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Language Education Policy: The Arab Minority in Israel


The Israeli reality points to a number of deep divisions among the population (such as between Sephardi-Ashkenazi, Orthodox-secular, men-women, Arab-Jew), most of which, in our opinion, are progressively decreasing as time passes. The Arab-Jewish divide is the deepest of all, and there is still no solution. In spite of its intensity, it did not enjoy a centrality whether in public debates or in academia. This subject has only come on the agenda after sharp tensions between Arabs and Jews.
In this book we will explore in more detail some aspects of the Arab-Jewish divide, which raise fundamental questions regarding the place of the Arabs and Arab language education in the Jewish State. More specifically, the aim of this book is to describe and analyze language education in the Arab society in Israel from the establishment of the state in 1948 until today. For this purpose, internal processes, which are embedded within the Arab population itself were examined, such as the socio-economic condition of the population, the diglossic situation in the Arabic language, and the wide use of Hebrew among Arabic speakers. Furthermore, the book also deals with external processes such as the policy of control and inspection of the Ministry of Education over the Arab education system in general and on language education in particular, the dominance of Hebrew, and the definition and perception of Israel as a Jewish State. The influence of both internal and external processes on language education and learning achievements will also be extensively discussed. A comprehensive examination was made of Arabic, Hebrew and English, as well as the teaching of French in a number of community schools.
The target group for this book are people who are concerned with sociolinguistics, language education, and language policy and planning. This book will be also of special interest to Arab language teachers and policy-makers in Israel.

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Preface by the Series Editors Preface Acknowledgements List of Tables List of Figures
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.Language, Identity and Policy 2.The Linguistic Hegemony in Israel and the Place of Arabic 3.Arab Identity Repertoire and Education 4.Assumptions
xi xv xix xxi xxiii
1 1 4 9 14
CHAPTER 2 The Arabs in Israel: Internal and Regional Developments17 1.The Jewish State and The Arab Minority17 2.Internal Developments20 2.1Demography20 2.2SocioEconomic Reflections23 2.3Education as an Agent for Change27 3.Regional Developments31 3.1PanArabism and the Concept of the Impermanence of Israel (19481967).31 3.2and its ImplicationsThe 1967 War 33 3.3Accelerated Palestinization (19731987)33 3.4The Palestinian Intifada (19871991)35 3.5The Peace Agreements (1993 to the Present)36
CHAPTER 3 The Linguistic Repertoire: Sociolinguistic and Political Aspects 1.Introduction 2.Arabic 2.1Arabic in the World 2.2Diglossia in Arabic 2.3Policy towards Arabic in the Arab World 2.4Arabic among the Arabs in the State of Israel 2.4.1Israeli PalestinianArabic 2.4.2Characteristics of developing Palestinian Arabic in Israel
39 39 42 42 43 45 46 46 47
2.4.3The Status of Arabic in Israel and Policy Issues 2.4.4The Struggle to Improve the Status of Arabic in Israel 3.Hebrew 3.1Hebrew as the Dominant National Language 3.2Knowledge and Use of Hebrew 3.3Influence of Hebrew on the ArabsThe Degree of 3.4Teaching HebrewThe Importance of 4.English and Other Languages 5.Summary
CHAPTER 4 Policy and Teaching Arabic as a Mother Tongue 1.A Historical Review 1.11917The Ottoman Period until 1.2The Mandate Period (19171948) 2.After the Establishment of Israel 2.1The Old Curriculum (19481967) 2.2The Improved Curriculum (19681980) 2.3The New Curricula (19811995) 2.3.1High School Curriculum (1981) 2.3.2Curriculum for the Junior High Schools (1985) 2.3.3The Curriculum for the Elementary School (1989) 2.4An Evaluation of the New Curriculum 2.4.1The Relationship to Arab Culture and National Identity 2.4.2Palestinian Literature 2.5The New Policy towards the Teaching of Arabic 3.The Teaching of Arabic in the Schools 3.1The Number of Teaching Hours 3.2Evaluation and Measurement 3.2.1Feedback Tests in the Elementary and in the Junior High Schools 3.2.2Results of Matriculation Examinations in the High School 3.3The Arab Students who are Studying Arabic 4.Conclusions
50 52 54 55 56 58 58 59 60
61 61 61 62 64 65 68 69 69 71 72 74 74 75 76 77 77 78 78 82 83 84
CHAPTER 5 Policy and Teaching Hebrew as a Second Language 1.Stages in the Development of the Teaching of Hebrew 1.1the State (19481971)First Stage: After the Establishment of 1.1.1The Debate on the Subject of Imparting Hebrew to the Arabs 1.1.2Hebrew Teaching Goals 1.1.3The Problem of Teachers 1.1.4Textbooks 1.2Second Stage: The Period between 19721995 1.2.1Curriculum for the Elementary School 1.2.2Curriculum for the Junior High School 1.2.3Curriculum for the High Schools 1.31995)The New Language Education Policy (June, 2.The Teaching of Hebrew in the Schools 2.1Students 2.2Contents 2.3Evaluation and Measurement 2.3.1The Situation in the Elementary and Junior High Schools 2.3.2The Situation in the High School 2.3.3The Matriculation Examinations 2.4Arab Students Studying Hebrew in Institutions of Higher Education 3.Conclusions
CHAPTER 6 Policy and Teaching English as a First Foreign Language 1.Introduction 2.English Curricula – Chronological Review 2.1The Mandate Period (19171948) 2.2The Curriculum after the Rise of the State (19481969) 2.31970sThe Curriculum since the 2.4The New Curriculum 3.The Teaching of English in The Arab Schools 3.1Number of Students 3.2Training of Teachers for Teaching of English 3.3Inspections and Guidance 3.4Textbooks 3.5Evaluating Achievements 3.5.1Feedback Tests
87 87 87 88 89 92 93 95 95 96 97 97 98 98 98 100 100 101 101 102 103
105 105 107 107 109 110 110 111 111 111 113 113 114 114
3.5.2Matriculation Examinations 3.Conclusion
CHAPTER 7 Policy and Teaching French as a Second Foreign Language 1.Historical Background 1.1French in Arab Countries 1.2Teaching French in PalestineThe History of 2.The Curriculum 2.1Teaching Goals 2.2The Curriculum in French 3.French in the Arab SchoolsThe Teaching of 4.The Attitude of Arab Students to the French Language 5.Conclusion
CHAPTER 8 Language Attitudes and Ideologies 1.The Investigation 1.1the RespondentsCharacteristics of 1.2QuestionsProcedures and Types of 2.Results 2.1Attitudes towards Arabic, Hebrew and English 2.1.1Arabic 2.1.2Hebrew 2.1.3English 2.2Impressions from various Languages and Groups 3.Conclusion
Epilogue Appendix I Appendix II Bibliography Subject Index
115 116
119 120 120 121 122 122 123 124 125 126
127 128 128 129 130 130 131 132 134 135 137
139 151 157 171 189