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Beyond Point-and-Shoot

De
141 pages

There are two types of new photographers: those satisfied with their low-cost point-and-shoot cameras, and those more enthusiastic photographers who recognize the limitations of low-cost equipment and want to improve their pictures. No longer satisfied with simple snapshots, the enthusiast moves up to a more complex digital camera-one with interchangeable lenses and manual controls-to satisfy their artistic urge.

Assuming little to no knowledge of photographic terms, techniques, or technology, Beyond Point-And-Shoot is intended to help smooth the transition from photographic newbie to "real" photographer who is experienced, in-control, and passionate about their craft. Author Darrell Young explores various types of interchangeable-lens cameras, focusing on those with larger imaging sensors, such as digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras.

Learn how to get the most out of your camera's automatic and semi-automatic exposure modes, as well as how to move beyond those modes and take full, manual control of your camera. Watch your photography improve as you discover how to apply important photographic principles, such as depth of field, white balance, and metering. With this newfound knowledge you'll move beyond point-and-shoot and begin taking truly great photographs.

Other topics include:

  • Camera types
  • Lenses
  • Aperture, shutter speed, and ISO
  • Metering and shooting controls
  • Lens focal lengths and angles of view
  • The histogram
  • Color spaces
  • Sensors
  • Filters
  • Image file formats
  • Managing digital noise
  • And much more!

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Beyond Point-and-Shoot Learning to Use a Digital SLR or Interchangeable-Lens Camera
Darrell Young
Beyond Point-and-Shoot Learning to Use a Digital SLR or Interchangeable-Lens Camera
Darrell Young (www.PhotographyWriter.com)
Editor: Joan Dixon Copyeditor: Jeanne Hansen Layout and Type: Petra Strauch Cover Design: Almute Kraus,www.exclam.de Printer: Everbest Printed in China
ISBN ----
st Edition  ©  Darrell Young
Rocky Nook, Inc.  E. Cota Street, rd Floor Santa Barbara, CA 
www.rockynook.com
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Young, Darrell, -Beyond point-and-shoot : learning to use a digital SLR or interchangeable-lens camera / by Darrell Young. -- st ed.  p. cm. ISBN ---- (soft cover : alk. paper) . Digital cameras--Amateurs' manuals. . Single-lens reflex cameras--Amateurs' manuals. . Photography--Digi-tal techniques--Amateurs' manuals. I. Title. TR.Y  .'--dc  
Distributed by O‘Reilly Media  Gravenstein Highway North Sebastopol, CA 
All product names and services identified throughout this book are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. They are used throughout this book in editorial fashion only. No such uses, or the use of any trade name, are intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with the book. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner. While reasonable care has been exercised in the preparation of this book, the publisher and au-thors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
All photographs and illustrations by the author unless otherwise noted.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
This book is dedicated to:
My sister Tammi, whose quest for photographic knowledge impelled me to write this book…
My wife of many years, Brenda; the love of my life and my best friend…
My children, Autumn, David, Emily, Hannah, and Ethan, five priceless gifts…
My mother and father, Barbara and Vaughn, who brought me into this world and guided my early life, teaching me sound principles to live by…
The wonderful staff of Rocky Nook, including Gerhard Rossbach, Joan Dixon, Jocelyn Howell, Petra Strauch, and Matthias Rossmanith…
My copy editor, Jeanne Hansen (www.hansenedits.com), whose eye for detail and knowledge of the English language made this book much nicer for its readers…
And finally, to all the photographic enthusiasts of the world…
Table of Contents
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Chapter 1 Camera Types: Making a Choice . . . . . . . . . 13 This Book Assumes No Previous Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Is Camera Brand Important? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 What Is a DSLR? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 What Is an ILC?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Should I Choose a DSLR or an ILC? . . . . . . . . . . . 16 What Is an Imaging Sensor?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 • How Does an Imaging Sensor Work?. . . . . . 18 Choosing a Camera System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Buy One Camera Instead of Three! . . . . . . . . . . 22 • Which Level Should I Choose?. . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Chapter 2 Choosing and Using Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 How Does a Lens Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Focal Length: Wide Angle, Normal, and Telephoto Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 • Angle of View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 • Focal Length Changes Angle of View. . . . . . 33 • Imaging Sensor Size Affects Angle of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 • Using Wide-Angle Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 • Choosing a Focal Length for Portraits . . . . . 37 • Compression of Perspective with Telephoto Lenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Lens Aperture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Zoom Lenses versus Prime Lenses. . . . . . . . . . . 39 Macro Lenses and Closeup Filters . . . . . . . . . . . 40 • True Macro Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 • Screw-On Closeup Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Autofocus vs. Manual Focus Lenses . . . . . . . . . 42 Basic Three-Lens Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Lens vs. Sensor Image Stabilization . . . . . . . . . 44 Autofocus Motor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Lens Concerns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 • Flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 • Light Falloff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 • Distortion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 • Bokeh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 • UV or Skylight Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 • Polarizing Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 • Match the Filter Size to Your Lens . . . . . . . . . 54 • Multicoatings Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Chapter 3 Understanding Exposure Controls . . . . . . . 57 What Is a Good Exposure?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Three Controls for a Good Exposure . . . . . . . . . 57 • Learning about the Three Exposure Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 • Understanding the Camera’s Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 • Camera Exposure Control Relationship Illustrated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 • Understanding Stops, F-Stops, and EV Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 • What Is ISO Sensitivity?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 • What Is Aperture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 • What Is Shutter Speed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Chapter 4 Taking Control of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Using the Three Exposure Controls Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 • Understanding Depth of Field . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 • Using the Depth of Field Preview Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 • Capturing the Star Effect with a Small Aperture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 • Large and Small Aperture Consideration . . 79 • Motion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 • Final Thoughts on ISO Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . 87 • Shutter Speed and Aperture Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
Chapter 5 Camera Modes and Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Selecting a Light Meter Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 • Multizone Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 • Center-Weighted Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 • Spot Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 • Averaging Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 • Partial Meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 • Author’s Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Why So Many Scene Modes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 • Should an Enthusiast Use Scene Modes? . . 100 What about Auto Exposure Mode? . . . . . . . . . . 101 • When Is Auto Exposure Mode Appropriate?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 • What Are Some Drawbacks to Auto Exposure Mode? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Exploring Semiautomation for More Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 • P: Programmed Auto Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 • S or Tv: Shutter Priority Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 • A or Av: Aperture Priority Mode . . . . . . . . . . 104 • M: Manual Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Chapter 6 Understanding Image Formats . . . . . . . . . .109 Image Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 • JPEG Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 • TIFF Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 • RAW Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 • Combined RAW + JPEG Shooting (Two Images at Once) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Channel and Bit Depth Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Chapter 7 Histogram, Color Space, and White Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Section One: Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 • RGB Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 • Luminance Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 • Understanding a Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Section Two: Color Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 • Camera and Eye Compared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 • Which Color Space Should I Choose? . . . . . . 128 Section Three: White Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 • How Does White Balance Work? . . . . . . . . . . 129 • White Balance and RAW Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . 133 • White Balance Ambient Light Reading Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Afterword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
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