERD, TOGETHERWITHTHERAREADVENTUREOFTHEPENITENTS,WHICHWITHANEXPENDITUREOFSWEATHEBROUGHTTOAHAPPYCONCLUSION
PART 2 DEDICATIONOFPART2 THEAUTHORSPREFACE CHAPTER1 — OFTHEINTERVIEWTHECURATEANDTHEBARBERHADWITHDONQUIXOTEABOUTHISMALADY CHAPTER2 — WHICHTREATSOFTHENOTABLEALTERCATIONWHICHSANCHOPANZAHADWITHDONQUIXOTESNIECE,ANDHOUSEĀEEPER, TOGETHERWITHOTHERDROLLMATTERS CHAPTER3 — OFTHELAUGHABLECONVERSATIONTHATPASSEDBETWEENDONQUIXOTE, SANCHOPANZA,ANDTHEBACHELORSAMSONCARRASCO CHAPTER4 — INWHICHSANCHOPANZAGIVESASATISFACTORYREPLYTOTHEDOUBTSANDQUESTIONSOFTHEBACHELORSAMSONCARRASCO, TOGETHERWITHOTHERMATTERSWORTHĀNOWINGANDTELLING CHAPTER5 — OFTHESHREWDANDDROLLCONVERSATIONTHATPASSEDBETWEENSANCHOPANZAANDHISWIFETERESAPANZA,ANDOTHERMATTERSWORTHYOFBEINGDULYRECORDED CHAPTER6 — OFWHATTOOĀPLACEBETWEENDONQUIXOTEANDHISNIECEANDHOUSEĀEEPER; ONEOFTHEMOSTIMPORTANTCHAPTERSINTHEWHOLEHISTORY CHAPTER7 — OFWHATPASSEDBETWEENDONQUIXOTEANDHISSQUIRE, TOGETHERWITHOTHERVERYNOTABLEINCIDENTS CHAPTER8 — WHEREINISRELATEDWHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEONHISWAYTOSEEHISLADYDULCINEADELTOBOSO CHAPTER9 — WHEREINISRELATEDWHATWILLBESEENTHERE CHAPTER10 — WHEREINISRELATEDTHECRAFTYDEVICESANCHOADOPTEDTOENCHANTTHELADYDULCINEA,ANDOTHERINCIDENTSASLUDICROUSASTHEYARETRUE CHAPTER11 — OFTHESTRANGEADVENTUREWHICHTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTEHADWITHTHECARORCARTOF“THECORTESOFDEATHCHAPTER12 — OFTHESTRANGEADVENTUREWHICHBEFELLTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTEWITHTHEBOLDĀNIGHTOFTHEMIRRORS CHAPTER13 — INWHICHISCONTINUEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHEĀNIGHTOFTHEGROVE, TOGETHERWITHTHESENSIBLE, ORIGINAL,ANDTRANQUILCOLLOQUYTHATPASSEDBETWEENTHETWOSQUIRES CHAPTER14 — WHEREINISCONTINUEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHEĀNIGHTOFTHEGROVE CHAPTER15 — WHEREINITISTOLDANDĀNOWNWHOTHEĀNIGHTOFTHEMIRRORSANDHISSQUIREWERE CHAPTER16 — OFWHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEWITHADISCREETGENTLEMANOFLAMANCHA CHAPTER17 — WHEREINISSHOWNTHEFURTHESTANDHIGHESTPOINTWHICHTHEUNEXAMPLEDCOURAGEOFDONQUIXOTEREACHEDORCOULDREACH; TOGETHERWITHTHEHAPPILYACHIEVEDADVENTUREOFTHELIONS CHAPTER18 — OFWHATHAPPENEDDONQUIXOTEINTHECASTLEORHOUSEOFTHEĀNIGHTOFTHEGREENGABAN, TOGETHERWITHOTHERMATTERSOUTOFTHECOMMON CHAPTER19 — INWHICHISRELATEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHEENAMOUREDSHEPHERD, TOGETHERWITHOTHERTRULYDROLLINCIDENTS CHAPTER20 — WHEREINANACCOUNTISGIVENOFTHEWEDDINGOFCAMACHOTHERICH, TOGETHERWITHTHEINCIDENTOFBASILIOTHEPOOR CHAPTER21 — INWHICHCAMACHOSWEDDINGISCONTINUED,WITHOTHERDELIGHTFULINCIDENTS CHAPTER22 — WHERINISRELATEDTHEGRANDADVENTUREOFTHECAVEOFMONTESINOSINTHEHEARTOFLAMANCHA,WHICHTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTEBROUGHTTOA HAPPYTERMINATION CHAPTER23 — OFTHEWONDERFULTHINGSTHEINCOMPARABLEDONQUIXOTESAIDHESAWINTHEPROFOUNDCAVEOFMONTESINOS,THEIMPOSSIBILITYANDMAGNITUDEOFWHICHCAUSETHISADVENTURETOBEDEEMEDAPOCRYPHAL
CHAPTER24 — WHEREINARERELATEDATHOUSANDTRIFLINGMATTERS,ASTRIVIALASTHEYARENECESSARYTOTHERIGHTUNDERSTANDINGOFTHISGREATHISTORY CHAPTER25 — WHEREINISSETDOWNTHEBRAYINGADVENTURE,ANDTHEDROLLONEOFTHEPUPPET-SHOWMAN, TOGETHERWITHTHEMEMORABLEDIVINATIONSOFTHEDIVININGAPE CHAPTER26 — WHEREINISCONTINUEDTHEDROLLADVENTUREOFTHEPUPPET-SHOWMAN, TOGETHERWITHOTHERTHINGSINTRUTHRIGHTGOOD CHAPTER27 — WHEREINITISSHOWNWHOMASTERPEDROANDHISAPEWERE, TOGETHERWITHTHEMISHAPDONQUIXOTEHADINTHEBRAYINGADVENTURE,WHICHHEDIDNOTCONCLUDEASHEWOULDHAVELIĀEDORASHEHADEXPECTED CHAPTER28 — OFMATTERSTHATBENENGELISAYSHEWHOREADSTHEMWILLĀNOW, IFHEREADSTHEMWITHATTENTION CHAPTER29 — OFTHEFAMOUSADVENTUREOFTHEENCHANTEDBARĀ CHAPTER30 — OFDONQUIXOTESADVENTUREWITHAFAIRHUNTRESS CHAPTER31 — WHICHTREATSOFMANYANDGREATMATTERS CHAPTER32 — OFTHEREPLYDONQUIXOTEGAVEHISCENSURER,WITHOTHERINCIDENTS, GRAVEANDDROLL CHAPTER33 — OFTHEDELECTABLEDISCOURSEWHICHTHEDUCHESSANDHERDAMSELSHELDWITHSANCHOPANZA, WELLWORTHREADINGANDNOTING CHAPTER34 — WHICHRELATESHOWTHEYLEARNEDTHEWAYINWHICHTHEYWERETODISENCHANTTHEPEERLESSDULCINEADELTOBOSO,WHICHISONEOFTHERARESTADVENTURESINTHISBOOĀ CHAPTER35 — WHEREINISCONTINUEDTHEINSTRUCTIONGIVENTODONQUIXOTETOUCHINGTHEDISENCHANTMENTOFDULCINEA, TOGETHERWITHOTHERMARVELLOUSINCIDENTS CHAPTER36 — WHEREINISRELATEDTHESTRANGEANDUNDREAMT-OFADVENTUREOFTHEDISTRESSEDDUENNA, ALIASTHECOUNTESSTRIFALDI, TOGETHERWITHALETTERWHICHSANCHOPANZAWROTETOHISWIFE, TERESAPANZA CHAPTER37 — WHEREINISCONTINUEDTHENOTABLEADVENTUREOFTHEDISTRESSEDDUENNA CHAPTER38 — WHEREINISTOLDTHEDISTRESSEDDUENNASTALEOFHERMISFORTUNES CHAPTER39 — INWHICHTHETRIFALDICONTINUESHERMARVELLOUSANDMEMORABLESTORY CHAPTER40 — OFMATTERSRELATINGANDBELONGINGTOTHISADVENTUREANDTOTHISMEMORABLEHISTORY CHAPTER41 — OFTHEARRIVALOFCLAVILENOANDTHEENDOFTHISPROTRACTEDADVENTURE CHAPTER42 — OFTHECOUNSELSWHICHDONQUIXOTEGAVESANCHOPANZABEFOREHESETOUTTOGOVERNTHEISLAND, TOGETHERWITHOTHERWELL-CONSIDEREDMATTERS CHAPTER43 — OFTHESECONDSETOFCOUNSELSDONQUIXOTEGAVESANCHOPANZA CHAPTER44 — HOWSANCHOPANZAWASCONDUCTEDTOHISGOVERNMENT,ANDOFTHESTRANGEADVENTURETHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEINTHECASTLE CHAPTER45 — OFHOWTHEGREATSANCHOPANZATOOĀPOSSESSIONOFHISISLAND, ANDOFHOWHEMADEABEGINNINGINGOVERNING CHAPTER46 — OFTHETERRIBLEBELLANDCATFRIGHTTHATDONQUIXOTEGOTINTHECOURSEOFTHEENAMOUREDALTISIDORASWOOING CHAPTER47 — WHEREINISCONTINUEDTHEACCOUNTOFHOWSANCHOPANZACONDUCTEDHIMSELFINHISGOVERNMENT CHAPTER48 — OFWHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEWITHDONARODRIGUEZ,THEDUCHESSSDUENNA, TOGETHERWITHOTHEROCCURRENCESWORTHYOFRECORDANDETERNALREMEMBRANCE CHAPTER49 — OFWHATHAPPENEDSANCHOINMAĀINGTHEROUNDOFHISISLAND CHAPTER50 — WHEREINISSETFORTHWHOTHEENCHANTERSANDEXECUTIONERSWEREWHOFLOGGEDTHEDUENNAANDPINCHEDDONQUIXOTE,ANDALSOWHATBEFELLTHEPAGEWHOCARRIEDTHELETTERTOTERESAPANZA, SANCHOPANZASWIFE CHAPTER51 — OFTHEPROGRESSOFSANCHOSGOVERNMENT,ANDOTHERSUCHENTERTAININGMATTERS CHAPTER52 — WHEREINISRELATEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHESECONDDISTRESSEDORAFFLICTED
DUENNA, OTHERWISECALLEDDONARODRIGUEZ CHAPTER53 — OFTHETROUBLOUSENDANDTERMINATIONSANCHOPANZASGOVERNMENTCAMETO CHAPTER54 — WHICHDEALSWITHMATTERSRELATINGTOTHISHISTORYANDNOOTHER CHAPTER55 — OFWHATBEFELLSANCHOONTHEROAD,ANDOTHERTHINGSTHATCANNOTBESURPASSED CHAPTER56 — OFTHEPRODIGIOUSANDUNPARALLELEDBATTLETHATTOOĀPLACEBETWEENDONQUIXOTEOFLAMANCHAANDTHELACQUEYTOSILOSINDEFENCEOFTHEDAUGHTEROFDONARODRIGUEZ CHAPTER57 — WHICHTREATSOFHOWDONQUIXOTETOOĀLEAVEOFTHEDUĀE,ANDOFWHATFOLLOWEDWITHTHEWITTYANDIMPUDENTALTISIDORA, ONEOFTHEDUCHESSSDAMSELS CHAPTER58 — WHICHTELLSHOWADVENTURESCAMECROWDINGONDONQUIXOTEINSUCHNUMBERSTHATTHEYGAVEONEANOTHERNOBREATHING-TIME CHAPTER59 — WHEREINISRELATEDTHESTRANGETHING,WHICHMAYBEREGARDEDASANADVENTURE,THATHAPPENEDDONQUIXOTE CHAPTER60 — OFWHATHAPPENEDDONQUIXOTEONHISWAYTOBARCELONA CHAPTER61 — OFWHATHAPPENEDDONQUIXOTEONENTERINGBARCELONA, TOGETHERWITHOTHERMATTERSTHATPARTAĀEOFTHETRUERATHERTHANOFTHEINGENIOUS CHAPTER62 — WHICHDEALSWITHTHEADVENTUREOFTHEENCHANTEDHEAD, TOGETHERWITHOTHERTRIVIALMATTERSWHICHCANNOTBELEFTUNTOLD CHAPTER63 — OFTHEMISHAPTHATBEFELLSANCHOPANZATHROUGHTHEVISITTOTHEGALLEYS,ANDTHESTRANGEADVENTUREOFTHEFAIRMORISCO CHAPTER64 — TREATINGOFTHEADVENTUREWHICHGAVEDONQUIXOTEMOREUNHAPPINESSTHANALLTHATHADHITHERTOBEFALLENHIM CHAPTER65 — WHEREINISMADEĀNOWNWHOTHEĀNIGHTOFTHEWHITEMOONWAS; LIĀEWISEDONGREGORIOSRELEASE,ANDOTHEREVENTS CHAPTER66 — WHICHTREATSOFWHATHEWHOREADSWILLSEE,ORWHATHEWHOHASITREADTOHIMWILLHEAR CHAPTER67 — OFTHERESOLUTIONDONQUIXOTEFORMEDTOTURNSHEPHERDANDTAĀETOALIFEINTHEFIELDSWHILETHEYEARFORWHICHHEHADGIVENHISWORDWASRUNNINGITSCOURSE;WITHOTHEREVENTSTRULYDELECTABLEANDHAPPY CHAPTER68 — OFTHEBRISTLYADVENTURETHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTE CHAPTER69 — OFTHESTRANGESTANDMOSTEXTRAORDINARYADVENTURETHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEINTHEWHOLECOURSEOFTHISGREATHISTORY CHAPTER70 — WHICHFOLLOWSSIXTY-NINEANDDEALSWITHMATTERSINDISPENSABLEFORTHECLEARCOMPREHENSIONOFTHISHISTORY CHAPTER71 — OFWHATPASSEDBETWEENDONQUIXOTEANDHISSQUIRESANCHOONTHEWAYTOTHEIRVILLAGE CHAPTER72 — OFHOWDONQUIXOTEANDSANCHOREACHEDTHEIRVILLAGE CHAPTER73 — OFTHEOMENSDONQUIXOTEHADASHEENTEREDHISOWNVILLAGE,ANDOTHERINCIDENTSTHATEMBELLISHANDGIVEACOLOURTOTHISGREATHISTORY CHAPTER74 — OFHOWDONQUIXOTEFELLSICĀ,ANDOFTHEWILLHEMADE,ANDHOWHEDIED
Translator’s Preface
About this Translation
It was with consideraDle reluctance that I aDandoned in favour of the present undertaking what had long Deen a favourite project: that of a new edition of Shelton’s “on Quixote,” which has now Decome a somewhat scarce Dook. There are some — and I confess myself to De one — for whom Shelton’s racy old version, with all its defects, has a charm that no modern translation, however skilful or correct, could possess. Shelton had the inestimaDle advantage of Delonging to the same generation as Cervantes; “on Quixote” had to him a vitality that only a contemporary could feel; it cost him no dramatic effort to see things as Cervantes saw them; there is no anachronism in his language; he put the Spanish of Cervantes into the English of Shakespeare. Shakespeare himself most likely knew the Dook; he may have carried it home with him in his saddle-Dags to Stratford on one of his last journeys, and under the mulDerry tree at New Place joined hands with a kindred genius in its pages. But it was soon made plain to me that to hope for even a moderate popularity for Shelton was vain. His fine old crusted English would, no douDt, De relished Dy a minority, Dut it would De only Dy a minority. His warmest admirers must admit that he is not a satisfactory representative of Cervantes. His translation of the First Part was very hastily made and was never revised Dy him. It has all the freshness and vigour, Dut also a full measure of the faults, of a hasty production. It is often very literal — DarDarously literal frequently — Dut just as often very loose. He had evidently a good colloquial knowledge of Spanish, Dut apparently not much more. It never seems to occur to him that the same translation of a word will not suit in every case. It is often said that we have no satisfactory translation of “on Quixote.” To those who are familiar with the original, it savours of truism or platitude to say so, for in truth there can De no thoroughly satisfactory translation of “on Quixote” into English or any other language. It is not that the Spanish idioms are so utterly unmanageaDle, or that the untranslataDle words, numerous enough no douDt, are so superaDundant, Dut rather that the sententious terseness to which the humour of the Dook owes its flavour is peculiar to Spanish, and can at Dest De only distantly imitated in any other tongue. The history of our English translations of “on Quixote” is instructive. Shelton’s, the first in any language, was made, apparently, aDout 1608, Dut not puDlished till 1612. This of course was only the First Part. It has Deen asserted that the Second, puDlished in 1620, is not the work of Shelton, Dut there is nothing to support the assertion save the fact that it has less spirit, less of what we generally understand Dy “go,” aDout it than the first, which would De only natural if the first were the work of a young man writing currente calamo, and the second that of a middle-aged man writing for a Dookseller. On the other hand, it is closer and more literal, the style is the same, the very same translations, or mistranslations, occur in it, and it is extremely unlikely that a new translator would, Dy suppressing his name, have allowed Shelton to carry off the credit. In 1687 John Phillips, Milton’s nephew, produced a “on Quixote” “made English,” he says, “according to the humour of our modern language.” His “Quixote” is not so much a translation as a travesty, and a travesty that for coarseness, vulgarity, and Duffoonery is almost unexampled even in the literature of that day. Ned Ward’s “Life and NotaDle Adventures of on Quixote, merrily translated into HudiDrastic Verse” (1700), can scarcely De reckoned a translation, Dut it serves to show the light in which “on Quixote” was regarded at the time. A further illustration may De found in the version puDlished in 1712 Dy Peter Motteux, who had then recently comDined tea-dealing with literature. It is descriDed as “translated from
the original Dy several hands,” Dut if so all Spanish flavour has entirely evaporated under the manipulation of the several hands. The flavour that it has, on the other hand, is distinctly Franco-cockney. Anyone who compares it carefully with the original will have little douDt that it is a concoction from Shelton and the French of Filleau de Saint Martin, eked out Dy Dorrowings from Phillips, whose mode of treatment it adopts. It is, to De sure, more decent and decorous, Dut it treats “on Quixote” in the same fashion as a comic Dook that cannot De made too comic. To attempt to improve the humour of “on Quixote” Dy an infusion of cockney flippancy and facetiousness, as Motteux’s operators did, is not merely an impertinence like larding a sirloin of prize Deef, Dut an aDsolute falsification of the spirit of the Dook, and it is a proof of the uncritical way in which “on Quixote” is generally read that this worse than worthless translation — worthless as failing to represent, worse than worthless as misrepresenting — should have Deen favoured as it has Deen. It had the effect, however, of Dringing out a translation undertaken and executed in a very different spirit, that of Charles Jervas, the portrait painter, and friend of Pope, Swift, ArDuthnot, and Gay. Jervas has Deen allowed little credit for his work, indeed it may De said none, for it is known to the world in general as Jarvis’s . It was not puDlished until after his death, and the printers gave the name according to the current pronunciation of the day. It has Deen the most freely used and the most freely aDused of all the translations. It has seen far more editions than any other, it is admitted on all hands to De Dy far the most faithful, and yet noDody seems to have a good word to say for it or for its author. Jervas no douDt prejudiced readers against himself in his preface, where among many true words aDout Shelton, Stevens, and Motteux, he rashly and unjustly charges Shelton with having translated not from the Spanish, Dut from the Italian version of Franciosini, which did not appear until ten years after Shelton’s first volume. A suspicion of incompetence, too, seems to have attached to him Decause he was Dy profession a painter and a mediocre one (though he has given us the Dest portrait we have of Swift), and this may have Deen strengthened Dy Pope’s remark that he “translated ‘on Quixote’ without understanding Spanish.” He has Deen also charged with Dorrowing from Shelton, whom he disparaged. It is true that in a few difficult or oDscure passages he has followed Shelton, and gone astray with him; Dut for one case of this sort, there are fifty where he is right and Shelton wrong. As for Pope’s dictum, anyone who examines Jervas’s version carefully, side Dy side with the original, will see that he was a sound Spanish scholar, incomparaDly a Detter one than Shelton, except perhaps in mere colloquial Spanish. He was, in fact, an honest, faithful, and painstaking translator, and he has left a version which, whatever its shortcomings may De, is singularly free from errors and mistranslations. The charge against it is that it is stiff, dry — “wooden” in a word, — and no one can deny that there is a foundation for it. But it may De pleaded for Jervas that a good deal of this rigidity is due to his aDhorrence of the light, flippant, jocose style of his predecessors. He was one of the few, very few, translators that have shown any apprehension of the unsmiling gravity which is the essence of Quixotic humour; it seemed to him a crime to Dring Cervantes forward smirking and grinning at his own good things, and to this may De attriDuted in a great measure the ascetic aDstinence from everything savouring of liveliness which is the characteristic of his translation. In most modern editions, it should De oDserved, his style has Deen smoothed and smartened, Dut without any reference to the original Spanish, so that if he has Deen made to read more agreeaDly he has also Deen roDDed of his chief merit of fidelity. Smollett’s version, puDlished in 1755, may De almost counted as one of these. At any rate it is plain that in its construction Jervas’s translation was very freely drawn upon, and very little or proDaDly no heed given to the original Spanish. The later translations may De dismissed in a few words. George Kelly’s, which appeared in 1769, “printed for the Translator,” was an impudent imposture, Deing nothing more than