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Mille ans de civilisation méso-américaine

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Mille ans de civilisations mésoaméricaines Des Mayas aux Aztèques

LA QUÊTE DU CINQUIÈME

SOLEIL

@ L'Harmattan, 1995 ISBN: 2-7384-3200-X

Sous la direction

de Jacqueline
Georges Baudot

de Durand-Forest

et

Mille ans de civilisations mésoaméricaines Des Mayas aux Aztèques

LA QUÊTE DU CINQUIÈME SOLEIL
Ouvrage ministère

publié avec le concours
supérieur

du

de l'Enseignemel1t

et de la Recherche

Éditions L'Harmattan
5-7, rue de L'ÉcolePolytechnique 75005 Paris

INTRODUCTION

Jacqueline

de DURAND-FOREST Georges BAUDOT

"En étudiant les Lacandons~ j'ai dû forcément remonter aux Mayas, leurs ancêtres, plus tard, c'est la civilisation aztèque qui m'a attiré par la fascination qu'exercent son art, sa Langue, son organisation sociale et politique, sa pensée mythique et théologique. En dépit des destructions, l'abondance des vestiges et des documents demeure prodigieusel." C'est précisément pour répondre aux div~rs centres d'intérêt du grand savant américaniste que fut Jacques Soustelle qu'ont été conçues les contributions réunies ici. Elles émanent de ses collègues, amis et anciens élèves, et sont autant de mises au point sur toute une série de problèmes concernant la civilisation aztèque.

La première partie du volume comprend plusieurs articles consacrés à
l'Ethnohistoire et au Nahuatl. Deux des plus grands tl-nahuatlatos" traducteurs du célèbre Codex de Florence, Charles E. Dibble et Arthur J. O. Anderson nous donnent dans leurs articles respectifs une leçon d'humilité, mais aussi de maîtrise dans la traduction et l'interprétation de la langue aztèque. C.,eorgesBaudot, pour sa part, a choisi de traduire plusieurs poèmes écrits en nahuatl par des Seigneurs de Mexico-Tenochtitlan, de Huexotzinco etc., à la mémoire d'amis disparus, tandis que Patrick Saurin montre comment les Aztèques ont laissé transparaître leur conception du corps dans leurs devinettes.
1 Jacques SOUSTELLE,Les quatre Soleils, Paris, Plon, Terr,~Hunlaine, 1967, p. 229.

6
Marc Thouvenot présente son projet

La quête du cinquième soleil

- en

cours - d'élaboration d'une

bibliothèque informatique regroupant les textes en nahuatl et les autres
documents pictographiques du Fonds mexicain de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris, en attendant de l'étendre à d'autres collections. L'étude du vocabulaire du don, à partir des discours prononcés actuellement dans une communauté nahuatl du Guerrero à l'occasion des mariages, des cérémonies religieuses et des fêtes civiles, a conduit Danièle Dehouve à conclure que les Nahuas conçoivent les échanges comme un va-et-vient de travail entre les hommes - ce qui assure la permanence de l'univers.

La deuxième partie du volume regroupe des articles traitant des sources historiques, de l'Histoire et de la Civilisationaztèque. Joaquin Cralarzas'intéresse aux documents indigènes, à leur nature, aux conventions qui ont présidé à leur élaboration et qu'il faut prendre en compte pour parvenir à une "lecture totale." Antoon Vollemaere,quant à lui, analyse le Codex Telleriano-Remen'sis,et en particulier les pages 25-28,qui présentent, ainsi qu'il le souligne, une séquence de l'histoire de la migrationaztèque-culhuavers lavalléede Mexico. Remarquant la parenté entre la Cronica Mexicana de Tezozomoc et la Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana e Islas de la Tierra Firme (vol. 1) du dominicain Diego Duran, Ruben Romero Galvan émet l'hypothèse que le
manuscrit dont celui-ci se serait inspiré aurait été écrit après 1576, par un ancien élève du collège de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, peut-être Tezozomoc lui-même ou l'un de ses proches. Se penchant sur l'œuvre de même Duran, German Vazquez Chamorro montre, exemples à l'appui, que le dominicain aurait parfois remanié les sources qu'il a utilisées, et que de ce fait il doit être lu avec une certaine circonspection. C'est aux premiers chroniqueurs acolhuas que s'intéresse Patrick Lesbre : les anonymes qui ont inspiré les Annales de Cuauhtitlan, Duran, Chimalpahin, Torquemada, Alva Ixtlilxochitl, et ceux bien connus tels don Alonso Axayacatl Ixhuetzcatocatzin, don Antonio Pimentel, don Gabriel de Ayala, don Hernando Pimentel etc., les deux premiers ayant été utilisés respectivement par Ixtlilxochitl et Torquemada. Pour sa part, Nigel Davies remet en cause celtaines idées reçues concernant

l'Empire aztèque, notamment l'existence supposée de garnisons dans les
principaux centres de provinces. Contrairement à l'opinion de divers spécialistes, les motivations religieuses ne lui paraissent jouer qu'un rôle secondaire. L'étude de Rudolf van Zantwijk sur les noms personnels de la Famille royale aztèque nous apprend que le système de parenté des Aztèques était bilatéral, mais que la transmission pouvait se faire par lignées consanguines. Il n'y avait donc pas d'organisation clanique, comme l'avaient soutenu Alfonso Caso et d'àUtres mexicanistes.

Introduction

7

Si Motecuhzoma II, le dernier grand souverain aztèque, a bien cherché à renforcer cet Empire et à affirmerson rôle prééminent dans la Triple Alliance,les réformes qu'il a édictées ne traduisent pas, selon Michel Graulich, l'orgueil démesuré dont il fut accusé, et que la postérité aurait commodément tenu pour responsable de la fin d'une ère. Marc Eisinger, de son côté, donne un aperçu des computs américains et de

leurs aspects mathématiques, tandis que Birgitta Leander de Silvadépeint
l'éducation des jeunes gens, telle qu'elle ressort des "Huehuetlatolli" ou discours moraux des Aztèques. Se référant à des documents coloniaux, Constanza Vega Sosa donne, quant à elle, des précisions sur Santiago Zapotitlan et sur le site archéologique de Temelican, situé dans l'ancien royaume de Tlachinollan (actuel Tlapa, dans l'État de Guerrero). L'article suivant de Miguel Lean Portilla sert de transition avec la troisième partie du volume, consacrée à la religion et à la cosmologie; il concerne, en effet,

l'eau, les moyens techniques pour la maîtriser, et son rôle symbolique essentiel,
puisqu'aux yeux des Aztèques, le monde était entouré des eaux divines et célestes, et l'être humain marqué par l'eau durant toutes les étapes de sa vie. S'appuyant sur les données ethnographiques modernes, José Alcina Franch estime qu'il faut réviser notre appréciation de la cosmovision mexica, qui ne correspondrait pas à la présentation verticale trop européanisée du Codex Rios tardif, mais bien plutôt à celle pyramidale des Tzotzils du Zinacantan ou de Larrainzar par exemple, voire même des Kogi de Colombie. Henry B. Nicholson analyse trois sculptures fragmentaires aztèques, qu'il identifie comme étant des "cuauhxicalli" ("récipients d'aigles"), destinés à recueillir le cœur et le sang des victimes. Leurs motifs décoratifs, entre autres l'atl-tlachinolli - les glyphes de l'eau et du feu -, symbole de la guerre sacrée chargée de nourrir le soleil-le pivot de l'univers - indiquent bien que de tels récipients servaient au culte de Tonatiuh, le dieu du soleil. C'est également à la sculpture mexica que s'intéressent Élisabeth Baquedano et Nicholas James, et en particulier à plusieurs monuments: le Teocalli de la

Guerre sacrée, le monument d'Ahuitzotl, la Hacmack Box etc. - dont les représentations symboliques de la guerre et du sacrifice leur paraissent être
associées à Tlaltecuhtli, la divinité de la terre, plutôt qu'a u Soleil. De même, ainsi que le montre Patricia Rieff Anawalt, chez les Aztèques le "quechquemitl" (sorte de pèlerine, originaire de la Côte du CJÛlfeet ayant fait son apparition entre 150 et 300 ap. J.C.) caractérisait les déesses de la fertilité: Tlazolteotl, Chalchiuhtlicue et surtoutXochiquetzal alors qu'à l'époque classique, à Teotihuacan par exemple, le "quechquemitl" était d'utilisation courante, comme il l'est encore de nos jours dans la Sierra nord de Puebla. Le "quechquemitl-Figura"

8

La quête du cinquième soleil

de San Pablito est orné d'animaux, JX>ur ommémorer ceux sous la forme desquels c les "nahuales" du village ont rempolté une bataille sur leurs confrères de la Côte du Golfe. La représentation dans le Codex BfJrgia, et la description dans les documents coloniaux de Nanahuatzin, le dieu bubonneux, semble bien correspondre, selon Jill Leslie Mc-Keever Furst, à celle d'un individu malt dans les flammes. Le mythe de la création du Soleil et de la Lune raconte, en effet, comment ce dieu, se jetant dans le brasier divin, s'est transformé en Soleil. Ses membres contorsionnés dépeignent "l'attitude pugilistique" d'une victime brûlée, attitude que l'on retrouve sur la statue olmèque dénommée "le Lutteur", qui pourrait être une version précoce du dieu du Soleil tirant sa chaleur et son pouvoir du feu. Eloïse Quinones Keber insiste, quant à elle, sur la fonction rituelle et pas seulement divinatoire du "Tonalamatl" (calendrier de 260 jours divisé en treizaines). Prenant comme exemple celui contenu dans le Codex Borbonieus, elle montre aussi qu'il enregistre les "fêtes mobiles", non incluses dans le calendrier solaire (de 365 jours), ainsi que celtains personnages, comme dans la 7è Treizaine, Chieonleeoatl, la déesse du maïs dont le nom calendaire "7 Serpent" correspondait au jour de sa fête, tombant le 7è jour de la dite treizaine. Les "images" des treizaines de ce codex sont remarquables tant pour leur qualité picturale que pour les activités rituelles, souvent peu connues, qu'elles représentent. Doris Heyden se penche sur la nature et les fonctions d'un dieu adopté par les Aztèques, Xipe Totee (Notre Seigneur l'Écorché), dont l'origine est à chercher dans la région des Yopi-Tlappanèques (située dans l'État actuel du Guerrero), qui était très riche en matières premières, en or principalement, ce qui explique sans doute que Xipe Tote,e soit devenu le patron des orfèvres; lié à la végétation, mais aussi dieu de la médecine (des maladies de la peau et des yeux), Xipe devint le protecteur des Souverains aztèques. C'était à l'occasion de sa fête, en "Tlacaxipeualiztli", qu'était sacrifié le plus grand nombre de victimes. C'est à Tlaloc, le numen de la pluie, que s'intéresse Jacqueline de DurandForest, qui se propose de dresser l'inventaire des caractéristiques du dieu d'après ses représentations plastiques et pictographiques (les descriptions en nahuatl

servant de point de départ), puis à rechercher si les variantes dans les représentations nous renseignent sur les fonctions de la divinité. Certaines interprétations récentes de Tlaloc font ensuite l'objet d'un examen et d'un
commentaire. Le dieu martial au rituel sanguinaire honoré par les Maya n'avait apparemment que très peu à voir avec la divinité de la pluie du Haut-Plateau central. Tout au plus peut-on admettre que le "Tlaloc Bit identifié par E. Pasztory devint le patron de Teotihuacan à la suite de son expansion (surtout commerciale). Le Temple de Quetzalcoatl de Teotihuacan ne repl~ésentait donc pas seule91ent le temps différencié, COOlmeune thèse récente le suppose, mais une année solaire complète avec alternance de la saison sèche et de la saison des pluies, d'où la

Introd uctio n

9

présence sur la "coiffure" de cipactli placée à côté de la tête du Serpent à plumes de deux cercles concentriques qui font sans doute référence au dieu de la pluie. Partant des sources anciennes et d'observations de terrain répétées chez les indiens Tzotzils contemporains, Ulrich Kahler fait une double mise au point, à la fois sur l'interprétation sémantique du nom du dieu du feu et sur les moyens d'éclairage des Aztèques. Xiubtecubtli lui paraît bien signifier le "Seigneur de la turquoise", mais aussi le "Seigneur des météores" et non le "Seigneur de l'année". Xi-ub étant, selon Ce même spécialiste, une expression archaïque ,à la signification première de "feu" ou de "flambeau" simplement. Les manuscrits pictographiques montrent bien l'utilisation par les Aztèques de flambeaux, lors des fêtes particulières ou des cérémonies publiques. De tels flambeaux étaient faits de

plusieurs bûches liées ensemble par une corde, comme l'auteur a pu en voir
encore chez les Tzotzils. En référence également avec son travail de terrain, Dominique Fournier se

propose de montrer le rôle primordialde "pulque", ou pour mieux dire de l'''octli'', chez les Aztèques, aussi bien pour les repas quotidiens, moments
privilégiés de réunions, que lors de fêtes spéciales, comme celle dUfIzcalli".Au cours de cette cérémonie célébrée tous les quatre ans en l'honneur du dieu du feu, on perçait les oreilles des enfants, qui étaient ensuite initiés à la consommation du pulque. C'était également le moment de tailler les agaves et les figuiers de barbarie, afin d'en favoriser leur croissance, pratique encore en usage le Samedi Saint au Mexique, ces dernières années. L'enquête ethno-technologique menée par l'auteur lui pelmet de soutenir l'hypothèse d'une corrélation solide entre le binôme agave / pulque et la notion de territorialité.

Dans cette étude comme dans la précédente, le passé et le présent se
rejoignent, l'ethnographie vient éclairer et compléter l'ethnohistoire, et mettre en évidence la survivance de pratiques culturelles profondément ancrées chez les Indiens du Mexique. Toutes les contributions rassemblées dans ce volume témoignent de la part de leurs auteurs respectifs, du même souci d'appréhender la civilisation aztèque in se et per se, et de faire le point sur nos connaissances dans ce domaine, comme aimait à le faire celui auquel ces mélanges sont dédiés.

Que tous ceux qui nous ont aidés d'une manière ou d'une autre à les
constituer soient ici très sincèrement remerciés.

£ES 74i!'1:ÈOUES

Ethnohistoire

et nahuatl

REFLECTIONS THE

ON THE FLORENTINE

TRANSLATION CODEX

OF

Charles E DIBBLE Professeur étnérite de la School of American Research, Utah During our labors of translation it was always comforting to know there were knowledgeable colleagues in Mexico, who relnained ever-willing to share their extensive knowledge of Nahuatl with us. There were two who afforded us both earlyand continuous help Byron McAfee and Father Angel Maria Garibay K Byron McAfee was one of the most delightful free-spirits it has been my good fortune to know. Born and raised in Waco, Texas, after his education and some teaching, he Inoved to Mexico, where he worked for El Aguila Oil COlnpany as a time-keeper and a book-keeper. When El Aguila Oil Company was expropriated in the thirties, he recalled that he quit his job and threw away his watch. He said that from that titne on he learned how to live without spending money. When problems of translation mounted, I took a bus or train to Mexico for the help of McMee and Father Garibay. Many were my visits with McMee. He lived at esquina Tetrazzini and Rio Consulado. His house was enclosed within an eight foot chain-link fence. Within were six to eight assorted barking dogs. On Sundays I could only visit him in the afternoon, because during the morning he was always at the local markets searching for and buying books. When I called in the afternoon, I pounded on the locked gate. A lady caIne out, drove away the dogs, unlocked the gate and escorted me to the front door. Then she shouted upstairs: ''Viene el senor" or ''Viene el senor Americano." McAfee caine down the stairs, always in his stocking feet and always pulling his suspenders up over his shoulders. He then escorted me upstairs into his world of books.

14

La quête du cinquième soleil

Upstairs there were so many books there was room for a bed, a table, chairs, dogs and nothing else. No walls were visible, only books. On occasions when he was sick we moved books from the bed and the chairs so I could visit with him. The sunday afternoon visits are still vivid. We would Inove the table out on a veranda overlooking Rio Consulado, which at that time was filled with sluggish water and lined with refuse. With dogs under the table and accompanied by the hum of activity along Rio Consulado, we worked at translation. I still remember my shudder when he would drop his first edition of Molina on the cement floor. To my knowledge, McAfee never threw anything awayand never sold a book. Yet he was free and generous with his knowledge and his books. He mailed me a copy of Sermonario de Mijangos, which he had typed on the back of canceled payment vouchers from El Aguila Oil Company. On one occasion he observed that my Spanish dictionary was not the best. Months later I received an uninsured, poorly wrapped package, loosely tied with string. It was the second edition of Diccionario Espanola de la Academia published in 1783. During one visit he relnarked that his wife had died. It was only then that I learned that the lady downstairs was his wife. After his death I called at his house to inquire regarding his IibralY. It was then I learned that his wife was a sister to Diego Rivera. I first Inet Father Garibay in 1942, when I was working on the C6dice en Cruz. He then lived along the plaza at Tlatelolco. I would enter a dark staÏ1way leading to the second floor. We would spread codices and doculnents on the floor ofhis apartment. I recall the absolute enthusiasln, joy and abandon with which he helped nle on glyphs and Nahuatl words. Father Garibay subsequently Inoved to Calle Buen Tono 347. For some twenty years McAfee and the Father Inet at the Father's house at 10:30 every Wednesday morning. There for two hours they would translate sections of Sahagun's Historia or other Nahuatl texts. When I arrived in Mexico they would switch to the Book and chapters which were troubling Ine. These sessions dealt Inainly with Books IX and XII. Arriving about 10:30, we were greeted by Father Garibay's sister. The Father joined us, and, after conversing briefly on some recent publications, he placed a green visor over his forehead and sat with the Paso y Troncoco edition of Sahagun propped on the table. McAfee stood to his right, I stood to his left. The Father would read a passage in Nahuatl with enthusiastic expression. Then he would translate the passage orally into Spanish. McAfee, who had worked on the text during the week, would exalnine the passage criticallyand agree or disagree with the Father. My gratitude to these two scholars is profound and lasting. Their advice and encouragement had an enriching impact on our work. You can well imagine the anxiety Arthur Anderson and I sensed in 1950 as we awaited the critical assesslnent of Book I by the reviewers. About that time a letter fronl Father Garibay commented favorablyon our translation. I recalllny elation and saying to Inyself : "The world can say what it will, Father Garibay says it is O.K.". I turn to an observation made by Arthur Anderson in his essay in the index volume:

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

15

We are aware of the fluctuations between the 1110reliteral and the more literary translation as we have rnoved from one Book to another. The circumstance has not concerned us unduly since we feel that we have adequately conveyed the meaning. In some instances we have been moved by the context, in sorne by the terminology in Sahagun's Spanish text, in others by the various authorities we have consulted. A number of factors have contribued to a degree of variation in our English translation. One derives from our procedure in preparing a final version. At times Arthur would modify his version of a chapter while consulting mine. On other occasions I would modify my version of a chapter while consulting his, or I would rnodify his version while consulting rnine. However, before a final version of each Book was completed, we conferred over a period of tirne to assure internal consistency. This procedure in preparing a final version will account for some variation in word choice and phrasing. A second factor resulted fron1 our increased understanding and new insights as the work progressed. I cite one exarnple. We first translated calpulli as tribal temple. This is unsatisfactory and the word tribal is inept. Further research revealed that authorities are not in corn piete agreement regarding the nature of the calpulli. Therefor we subsequently modified our translation and used the Nahuatl word calpulli. As a third factor, we realize there n1ay be variations frorn one Book to another. We were aware of how SahagÜn's corpus was cornpiled. This involved the passage of tirne, a variation in informants, a shift in locale and a shift in subject Inatter. Our translation was tempered by the context and subject rnatter of each Book. We strived to make the translation of each Book internally consistent and concerned ourselves less with how the word had been previously translated. Metaphors always presented a problern. I cite an exalnple : Tlilli, Tlapalli, either the
literal rendition

- "the

black, the red", or the n1etaphorical

"codex or ancient

custorns"

is

intelligible. However, the phrase "nil/i, Tlapalli 1'lict/alia" Ineans literally "I set down the black, the red", and metaphorically "I provide a good exarnple". Clarity would favor the metaphorical rendition. We Inade a concientous effort to note the literal and metaphorical variations in our footnotes.

Paralelismopresented a sitnilarprobleln. I cite one exarnple.The words 1'lecuilto1'lolli, 1'letlal1zacti/li mean joy and happiness or riches and wealth. We could have averted a choice by rendering joy and wealth, yet the paraHel structure cOlnpelled us to Inake a choice and often the context would justify either translation.
I have often said the only valid \\Tayto translate SahagÜn would be to translate the Historia and then, with the acquired knowledge and insight so gained, proceed to translate the Historia. To a degree this we have done. Books, I, II, III, and XII were revised and published after we c0l11pleted the translation in 1969. On the ren1aining Books we spent long hours critically reviewing each Book and satisfied ourselves that they weren 't too bad.

HERE

IT IS TOLD...

Arthur

J

O. ANDERSON d'Utah

Pro.fesseur él1u!rite à l'Université

"In December, 1531, on the hill at Tepeyacac, north of Mexico City, a series of supernatural events occured. A personage appeared before an Indian, a native of Cuauhtitlan, and entrusted a commission to him. The personage said she was the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and the commission was to take a message to the Bishop of Mexico: to ask for the building of a church right there, at the place where she appeared before the Indian" 1. With this summary Angel M. Garibay K. starl,; one of his discussions of an anonymous document, generally known as El Nican 11lopohua (Here It is Told...)2, that tells the whole story. The account (which I have abridged) begins thus: Ten years after Mexico the city had been conquered, when the arrow, when the shield had been stilled, when alr~ady there was peace among the city folk, just as already there began, already budded, already burgeoned forth the Faith, the knowledge of Him by Whose grace is life, the true god, God,

Ye yuh tllatlacxihuitl in opehualoc in ad tepetl Mexico, yn ye Otll0tnanin nlid, in chimalli,
in ye ontlatnatcatnani tepehuacan; in tnaca zan ye opeuh, ye xotla, ye cueponi in tlaneltoquiliztli, in iximachocatzin in ipalnemohuani nelli Tood DIOS. in ahuacan, in

18

Ll quête du cinquième soleil

when indeed it was the year of fifteen thirty-one, after the first few days of the month, December,

ln huel iquac in ipan Xihuitl mil y quinientos, y treinta y uno; quin iuh iquezquilhuioc in metztli Diziembre it happened that there was an humble mochiuh oncatca ze macehualtzintli, commoner, a poor young man: Juan Diego was his Icnotlapaltzintli itoca catca Juan Diego... naIne...

And as he came arrivingnear the little hill, the place named Tepeyacac, already dawnwas breaking. He heard singing on the sunlInit of the hill as if various precious birds were singing; their voices re-echoed, as if the mountains kept answering them. Veryloving,very pleasing was their song,
Inore so than the bell-voiced bird, or the trogon,

auh in azico inahuac tepetzintli in itocayocan Tepeyacac ye tlatlalchipahua, concac in icpac tepetzintli cuicoa, yuhquin nepapan tIazototome cuica, cacahuani in intozqui, quinananquilia Tepetl, iuhquin in

huel cenca teyolquima, tehuellalnachtia incuic

quicenpanahuia in coyoltototl, in tzinitzcan

as well as other precious birds that sing like ihuan yn oc zequin tIazototolne ic cuica ; that. Juan Diego stood and looked. To himself he said: Is what I hear perhaps Iny merit, perhaps my reward? Do I perhaps dream it ? Do I only perhaps hear it in a dream? Where am I ?Where do I find Is this perhaps already what the old Inen told of as they left - the fathers of our grandfathers, our fathers' fathers the land of flowers, of our sustenance? Is it already there, this celestialland ?3

quimotztÜnoquetzinJuan Diego quitnolhui cuix nolhuil, cuix nomacehual in ye niccaqui? azo zan azo zan nictemiqui niccochitlehua, canin ye nica, canin ye ninotta, cuix ye oncan inin quitotehuaque huehuetque tachtohuan, tococolhuan
in xochitlalpan in tonacatlalpan ? cuix ye oncan inin ilhuicatlalpan ?

And hearing a voice which called to hinl - "Little Juan! Little Juan Diego!" (quilhuia juantzinjuan Diegotzin) - he climbed to the top of the hill, where he saw a lady who stood there (in ye oquinlOttili ce cibuapilli oncan 11zoquetzinoticac).

And when he went arriving in her presence,

Auh in oyuh acito in ixpantzinco,

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

19

Inuch astonished was he ho,,' resplendent, how completely adlnirable was her clothing. It shone, it gleamed like the sun, and from the rock, the crag, on which she stood, its brilliance pierced hÎln. Like precious jade it was, or like a bracelet. The earth looked like a glistening rainbow...4

cenca quinloInahuizalhui in quenin huellacenpanahuia inic cenquizca mahuizticatzintli,in itlaquentzin iuhquin tonatiuh ic motonameyotia inic pepetlaca ; auh in tetl, in texcalliinic itech moquetza, inicquimina in itlanexyotzin yuhqui in tIazochalchihuitl,maquiztli ; inic neci yuhquin ayauhcozalnalocuecueyocain tlalli...

Making allowance for certain Inannerisnls, conventions, and traditions common among the cuicapicque or song-Inakers of pre-conquest tinles, one can conlpare the wording, ideas, and visions in sOlne of the Cantares l1u!Xicanos ,,'ith those of the story of Juan Diego and the Virgin of Guadalupe, though otherwise there is no connection. between the two. Most cantares are prehispanic in either cOInposition or inspiration; some were produced y Christianized natives. In both types the land of flowers (xocbitlalli) and the land of our sustenance (tonacatlallz), ÎInportant in the ancient nlythology, frequently inspired visions alnong the cuicapièque. Here is an excerpt fronl one that shows little or no post-conquest influence, the Cuicapeuhcayotl or Beginning ~f the Songs: They thrust me in a valley, a land of plenty, a land of flowers, where the rain was tinged with sunrays, where I found all sorts of precious flagrant flowers of precious scented flowers all clothed in dew. The sunshine was all rainbow-h ued... And in my cape I gathered various flagrant flowers that really soothe the soul, that really filled one with delight.5 Tepeitic tonacatlalpa, nechcalaquique 0 onca onahuachtonanleyotÜnani oncan niquitL1c aya in nepapan tlaçoahuiac xoch itI tlaçohuelic xochitl ahuachquequentoc
ayauhcoçalnalotonalneyotimani.. Auh ninocuecuexantia . ahuiac

xochitlalpa

in nepapan

xochiI t
in huel teyolquitna in huel tetlalnachti...

In SOInethe influence of the nlissionaries is seen in substitutions or additions of Christian ternlS or nanles, sOlnetÎlnesdone rather clulnsily. In the followinglines from a Xopancuicatl (Spring Song) the attenlpt to purifythe poenl is not obtrusive.
I have entered here, I the singer, into the land of varied flowers, Onihualcalac nicuicani nepapan xochitlalpan

20

L1quête du cinquième soleil

the land of real delights, the land of joy, where sprinkle drops of sunlight, where various precious songbirds sing and sing. There the bell.voiced bird lifts up his song. His precious voice resounds to delight Him of the Near and of the Nigh, [to delight] Him Who is God.6

huel teellelquixtican tedam ach tican, onean ahuachtonalneyoquiauhtimani, onean cuicuica in nepapan daçototome, oncuicadaça in coyoltototl eahuantinlani in itozquitzin in quellelquixtia in tloque in nahuaq yehuan Dias ohuaya ohuaya

The narration of Juan Diego's story continues with the COlnn1ission that the Virgin entrusted to him in these lines from the Nican l1lopobua :

Know it, [keep it] well within your heart,
tny youngest son, that I am the cOinpletely ever Virgin, Saint Mary, Mother of the most true god, of God

ma xiclnati, l11ahuel yuh ye in moyollo
noxocoyouh ca nehuad in nicequizca cemicac ichpochtli Santa Maria in inantzin in huel nelli Teod Dias

of Hin1 by whose indulgence there is life, in ipalnelnohuani, in teyocoyani, in Tloque Creator of Inankind, Lord of the Near and Nahuaque of the Nigh, Lord of Heaven, Lord of the Earth. I indeed require, I most ardently desire that they erect me here Iny church where I shall show, I shallIllake shall give the people known, in ilhuicahua in tlalticpaque, huel nicnequi, cenca niql1elehuia inic nican nechql1echilizque noteocaltzin in oncan nicnextiz, nicpantlazaz,
nicten1 acaz

all my love, my compassion and my favor, lny protection; for in truth I am the nl0ther Inost cOtnpassionate of you and all you people gathered here on earth and of still other various people, those who love tne, who cry out to me, those who seek Ine, who have faith in Ille; for there l'll hear them in their weeping, in their misery,

in ixquich notetlazotlaliz, noteicnoyttaliz, notepalehuiliz, in notelllanahuiliz ca nel nehuatl in nan1oicnohuacanantzin in tehuatl ihuan in ixquichtin inic nican
tlalpan ancepantlaca

ihl1an in oc cequin notetlazocahuan
notechn1 otelnachilia,

nepapan

tlaca

in notechn1otzazilia, in nechtelnoa in

ca oncan niquincaquiliz in inchoquiz, in intlaocol so that I'll set aright, ru heal all their inic nicyectiliz,nicpatiz in ixquich nepapan various misery, their tonnent and their innetoliniliz,in tonehuiz, inchichinaquiliz. pain.

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

21

And so that it can be confinned

Auh inic huel neltiz

that I am giving thought to my on nicnlelia in noteicnoyttaliz ma xiauh in compassion, go to Bishop's palace there in ompa in itecpachan in Mexico Obispo, Mexico, and you will tell him how I send you as a

auh tiquilhuiz
nim itztitlani

in quenin

nehua

messenger
so that you 'II disclose how I indeed most ardently desire that he provide me here a house, that he erect for me my church on level ground. You will report it all to hinl, all that you have seen, that you have marveled at, and what you've heard.7

inic ticyxpantiz in quenin huel cenca nicelehuia in ina nican nechcalti nechquechili in ipan in tlalmantlinoteocal ;
huellnoch ticpohlliliz in ixqllich in otiquittac, oticmahuizo ihuan in tlein oticcac;

In the passage just ended the Virginhas said: "I am the mother most compassionate of... those... who cry out to Ine, who have faith in Ine ; for there l'll hear them in their weeping, in their misery" - words reminiscent of the way in ancient times that Aztecs were expected to approach their gods with prayers and petitions. The girl dedicated to the calnzecac was promised with Inany prayers to Tloque Nahuaque, "where you are consulted, where you are called out to in sorrow... Sho,,' her mercy, receive her..." (in vncan tinotzalo, in vncan titzatzililo, in vncall titlaocolnollotzalo... tua xicl1locnelili, l1zaxicnlonelili...). When she was finallytaken there, alnong the Inany adlnonitions she was told to "[c]ry out to hinl, appeal to hinl in sorrow" (xiclnotzatzilili,
xiClnotlaocolllon och il i).

She who has wept, she who has sorrowed, she who has sighed, she who has hung her head, she ",ho has really entered into the lord's service has benefited herself; for our lord will array her; he will grant her gifts. She will attain what are her deserts, what is her Inerit. For our lord failsno oneS.

Aqujn onchocac, aqujn ontlaocux, aqujn onelciciuh, aqujn ontolo, aqujn onlllopechtecac, aqujn vel itlan onnlocalaquj otecujo : ca onmocnelili : ca t qujllluchichiviliz in totecujo, qujnlotlalnalnaqujliz : qujttaz in tlein ilhvil, in tlein ilnaceoal : ca aiac qujlnonenqujxtilia in totecujo.

Sitnilar though more terse expressions are to be found in the dedication ofboys to the telpochcalllJ. We find such sentiments again in one of the hu.ehuetlatolli published by Fr. Juan Baptista. Two ladies meet; one refers, anl0ng other things, to our lord Tloque Nahuaque, the one who protects, who assists :

22

La quête du cinquième soleil

Perhaps there [to him] go your Azo vlnpa yauh immochoquiztzin, weeping, your tears, your sighs, your immixayotzin, immelcicihuitzin, affliction,for you sigh, for you are afflicted immotlaocoyalitzin inic telcicihui, inic before the lord Tloque Nahuaque10. titlaocoya in ixpantzinco in Totecuiyo, in Tloque, in Nahuaque.

In tern1S properly Christianized, the compilers or writers of the account of the "apparitionexpected the same approach and serviceto the Virginof Guadalupe.
To return to our narrative, Bishop don Fray Juan de Zumarraga's attendants did not either at this time or later Inake it easy for Juan Diego to deliver his Inessage. Eventually, however, the Bishop received hitn. Juan Diego knelt before hin1, bowed, and then "tnade known, recounted the breath, the words of the heavently Lady" (quitnixpantilia quilnopohuililia yn ~J'otzin in itlatoltzin ilhuicac cibuapilli).

And when [the Bishop] heard it all, his Allh in oqllicac in 1110chiitlatol inetitlaniz
words, his Inessage,

it was as if he took not 111 uch [of it] to heart. He answered him, he said to him: My son, you are to come again. More calmly I shall hear you; froln its start l'II look at, l'Il consider What you've come for: your wishes, your desires11.

iuhquin al110cenca Inonelchiuhtzino, quitnonanquili, quitnolhuili nopiltze ma oc ceppa tihuallaz, oc ihuian nitnitzcaquiz huel oc itzinecan niquittaz, nicnemiliz in tlein ic otihualla in tnotlanequiliz,
1110 tlae leh II iliz.

in

Where he had first seen her, there he found her to report the Bishop's disappointing reception ofhis mission. "FraIn this I clearly saw", he said, "when he answered me, that he thinks, as to your church that you require they build you here, only that perhaps I have invented it, that perhaps it's not according to your words" (Huel itecb oniquittac in yu.h onechnanquili ca l1lO1natiin 1Jloteocaltzil1 ticlnol1equiltia lnitzf110cbibuilizq nican azo zan nehuLltl nicyocoya, acaZOlno lnotencopatzinco) :
Urgently I pray to you, 111Y dear Virgin, ca zenca nitnitznotlatlauhtilia notecllyoe, cihllapille, aca celne ixtilo, Nochpochtzine in in tlazopipiltin Inahuiztilo in itech

nlY lady, Noblewolnan,

that you entrust to a great known, honored and esteelned,

lord,

well

l11aI10ZO
ixil11acho,

in

xi cln oca h uil i

that he convey, that he take your breath, your words,

in quitquiz, motlatoltzin

yn quihuicaz

in Iniiyotzin,

yn

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

23

so that they will be believed, for I anl truly an hUlnble young man;

inic neltocoz, ca nel nicnotlapaltzintli,

I aln a tumpline, I am a carrying-fraIne ; I ca nitnecapalli, ca nicacaxtli, ca nicuitlapilli, am the tail, I am the wing: I'm one who's ca natlapalli, ca nitcocani nimamaloni, taken, who is carried on one's back. It's not Iny place to go - there where you sent me ; it's not the place for Ine to stand12, calno noneneInian, camo noquetzayan ompa tinechInihualia in

Brushing aside Juan Diego's self-disparaging excuses, the Virgin bade him return to the

Bishop: [Keep it] well in your heart that the esteeIned ones are not lny servants, Iny messengers" (nla hue/ iub ye lnoyo//o canto t/azotil1 in l1otet/ayeco/ticahuan in
notit/anhuan)
:

If

And indeed I pray to you, Iny youngest son, and strictly I conllnand you 13

auh huel nitnitztlatlauhtia noxocoyouh )~lUan nitnitztlazuauhnahuatia

that once again you are to go tOlnorrow ; ca huel oc ceppa tiaz in nl0ztla tiquittatiuh you will go to see the Bishop. in Obispo And on my behalf you will advise hitn, you will inform him clearly of my will, nlYwish, auh nopalnpa xicnelnachti, huel xiccaquiti in nocializ, in notlanequiliz in quichihuaz yuh

so that he will bring about, willlnake In)' inic quineltiliz church which I request of hitn. niquitlanilia, And once again indeed you are to tell hitn how I myselfI who aln the ever Virgin Saint, Mary, Mother of the Deity, of God I send you there as Inessenger14.

noteocal

yhuan huel oc ceppa xiquilhui in quenin huel nehuatl nicen1icac ichpoch tli Santa inantzin Teotl Dias in olnpa nitnitztitlani. Maria in

So next day, Sunday, he once Inore went to the Bishop's palace and made every effort to see him; and difficult it was to see hinl,

At his feet he knelt; he wept; he \vas afflicted as he spoke, as he set forth the breath, the words of the heavenlyLady

icxitlantzinco tlaocoya

nlotlanquequetz,

choca,

inic quitnononochilia, inic quitnixpantilia in iiyotzin, in itlatolzin in ilhuicac cihuapilli,

so that, perchance, the Inessage Inight be inic azo zan nen neltocoz in inetetlaniz credited the wishes of the perfect Virgin: that for her they would Inake, they would erect her church ic itlanequiliztzin cenquizca ichpochtli, in ic qui ln 0 chi h u i Ii z que, quilnoquechililizque in iteocaltzin i n ic

24

La quête du cinquième soleil

where she wished.

had indicated,

where

she

in canin omotlanehuili quimonequiltia.

in

canin

And the lord, the Bishop, questionned him, examined him on many things so that he would be well assured... Yet it was not then accepted. He said that through his words alone his will could not be done, be brought about. What he detnanded was that some other sign from her was needed by which would be believed that which the heavenly Lady had entrusted him as tnessenger15.

Auh in Tlatohuani Obispo huel miac tlamantli inic quitladani, quitlatemolli, inic huel iyollotnaciz... Yece amo nitnan ic omonelchiuh quitto ca ~uno zan ica itlatol itlaitlaniliz tnochihuaz tnoneltiliz ln tlein quitlani, ca huel oc itla inezca olonequi inic huel neltocoz in quenin huel yehuatzin quimotitlanilia in ilhuicac Cihuapilli.

Two cOtnplications ensued. One occurred when the Bishop instructed some of this attendants to follow Juan Diego and find out where he went. Rlther mysteriously they lost hitn and tired and angered thetnselves in their search. "Although they still looked everywhere, nowhere did they see hilll. They only turned back" (1nal1el oc nohuian tlatenl,oque anccan quittaque, zan yu/; buahnocllepque)16. their skeptical view of the affair they told hinl that he only fooled hÜn ; he just itnagined what he told; So they gave the Bishop

quihuil inic zan conlnoztlacahuilia, zan quipipique in tlein quihualtnolhuilia,

or else he only dreatned, he only heard in anoce zan oquitenlic, zan oquicochitlauh in .. dreams what she told hilll, what she tlein quitnolhuilia in tlein quitnitlanilia; requested of [the Bishop]. And indeed, so they told hitn, if once again he were to COOle,to reappear, they would seize him and imprison hÜn securely17. auh huel yuh quilll0lhuique intla oc cep pa huallaz, Inocuepaz oncan quitiztzquizque ihuan chicahuac quitlatzacuiltizque

The second complication occurred on his reaching haIne:

One of his uncles was there; Bernadino was his nanle. Sickness had settled on hilll. He layquite dangerously sick.

Juan ce itla catca itocaJuan Bernadino oitech nlotlali in cocoliztli, huel tlanauhtoc,

Duan Diego] went, first, to calla physician, oc quiticinochilito,oc ipan data who at first wasof benefit;

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

25

yet it was no longer the titne ; he was now very sick. And when it was now night his uncle

yece aocmo inman ye huel otlanauh ; auh in ye yohuac quitlatlauhti in iTla

prayed him
that when it was yet dawn, yet darkened everywhere, he should go forth, should cOlne to summon there in Tlatetolco, one of the priests to go - to go confessing preparing hitn. For it was firmly in his heart that now the time had come, that now he there was thus to die. he be weUl8. So he set forth bya circuitous route intending to postpone confronting the Virgin until he had done his duty for his uncle. As he avoided where he usually went - "[h] e was thinking... that she could not see hil11,she who stood seeing everywhere. He saw her as she came down from the sUlnlnit of the hill" (in 1noI11atiea...ca abuel quinl,(Jttiliz, in huel nohuiampa nlotztilitiea ; quittae qllenin hual1llote111oblli iepan in tepetzintli) 19. She needed no excuses, no apologies. In answer to the tale of his troubles she said: Listen. [Keep this] finnly in your heart, Iny Ina xiccaqui Ina huel yuh ye in moyoUo youngest son; noxocovouh Let this not frighten you nor trouble you. Let not your disconcerted. Inind, your heart be Ina catle tlein Initzlnauhti, Initztequipacho, InaCal110 quen moyoHo, 1110chihua in Inix in him and go

in oc yohuatzinco, oc tIatlayohuatoc hualquizazquilnonochiliqiuh
in onean Tlatilolco cerne in teopixque inic mohuicaz, quimoyolcuitilitiuh, quin10cencah uilitiuh, yeica ca huel yuh ca in iyollo ca ye inlnan, ca ye oncan inic Iniquiz ihuan

No Inore would be arise; no n10re \\Tould ca aoc Inehuaz aOCl110p atiz.

Do not fear [this] sickness nor any other sickness or Inisfortune. Ain I perchance not your Mother here? Are you perchance not in n1YShado\\T, in my shade? An1 I perchance not your life's
con ten tIn en t ?

Inaca1110xiquitnacaci in cocoliztli, Inanoze oc itla cocoliztli, cococ teopouhqui, cuix alno nican nica nÎlnonantzin ? cuix al110 nozehuallotitlan, in tica ? necauhyotitlan

cuix an10 nehuatl in nin10paccayeliz ?

Are you perchance not in In)' boson1, in n1)' cuix al110 nocuixanco, nOlnamalhuazco in ar111S ? tica ?

Do you perchance need sOlnethingInore ? cuixoc itla in n10techInonequi ? Let nothing trouble you, distress you; Inacalno oc itla 111 itztequipacho, mitzalnana,

26

Ll quête du cinquièlne soleil

let not your uncle's sickness trouble you He will not die of what's now in him; [keep it] well in your heart that he's already well...

macan10 mitztequipacho moTlatzin

in icocoliz

camo ic Iniquiz in axcan itech ca ; ma huel yuh ye in moyollo ca ye opatic...

Clilnb up, Iny youngest son, to the sun1n1it xitleco noxocoyouh in icpac in tepetzintli, of the hill ; and where you saw me and I gave you n1Y auh in canin instructions, onim itzna nah uati there you'll see that there are various flowers. Cut theIn, gather then1, asselnble theln. Then bring them down here; bring them here before Ine. And thenJuan Diego clilnbed the hill. And when he caine to reach the top, all that was there alnazed hÜn, sprouting, bursting into blooln the various precious Spanish flo,,'ers : not yet was it their tÎlne to grow, for it was just the tÎlne that ice grew hard. A migh ty fragrance was diffused. Like precious pearls the nighttÎlne dew spread averywhere. Then he began to cut theln. He gathered indeed all of then1 ; he filled his cape with then1. And there, at the sunl1nit of the hill, was not at all a place for gro,,'ing flowers.

otinechittac,

ihuan

oncan tiquittaz ono nepapan xochitl, xictetequi, xicnechico, xiccentlali, nilnan xichualtelnohui, nican nixpan xichualhuica. Auh in Juan Diego nilnan ic quitlecahui in tepetzintli, auh in oacito icpac, cenca quilnahuizo xotlatoc, cuenpontoc in ixquich onoc

in nepapan cLxtillan tlazoxochitl, in ayamo Î1nochiuhyan ; ca nel huel iquac in 1110tlapaltiliaiz cetl huel cenca ahuiaxtoc, iuhqui in tlazoepyollotli yohualahuachyotoc ; niman ic peuh in quitetequi, huellnoch quinechico, quicuixanten. Auh in oncan icpac tepetzintli ca nÎ1nan atle xochitl in it11ochiuhyan, inic

It was a rocky place, full of bralnbles, full of ca texcalla, netzolla, huihuitztla, nopalla, thorny plants, full of cacti, full of Inizquitla; Inesquites. And if small plants \\'ould grow this l11onth, auh intla xiuhtotontin l110chichihuaniin Decen1ber, iquJCin ipan l11etztli izielnbre D

the ice ate theln ; it destroyed then1a1l20.

ca l110ch quiqua quipopolohua in cetI.
,

"

Here a digression is in order to relnark how l11uchthe description of the "rocky place, full ofbralnbles, full of thorny plants, full of cacti, full of Inesquites" is like the Aztec vision of the northern "cactus steppes where long ago they had lived, arid steppes, litnitless, covered with thorny plants"21 ; ,,,here they had survived eating "large prickly pears,

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

27

ferrocactus, the fruit of the Cereus garatnhullo cactus, and acrid prickly pears"22. It is not unlike the brief visionof Mictlanin the Pri1neros rnemoriales : The obsidian knives are carried off b)' the wind. The sand is carried off by the wind. The trees are carried off by the wind. [There are] CerellS garambul/o [There are] Mexican agaves. [There are] branlbles. It is very cold [There are] ferrocacti23. cacti. The flint knives are carried off by the wind.

itztli ecatoco xalli ecatoco quavitl ecatoco

tzivactli
tecpa tl ecatoco

nequalnetl netzolli çenca çeva teucolnitl

Of that sort was the natural vegetation that Juan Diego expected to see, though in an earlier passage, when the Virgin first appeared, the plants had already been transfonned : ... the mesquites and the cacti and other various little plants that used to gro'" here

auh in nlizqllitl, in nopalli, ihllan oc cequi nepapan xiuhtotontin oncan Inochichihuani in iatlapallo ic neci ; auh in iquauhyo, in ihuitzyo, in iahuayo yuhqui in coztic teocuitlatl ic pepetlaca.

-

like emerald-green jade, like finest yuhquin quetzalitztli, yuhqui in teoxihuitl
turquoise did their leaves appear. And their wood, their thorns, their spines like gold were gleaming24.

This hill-top, "the place of Inany rocks, the place of thistles, the place of thorny plants, the place of rock cacti" (texcalla, l1etezolla, buitztla, tenopalla) was "now a field of flowers... full of all the various precious flowers pertaining to Castile" (cenquiztoc in
ixquich nepapan tlazoxocbitl in Castillal1yotl) 25.

And when thus she saw [the flowers in his auh in oyuh quinlottili inlaticatzinco cape], with her hands she took thenl ; conlnocuili ; ninlan ye oc cep pa icuexanco quihualtnotenlili, She said to him: quimolhuili, My youngest son, these various flowers, noxocoyouh inin nepapan xochitl yehuatl these are the confirmation of the sign you'll intlaneltiliz, in nezcayotl in tichuiquiliz in carry with you to the Bishop. Obispo On my behalf you'll tell hÜn that with nap alnpat iquilh uiZ 111 ic qui tta in a these, may he see to In)' ,vish, notlanequiliz, then once again she put theln in his cape.

28

L1quête du cinquième soleil

and by these, may he confinn my wishes, ihua ic quineltiliz in notlanequiliz, in Iny desires26. nociliaz.
Now contented with his mission he went direct to Mexico; "he carried properly, took good care of what he went in haste with in the folds of his cape, lest he break something" (quiyecitquiz, huel qui1nocuitlahuitihuitz in tlein icuixanco yetihuitz in 100 nen itla
qui1nacauh) .

When he caIne to reach the Bishop's palace, its Inajordolno went to Ineet hin1 and still others of the servitors of the ruler of the priests. And he prayed theln that they tell [the Bishop] that he wished to see hitn. But not one of them wished [to do so] . They did not want to hear hin1, perhaps because it was indeed still very early in the Inorning. Or because they already knew hitn ; he only troubled been offended, theIn, since they had

In oacico itecpanchan Obispo connalniquito in icalpixcauh, ihuan oc cequin tlatocaT eopixqui, itlannencahuan in

Auh quintlatlauhti inic Ina quimolhuilican in quenin quitnottiliznequi ; yece ayac celne quinec, alno conll1ocaccaneque azo ye inic huel yohuatzinco auh anoce inic ye quixitnati, za quintequipachoa pilcatinelni, yhuan ye oquinnonotzque inic imixtlan

and they had told their friends that they had gone only to lose him when they had been following after hin1. For a very long tilne he was awaiting the word.

in imicnihua

in quipoloto in iquac quitepotztocaque. Huel huecauhtica in otlatolchixticatca. in

And when [the tnajordoll1o] saw that for a auh in oquitac, ye huel huecauhtica very long titne he had now been standing oncan icac 1110tololtiticac, there, standing with head bowed, that he stood idly, in case he would be called, and that it was as if he carried something, stood holding something in his cape, they then approached could see what he was bringing, in order that they n1ight be satisfied. And whenJuan Diego saw that in no way could he hide what he ,vas bringing, hitn so that they tlatenlnatticac in azo notzaloz, ihuan in iuhquinlna quicuixanoticac itla quihualitqui

nitllan ye ic itech onacique inic quittilizque tlein quihuicatz inic inyollopachihuiz. Auh in oquittac inJllan Diego ca nin1an qllihllicatz ah uel qllin tlatiliz in tlein

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

29

that they would tornlent hinl because of it ca ic quitolinizque, quitetopehuazque no illtreat hÜn, ce ic quinl ictizque he explained a little: They are flowers. And when they saw that all were various Spanish flowers and it was not their season at this tiIne, they marveled very greatly over theIn, and [they Inarveled at] how very freshly they were bloominghow fragrant [and] how marvellous. tepiton ; quihualnextia, ca xochitl ; auh in )Tuh qllittaqlle, ca l110ch Caxtillan nepapan xochitl ihuan in canlO irnochiuh)'an in iquac, huel cenca qllitnahuizoque ; ihuan in quenin cueponi huel cenca, celtic inic

inic ahuiyac inic Inahuiztic :

And ardently they sought to grasp some, to Auh quelehuique inic quezquitetl take thein out; conanazque, quiquixtilizqlle ; but [though] thrice they succeeded daring to grasp at theIn27, in no way could they do it, for whenever they would seize then1, no longer did they see real flowers. Onlyas it were a painting or embroider)' or something stitched in a u h h 1I I ex p a In0 chi u h que e Inotlapaloque conquizquia ; nil11anahllel nl0chiuhque, yeica in iquac quiqllitzquizquia aOCI110 uel xochitl in quittaya h zan illhquilna tlacuilolli, noce tlalnachtli, noce tlatzontli in itech qllittaya tiIr11atli. in ic

did they see upon the cape.
Then they went to tell the lord, the Bishop, what they'd seen,

Nilnan jc quinl0lh uilito, in Tlatoh uani Obispo, in tlein oqllittaque.

and that the little con11noner who had no\\! ihuan in quenin quinl ottilizneq ui in CaIne nlany titnes, wished to see hin1... Inaceh ualt.zintli ye izqui pa h lIallaha uh... And the lord Bishop, when he had heard this, was then convinced then this ,vas proof... Auh in Tlatohuani quinl0caquiti Obispo in oyuh

nitnan ipan ya in iyollotzin ca yehllatl in neltica.. . Nilnan n10tlanahuatili inic nitnan calaquiz, qUÎ1nottiliz ; Auh in ocabc ixpantzinco n10pechtecac in yuh yeppa quichihuani ; in ixquich ihl1an in

Then he comInanded that he then caIne in ; he would see him. And when [Juan Diego] entered, in his presence he humbly bowed, as fOrInel)' he was
accustoIn ed,

and once again he set forth all that he had Auh oc ceppa quinlotlapohuilili seen, had Inarveled at, as well as his oquittac. In oquilnahl1izo, .. 28 inetitlaniz.. .
COInmlSSlon...

So once again he brought up every detail- the Bishop's del11and that he be given a sign before he would consent to build her church; her acceptance of the delnand,

sendingJuan Diego to the sunllnit of the hill, where he found Castillan flo\versbloon1ing

30

L1quête du cinquièlne soleil

where formely cactus grew among the rocks; her placing the flowers he had cut in his cape to carryAnd so I have confinned it. Thus you will there see something, the sign for which you asked, with which you'll bring about her wish.
Auh ca yuh nicneltilia

inic onean tienl0ttiliz in itla nezcayotl in ticmitlaniliz inic ticlnoneltililizin itlanequiliztzin;

And thus appears the confirmation of IllY Ihuan inic neci ca neltiliztli in notlatol, in notetitlaniz : words, myerrand. Here it is ; receive it. Then he opened his white cape, in whose folds he was holding the flowers. And when all the various Spanish flowers thus tunlbled out, right there the sign was given. Quickly there appeared the precious image of the perfect Virgin, Holy Mary, Mother of the Deity, of God. The likeness is now there. It is now preserved. ca izca ma xicllloeelili ; ca nÎlnan ie quihualzouh in iztae itilma ie oquicuixan oticaea xoehitl : auh in yuh hualtepeuh in ixquich nepapan Caxtillan xoehitl, nitnan oncan Illolnachioti, neztiquiz in itlazaixiptlatzin iehpoehtli iz cenquizca

Santa Maria Teotl Dios inantzin in yuheatzintli axean rnoyetztica in oncan axean Inopixtzinotiea in iteocaltzinco

It is in her precious haine, her church in in itlazochantzinco Tepeyaeae Tepeyacae, known as Guadalupe. And when the lord, the Bishop, sa\\' it, as well as all those who were there, they knelt. Much did they marvel over it. They stood looking at it. They were sad, they were repentant. It was as if their hearts, their thoughts were lifted up. And the lord Bishop, with weeping, with sadness, prayed to her; he asked her pardon, because he did not fulfill her wish, her breath, her words29.
J110toeayotia Guadalupe.

Auh in o)'uh quinl0ttili Obispo Inotlanquequetzque eenea quitnahuizoque
qu inl 0 tztitn oq 1Ietzqu e,

in Tlatoh uani

ihuan in ixquiehtin onean catea

tlaocoxqlle, Inoyoltoneuhque )'uhqllin aco ya intlalnanl iqlliliz : in

; inyollo in

Auh in Tlatohuani Obispo ehoquiztica, tlaocoyaliztiea quitnotlatlauhtili, qllÎlnitlanilili itlapopolhuililoca, inie al110nitnan oquinelti, in itlanequiliztzin in iiyotzin in itlatoltzin.

The Bishop kept Juan Diego with hinl until next day, when he had hÜn show where the church was to be erected; he had his retinue aeeolnpanied Juan Diego to visit his

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

31

uncle (now cured) and report these happenings; he kept both of them with him "for ahnost as many days as yet remained until the queenly Lady'schurch was erected" (aehi quezqui/huitl in oe ixquiehiea 11loquetzino iteoea/tzin t/atoeaCihuapilli)30 ; he exhibited the cape and its image in the Cathedral for all to see and revere.
And this precious maguey fiber cape on which was shown the perfect Virgin, our queenly Lady, is of two pieces sewn with a soft thread. Thus are [the pieces] joined. And her precious image is this large: Beginning with the soles of her feet until one reaches to the crown of her head, one has six [lnen 's] spans woman's. and one Auh inin tlazoayatzintli in itech monexiti in cenquizcaichpoch tzintli tocih uapilla tocatzin ca ozzotitica ~Hnanca icpatl inic itzontica, inie zaliuhtiea ; Auh inie quauhtie in itlazoixiptlatzin in iteeh olnpehua in ixoepaltzin inie onaei : iquayollotzineo quipia ehiquacemiztitl ihuan ce cihuaiztitl : in itlazoxayacatzin cenquiza mahuiuztic, teepiltie aehi yayaetie. inie : monextia

Her precious face is altogether malVelous. It is noble; it is a little dark-complexioned.

Her precious body from the waist up is in itlazotlaetzin displayed as if submissive; mocnolnateatzintli, her hands are together breast. upright, on her

ielpantzinco motnanepanotzinotieac, onean hualpeuhtiea in ipitzahuayantzineo Auh calnopaltie in inelpiayatzin ; Z1niyo in yeccanlpa iexitzin tepiton iquac neei in icactzin nextic : In ineehiehihualtzin tlaztalehualtie inic neei panipa ; auh in ieeeehuallopan iuhquin ehiehiltie, inie nepapan xoehitlatlamaeho, xoehitninlinqui ; auh nohuia teoeuitlatene ; izqui

There is the beginning of her waist. And brown is her waist band. Only her right foot [shows] ; a little of the point of her ashen shoe appears. Her adornment looks rose-coloured on the outside, but in its shadows it is like scarlet. It is embroidered with all kinds of flowers, all shot through with flowers; and they have golden edges everywhere.

And it is secured about her neck with a auh inie o10tzitzquitica in iquechtlantzinco golden circle striped with black, teocuitlayahualli tlilhuahuanqui with which the edge is rounded. In its midpoint is a cross. And also from within31, another garments shows. of her inie tenlnalaeachiuhtica, inepantla ca Cruz. Auh oc no tlatecpa itlaquentzin hualneei oe no ce

32

L1quête du cinquième soleil

It is soft, it is white. It is reaching right down to her wrists; it is raveled at the edges. And her outer clothing is sky-blue. It starts off right at her head; none of it covers her face. It falls clear to her feet; it is drawn in a little at her midpoint, Quite everywhere it has a golden border; rather wide is the border that it has; and everywhere it has gold stars. And all the stars [add up to] forty-six. And her head is titled toward her right hand side; and on her head there is a crown of golden broad-based points. It is above her [outer] clothing. And at her feet there is the moon. Its horns are reaching upward. She is standing in between then1.

yamanqui iztac huel imaquechtlantzinco hualaacitica, tenchayahuac. Auh in pani itlapachiuhcatzin ilhuicaxoxouhqui, huel iquapantzinco onhualehua, atle ic quitlapachoa in ixayacatzin, huel icxitlantzinco hualhuetzi achi nepantla ic mapantzinotica : huel nohuian teocuitlatene, inic tene ; achL patlactic

auh nohuian teocuitlacicitlallo ; auh in ye tnochintin cicitlaltin otnpohualtin on chiquaceten1 e Auh in itzontecontzin inic motololtiticac ; auh icpantzinco quaquah uitztic ic iyeccanpantzinco

tnani teucuitlacorona

ipan in itlapachiuhcatzin. Auh icxitlantzinco ca in tnetztli tlacpacpa in itzticac in iquaquauh huel inepantla in tnoquetzinoticac, in

And likewise she also appears as if right in auh no yuh neci huel no inepantla tonatiuh the midst of the sun, with standing behind her. Its rays reach everywhere, surrounding her. inic quin10toquiliticac in itonan1eyo nohuiatnpa quimoyahualhuiticac,

There are quite a hundred of its golden huel macuilpohualli iteocuitlapepetlaquillo, brilliances, some quite long, some quite stnall, and theyare flaminghigh.
zequi huehueyac, zequi tepitoton, ihuan cuecuetlanqui.

And all of twelve surround her face and auh huel tnatlactin otnOlne in quiyahualoa in ixayacatzin, ihuan in itzontecontzin head,
and in all there fall, each side of her, fiftyof its rays, of its brilliances. And beside them, where the edges of the cape are ending, a white cloud stands surrounding her. auh in ye tnochi nenecoc ic huetzi 0111pohuallion tnatlactli in itonameyotzin, in ipepetlaquillotzin ; auh in itlotloc inic tlatlantica iten tilmatli, iztac tnixtli in quitnoyahualhuiticac.

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

33
image and Auh inin itlazoixiptlatzinihuan in ye mochi
ca ce Angel in ipan tlaczaticac, zan huel ipitzahuayan tlantica inic neci ; auh in icxitlepa atle nezi yuhquin m ixtitlan actzica ; inic ontlami in ite tilmatli itlapachiuhcatzin ilhuicac Cihuapilli, in icxitlam patzinco huel yectli onhuehuetzi nohuian necoccatnpa quitzitzitzquiticac Angel; Auh in ineolol, in inechichiuh chichiltic, auh teocuitlatl in iquechtlan ic zaliuhtica ; auh in iatlapal nepapan quetzalli, nepapan ihuitl zozouhticac, inic

And this, her precious
everything with it,

is standing, stepping, on an angel. He seems to end just at his waist, and of his lower parts32 nothing appears. It is as if he is plunged within33 the clouds. Where end the edges of the cape, the covering of the heavenly Lady, everywhere about her feet it falls quite properly, both sides. The angel stands and firmly grasps it. And his clothing, his adornment, red, is bright

and it is clasped with gold about his neck. And his wings are of all kinds of precious plumes; various feathers are displayed.

The angel, standing, bears [the Virgin] in quihuicaticac in itnama Angel; his arms. And it looks as if he is standing joyous,
standing happy,

Auh inic nezi huel iuhqui in pacticac
motlan1achtiticac

as he bears the Queen of Heaven in his inic quin10napalhuitica Tlatocazihuapilli. anns34.
That is the Virgin the Indians sa\\' onJuan Diego's Inaguey fiber cape.

in ilhuicac

DISCUSSION

Questions that have been raised concerning the authenticity of the events thus told are not a part of this essay. For our purposes they are well summarized by Georges < Baudot, by Charles Gibson, and by Jacques Soustelle. Baudot, in a discussion of F. Toribio Motolinia's activities in 1531, draws attention to the tradition of the apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe that year, the Bishop Zumarraga as a supposed "privileged active witness" debating its authenticity, and to a somewhat suspect reference to Motolinfa 's participation in or \\'itnessing of the ceretnonious transportation of the image in or near Mexico, noting, however, that he "disquieting silence" of archival sources and the "questionable value" of any supposed independent witness "forces us to the Inost extrelne caution"35. In tÜnes nearer to the year 1531 son1e of the clergy who \\'ere closest to the Indians were critical of the reverence accorded the events at Tepeyacac. Sahagun was an10ng theln ; writing in 1576 he recalled that Tepeyacac had had a telnple dedicated to the

34

L1quête du cinquième soleil

Nahua goddess Tonantzin (Our Mother - mother of the gods) to which pilgrims had always come to offer sacrifices, "[a] nd now that a church of our Lady of Guadalupe is built there, they also call her Tonantzin... It appears to be a Satanic invention to cloack idolatry under the confusion of this name". He added, to be sure, that "it is not my judgment that they should be denied the coming or the offering, but... that they be undeceived of the error from which they suffer... "36 Nevertheless, in this sutnmary Gibson characterizes the Inovetnent as "[t] he foremost of all colonial cults... The legendary date of the Virgin's apparition, 1531, remains a matter of dispute. But unquestionably by the 1550's an incipient Indian ceremonial had come into existence surrounding the Virgin's miraculous powers and cures. Clerical efforts to arrest the growth of the cult, on the grounds that an itnage painted by an Indian was being represented as miraculous, were unifonnly unsuccessful, and Spanish society came to be reconciled to it. But the Guadalupe cult was essentially an Indian phenomenon, in sOlne ways rivaling the Spanish patronage of the Virgin of Los Relnedios"37. In an inspired passage in Tbe Four Suns, Soustelle goes even further. "In 1531", he writes, "an Indian, Juan Diego, described to the archbishop of Mexico, Juan de Zumarraga, the apparition that had cOlne to hinl... In proof of it he sho,\\Tedhis tiltua, a clock of rough agave cloth, miraculously imprinted with the features of the good Indian Virgin. Both the bishop and the Indians had cause to be pleased: the bishop because this apparition definitely placed the stamp of Christianity upon Mexico (the Virgin of Guadalupe was proclaimed patron saint of the country in 1737, Queen of Mexico in 1895, and Empress of the Americas in 1945), and the Indians because they called the Virgin Tonantzin or [in Otomi] Tsinânâ, as they still do today, so that the thread of continuity, after a tnomentary rupture, remained intact... "It would be a mistake to suspect either the Indians or the missionaries of duplicity. There is no lack of testÏ1nony to the ardor with which it was carried; Motolinia reported that recent converts had to be restrained froln scourging thenlselves nearly to death. But these converts were not so nluch renouncing their old beliefs as incorporating them into a new body of faith and ritual. The Spanish priests, in turn, ilnagined that they had uprooted the tree, whereas they had merely grafted it onto another. Subjectively, the Indian who dances in front of the basilica of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Tepeyac is aware of performing a Christian cerelnony and, at the saIne tilne, of perpetuating a tradition that goes back over one thousand years. If there is a contradiction here, the Indian does not feel it ; it is we who pick it out"38. As to the date: The earliest reliable Inentions of the apparition in native annals or codices are in the 1550s ; they do not date it as of 1531 (though there is an anonYlnous, privately owned, perhaps questionable Anales that gives the date 153039). The entry in Juan Baptista's Diario reads: "In the year 1555 was when Saint Mary of Guadalupe appeared there in Tepeyacac" (yn ipan xihuitl11lill e qUl.oS55 aOsyquac nwnextitzz.o in sancta n'taria de guadalupe yn 011tpa tepeyacac)40. Chitnalpahin'a entry in his Séptinta relacron for the year 12 Tecpatl is : "And also in this [year] was when our beloved Mother Saint Mary of Guadalupe appeared in Tepeyacac" (Auh ça no ypan in yhcuac monextitzino yn totlaçonantzin Sancta
Maria Gl1adalupe

yn Tepeyacac)41.

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

35

One of the best testimonies to Sahagun's remarks and to Gibson's and Soustelle's summaries is in the Diario of Juan Baptista. His entry for Sunday, September 15, 1566 follows: At that time it was when the octave of Our Mother Mary's birth [day] took place, and at that time they went to celebrate Saint Mary of Guadalupe's feast day in Tepeyacac. There Villaseca set down offerings [and] exhibited the image of Our Mother. He had made it com pletely of silver, and had arranged a house [where] the sick slept. And there was a procession. There went the rulers, the judges, and the archbishop, as well as we cOlnlnoners. And there Villaseca fed the rulers; he announced that he had taken over [care ... yquac yoctaua mochiuh, in tonantzin

natiuitas Ina auh yquac ompa ilhuiquixtilloto in sta Ma de guadalupe. vmpa tlama villaseca,quinexti yn ixiptlatzin tonatzin ça moch teocuitlatl motqtica, in qchiuh. yhua calli. quimaman yn ôcan cochi. cocoxque. auh tlayahualolco. ompa huiya in tlatoque oydoreslne yhuâ arçobpo. yvâ ixtin. tlamacehualtin. auh in villaseca. vlnpa quitlaqualti in tlatoque ye quitemachiti. ynic tllnoteopati tepeyacac. yhuan onlpa Inacehualloc. michcuicatl in queuhque. o~ the church in Tepeyacac. And there was Inexica. auh in tlatilolca. yaocuicatl in dancing. The Mexica sang the Fish song; queuhque.
the Tlatelolca sang a war song.42 First, we see that the passage just quoted is an Indian's account (for this Juan Baptista was an Indian who reacted like an Indian but could also think like a Spaniard). He refers to the Virgin as Tonantzin, our Mother, just as Sahagun would have feared, while he also refers to Saint Mary of Guadalupe. Indians attended the feast day's ceremonies, but so also
did sonle of the Inost prolninent Spaniards

-

the archbishop,

high officials referred

to as

rulers (in tlatoque), and a well-known Spanish philanthropist (Villaseca). So by 1566 the festival, an Indian celebration, was already well established among both natives and Spaniards. In fact, Archbishop MontÙfar (Zulnagarra's successor) is referred to as a ''gran guadalupano" and his successor, Moya de Contreras, is known to have stopped for three days at Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe just before his departure.to assume a high office in Spain; and the Viceroy don Gaston de Peralta visited and no doubt venerated the Virgin of Guadalupe on October 19,1566, and later (date unknown) don Martin Enriquez, as well as don Martin Cortés (second Marqués del Valle) on March Il, 1567, before setting out for his exile in Spain43. Stilllater, Fr. Antonio de Ciudad Real reports, recounting Fr. Alonso Ponce's troubled travels in New Spain, that onJuly 23, 1585 he visited a hermitage d the

church of our Ladyof Guadalupe, where the Spaniards of Mexicogo to hold vigisand novenas, and where a clergYlnanwho says Mass for then1 resides. Anciently, when they were pagans, the Indians in that town had an idol called Ichpochtli, which nleans"virglnor maiden, and they would go there as.to the sanctuary of all the land with their gifts and a. 44 ouenngs...

~

In pre-conquest titnes there was a goddess named Ichpochtli, a youthful earthmother, better known as Xochiquetzal ; in her special concerns with young motherhood and

36

La quête du cinquièn1e soleil

pregnancy she overlapped with, and hence perhaps might be regarded as an aspect of, Cihuacoatl, who can be identified with Tonan or Tonantzin45. So there may have been an idol named Ichpochtli in Tepeyacac, although it would seeln to be more likely that Fr. Antonio de Ciudad Real and other Spaniards were confused, ill-informed, or misled. Sahagun or his Indian collaborators could have explained the nlatter clearly. In view of what Sahagun wrote about the pilgritnages to the shrine in Tepeyacac and about comparable developlnents among the Indians that he evidently could not regards as Christian cults, it is worth while to consider Garibay's COlTIlnents: Sahagun is not ignorant [of all this] ; he pretends not to know... It is situ ply a pretended ignorance [of it]. Hence though he Inight know what his Indians are doing, he is silent about their work, as if he wishes to be silent concerning the subject-Inatter [of their work]. And since he cannot be silent, carried along by his obstinacy as to the substitution of ways or worshiping and hard put to it, he neither attacks nor gives way; he simply ignores the facts.46 This brings us to a consideration of the authorship of the account of the apparition, for, according to Garibay, it Inust have been cOlnposed or cOlnpiled by one or Inore of the four or six Indians who, between 1560 and 1570, worked under SahagÙn's dire.ction on the data or documents that becalne the Coloquios and the text of Book XII of the Historia general, which tells of the conquest. These four or six are Valeriano, Vejerano, Jacobita, Leonardo, Pedro de San Buenaventura, and probably Agustin de la Fuente. The account of the apparition "was composed or "compiled" , Garibay thinks, "by persons who had full knowledge of the ancient style [of expression], who had well in hand the old ways of
conversation and style

-

persons

accustomed

to this kind of writing...

,,47

And, luaking

allowance for the editorial modifications in the Nican 111lopobuaInade by Torroella and Vehlzquez, which are not on the whole considerable, the general style and even the details of orthography and punctuation are markedly like those of the Coloquio..ç and the account of the conquest; and considerating these factors plus, as we have seen, the writers' handling of passages showing their fao1iliarit)' \vith the kinds of visions that often embellish the Cantares lnexicanos and \\Tiththe ancient In)'thology, the likelihood is very strong that Garibay is right: the responsability for the account in the Nican l1lopobua must rest with one or Inore of the aforeo1entioned six ofSahagÜn's alnanuenses.

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

37

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WORKS CONSULTED

ANONYMOUS
1961

El Nican

11lopobua, prologado por el P. Enrique Torroella, S. J. Nueva edicion
con la traduccion chisica de D. Prin10 Feliciano Vehizquez. Mexico:

dividida en versiculos Buena Prensa.
BAPTISTA, Juan

1563 - 74 ?Diario. Mexico, Archivo Historico (see Garibay K. 1945). BAPTISTA,Fray Juan 1988 Hvebvetlatolli. Que contiene las;pldticas que los padres y rnadres bicieron a sus b!jos, y los seliores a sus vasal/os... Testimonios de la antigua palabra. Introductory study by Miguel Leon-Portilla; tr. by Librado Silva Galeana. Mexico: Comision Nacional Conmemorativa del V Centenario del Encuentro de Dos Mundos. Facsimile of original 1600 publication. BAlJDOT, Georges 1977 Utopie et bistoire au Mexique. Les pre1niers chroniqueu.rs de la civilisation nzexicaine (1520-1569). Toulouse, Editions Edouard Privat. BIERHORST,John 1985 Cantares Mexicanos. Tr. and ed. byJohn Bierhorst. Stanford, Stanford University Press. CHIMALPAHIN,Domingo Francisço de San Anton de Mufion 1965 "Die Relationen Chimalpahin's zur Geschichte Mexico's". Teil II : Das Jahrhundert nach der Conquista (1522-1615). Ed. and tr, by Guenter Zitnmennann. Abhandlungen aus dent Gebiet der Au..r;/andskunde. Band 69 - Reihe B (Voelkerkunde, Kulturgeschichte und Sprachen) Band 39.2 vols. Hamburg, Cram. de Gruyter & Co.
CIUDAD

REAL, rayAntonio de. F

1976 Tratado curioso y docto de las grandezas de la Nueva Esparla... Ed. by Josefina Garcia Quintana and Victor M. Castillo Fan"eras ; prologue by Jorge Gurria Lacroix. 2 vols.

38

L1quête du cinquième soleil

Mexico: Universidad Historicas.

Nacional Autonoma

de México, Instituto

de Investigaciones

Coclice Chimalpopoca 1975 Codice Chimalpopoca : Anales de Cuauhtitlan y Leyenda de los soles. Tr. by Primo Feliciano Vehizquez. Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autonolna de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas.
GARIBAY K [INTANA] ,Angel Maria 1953-54 Historia de la literatura ndbuatl. 2 vols. Mexico, Editorial Porrlla, S. A.

1945 "Temas guadalupanos". GIBSON, Charles

Abside, IX, 1-4. a Histo1:J' ~f tbe Indians ~f the Valley ~f Mexico

1964 The Aztecs Under Spanish
1519-1810. Stanford, NICHOLSON, HenryB.

Rule:

Stanford University Press.

Middle

1971 "Religion in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico", in Robert Wauchope, ed. Handbook American Indians, vol. 10, part 1. Austin, University of Texas Press.
de

C!f

SAHAGUN, Fray Bernardino

1950-82 Florentine Codex: General HÙ:;to1J' ~ftbe Tbings ~f Heu) Spain. Tr. and ed. by Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble. 12 vols. Santa Fe, The School of Atnerican Research and the lJniversity of Utah. In press The Primeros Menwriales of Fray Bernardino de Sahagun. Tr. by Theltna Sullivan; ed. by H. B. Nicholson, Wayne Ruwet, and Arthur J. O. Anderson. Nonnan, The University of Oklahoma Press. SOUSTELLE,Jacques

1982Ellfniverso de los aztecas. Tr. froln the French (L'lJniversdes Aztèqu.es)
Luis Martinez and Juan José lJtrilla. Mexico, Fonda de ClIltllra EcononlÎca.

byJosé

1971 The Four Sun,'i. Tr. from the French by E. Ross. New-York, Grossn1an Publishers.

Ethnohistoire et nahuatl

39

Notes

1 Garibay 1945 : 35. Unless otherwise stated, all translations are mine. 2 Anon. 1961 The original text is in the archive of the Basilica de Guadalupe, "mu y bien guo,rdado a salvo de rohos", Garibay says (1954, II: 257). In published version the Nahuad text has been edited to conform to present-day Mexican sL1ndards of orthography and punctuation. re-translated the Nahuad text. 3 Anon. 1961 : gg 2-10. 4 Anon. 1961 : 9 15. I have

5 Bierhorst 1985 : 134. The Nahuatl text of Can/ares 11U!XÎeaI10Suoted here is from Bierhorst's q transcription. 6 Bierhorst 1985 : 136. 7 Anon. 1961 : 99 20-22. 8Sahagun 1950-82, VI : 210, 217,218. 9 Sahagun 1950-82, III (revisal) : 52. 10 Fr. Juan Baptista 1988 : 396-7 (from the Spanish translation by Librado Silva Galeana). Il Anon. 1961 : 9 30. 12 Anon. 1961 : 9g 33, 36. 13 Read ni1nitztlaquaubnabuo,tia.
14 Anon. 15 Anon. 1961 1961 : 99 39-41. : 99 50-52, 54-55.

16 Anon. 1961 : 9 59. For anecan read aoecan. 17 Anon. 1961 : 99 61-2. For quibuil read quilbui 18 Anon. 1961 : 99 68-70. 19 Anon. 1961 : 99 73-4. 20 Anon. 1961 : 9983-85,90-93. 1982 : 148-9. 1975 : 4. 2 '19 6.

; for pipique

read pipiqui.

For 0110 read onoe.

21 Soustelle

22 C6elice Cbi11'lalpopoea 23 SahagÙn, in press:

Chapter

24 Anon. 1961: 9 16.

'

25 Anon. 1961 : 9 119. 26 Anon. 1961 : 99 94-96. For in/laneltiliz

read itlaneltiliz.

27 For eonquizquia read eontzi/zqui or conqub..etia.

40

Ll quête du cinquième soleil

28 Anon. 1961 : ~~ 102..113. 29 Anon. 1961 : ~~ 122-128. 30 Anon. 1961 : ~ 142. 31 For tlatecpa 32 icxitlepa 33 For actzica
34 Anon. 1961

read tlaticpa. icx/tlan is meant.

: possibly

read actka.
: ~~ 151..70.

35 Baudot 1977 : 264-5 Baudot draws attention ta M. Cuevas: Historia de la iglesia en México (Mexico: antigua Imprenta de Murguia, 4th ed., 1942) ;J. Garcia Icazbalceta, A. de Montufar, and P. F. Velazquez: Investigacion histor/ca y dOCUlllelltal de la aparicioll de la Virgen de Guadalupe de México (Mexico: Ediciones Fuente Cultural, 1952) and Francisco de la Maza : El guadalupanismo nJexicano (Mexico: Porma y Obregon, 1953. México y 10Mexicano, 17.) 36 Sahagun 1950-82, Introductory Volume: 90,92 ; these passages are from digressions in Book XI, Chapter 12, ~~6 and 7. 37 Gibson 1964: 133. 38 Soustelle 1971 : 136-37. 39 See Garibay 1945 : 52-6. 40 This passage is also translated in Garibay 1945 : 54. 41 Chimalpahin 1965, II : 16. 42 Juan Baptista's Diario ; this entry is also translated in Garibay 1945 : 163. For tlayahualolco read tlayahualoloc. 43 Garibay 1945 : 165-67 ; Gutiérrez de Luna et al. 1962 : 39, 90. 44 Ciudad Real 1976 : 68. 45 Nicholson 1971 : 420 and Table 3. 46 Garibay 1954 II 265. 47 Garibay 1954, II : Chapter VIII, esp. pp. 261,263,266.

BALlADES

CmCHIMÈQUES DES SEIGNEURS DU TEMPS JADIS.

Georges BAUDOT Profeçseur à l'Université de Toulouse-le-Mirail

Lorsqu'il expliquait la complexité de l'appréhension du monde par les anciens tlal1zatinime Mexicains et le mécanisme des systèmes de symboles utilisés, qui renvoient les uns aux autres et sont structurés par des chaînes d'associations, Jacques Soustelle évoquait Baudelaire, pour écrire: "Lorsqu'on pénètre dans ce monde -que la pensée indigène construisait, on croit entrer dans un palais dont les Inurs seraient faits de miroirs, ou, mieux, dans une forêt aux innolnbrables échos "où les parfums, les couleurs et les ,,1 sons se répondent . La métaphore nous semble être aujourd'hui tout aussi opportune pour caractériser le tissu verbal et l'essaim de signifiés que constituent certains des plus beaux poèmes en langue nahuatl que ces mêmes hommes composaient pour regretter les amis disparus. Et pour poser à cette occasion la lancinante question du sens à donner à notre présence sur la terre. Mieux encore, tant sont vraies et denses les interrogations que suscitait ainsi dans l'ancien Mexique la disparition d'amis chers que j'ai souvent eu la très forte impression d'y retrouver, en transcrivant et en traduisant leurs textes, l'inspiration, voire le discours et même la formulation des meilleurs poètes de notre Europe, et en particulier de certains français du Moyen-Age. Je songe, en particulier, pour tenter de préciser cette sensation, aux parentés qu'exhale la lecture simultanée des poèmes de Teoxinmac, de Tecayehuatzin ou d'Ayocuan Cuetzpaltzin que je propose à la suite et celle de François Villon ou de Rutebeuf. Avec entre autres échos possibles pour en saisir ces magies qui sont de partout comme d'ailleurs, et con1me en répons insistant, la célèbre Complainte Rutebeuf dont je me pennets de rappeler simplement quelques vers:

42

la quête du cinquième soleil

Que sont mi ami devenu Que j'avoie si près tenu Et tant amé ? Je cuit qu'il sont trop cler semé: Il ne furent pas bien semé Si sont failli. Itel ami m'ont mal bailli, C'onques tan corn Dieu m'assailli En maint costé, N'en vis un seul en mon hosté: Je cuit Ii vent les m'as osté. L'amor est morte: Ce sont ami que vent emporte, Et il ventoit devant ma porte Ses emporta... Mais, évidemment, on ne saurait trouver ce qu'y ne peut en aucun cas y être. Les poètes du XIIIème-XVème siècle avaient, de la France au Mexique, de l'Europe médiévale à l'Amérique précolombienne, tant d'années-lun1ière pour les séparer que nous ne chercherons dans les ressemblances de leur inspiration, voire parfois de leur formulation, qu'une ombre commune, fragile mais tenace, qui dessine la silhouette de leur identique condition d'hommes, confrontés aux mêmes désespérances. Aux mêmes questions sans réponse aussi, peut-être. Mais, avant d'envisager plus avant ces airs de famille, laissons la parole aux poètes eux-mêmes, et laissons leurs mots venir nous dire vers quelles musiques communes du coeur et de l'esprit ils dressaient une oreille souvent ressemblante.

I) TEOXINMAC
JADIS

: CHICHIMECAYOTL

- BALlADE

CHICHIMÈQUE

DES SEIGNEURS

DU TEMPS

Xochincuapetlapan Teoxinmac ixochitica quilacatzoa yectli yan cuicatli. Teoxinmac, sur une natte fleurie d'Aigles,enveloppe de fleurs ce beau chant
Nopiltzin chichimecatl, Moteucçoma tzin, cuix oc no in mahmani' cano ye Mictlan ? Chocaya chalchiuhmamatlac, Teoatempan?
Chalchiuhitzl110lini,

Mon seigneur chichimèque, Moteuczon1atzin, n'y sont-ils pas là-bas, en rangs serrés, là-bas, au Pays des Morts ? y pleurent-ils sur l'escalier en jade~ aux rivages de l'eau divine? Les jades précieux reverdissent,

Ethnohlstoire

et nahuatl

43

quetzalizh uayotimania, teocuitlaxochin cuepoontimani, ye mochan. Nopiltzin chichimecatl, Moteuczomatzin, cuix oc no in mahmani cano ye Mictlan ? Chocaya chalchiuhmamatlac, Teoatempan ? ln quen xontlanlatican, xon tIalnaln iquican, in ohtlan a mid itnanca in Acapehchohcan. In quetzaltnalllaztli ipatlanian, Matlalcueye itzallan. Oncan aya icnotlalllachoc, nechoquilicoc, ye chichimeca teteuctin ! ln tlaca yuhqui niyol, iuhqui nitlacat, ni chichimecatl in Moteuczoma, in notzihuac in malllalihuaz, ye nahahuitza nihuitzetzelol, noztaclnahcuex. Azo tie nelli hueh ahmo itla in topatiuh yhuana ? Zan ye xochitl onnenenecoya, eleh uiloya, xochiamicohua, zan ahuilizmicohua, Tlacah uepan tzin, Ixtlilcuechah uac, yhuixahue,yaoo hayyyo hohui ! Ye huelia ho Iztac Quauhtli Ina pohpoyahua, yehuaya,

les plumes de quetzal germent, les fleurs dorées ouvrent leurs corolles, chez toi. Mon seigneur chichimèque, Moteuczomatzin, n'y sont-ils pas là-bas, en rangs serrés, là-bas, au Pays des Morts ? y pleurent-ils sur l'escalier en jade, aux rivages de l'eau divine? Ainsi, sachez donc, rappelez à vos souvenirs, le mur qui barre le chelnin à cet instant, à Acapechocan. Les tuyaux en plumes de quetzal voletaient, sur les versants du Matlalcueye. C'est là que l'on apprit la sinistre nouvelle, que l'on versa tant de larmes, pour les seigneurs chichinlèques ! Je suis venu vivre ainsi, c'est ainsi que je suis né, moi, le chichitnèque, moi, Moteuczoma, avec fi10n cactus épineux qui percera les gens, fila jouissance qui bourdonne, Ines plumes, mes bracelets blancs. Est-ce donc vrai que nous ne valons rien? Seules les fleurs sont ardemment désirées, sont convoitées, la Inort est dans l'eau fleurie, il n'y a que Inort dans la joie, Tlacah uepan tzin, Ixtlilcuechah uac, Inaîtres des épines, cri de guerre.! Il se peut que l'Aigle blanc se couvre de fumée, yehuaya,

44

La quête du cinquième soleil

ye quetzaltototl, ye tlauhquechol, y mopopoyauhque ilhuicatl itic.Aya ! Tlacah uepan tzin, Ixtlilcuechah uac, yhuixahue, yaoo hayyo hohui !

que le quetzal, que la spatule rouge, se soient couverts de fumée au tréfonds du ciel. Aya ! llacah uepan tzin, Ixtlilcuechah uac, maîtres des épines, cri de guerre! Où allez-vous? Où allez-vous? Là-bas près de la guerre, là où est le dieu, là où elle dessine, elle colorie les gens, elle, notre n1ère Itzpapalotl, Serpent d'Obsidienne, sur la savane, yyoo hohui ! La poussière se lève sur la plaine, au plus profond du feu et de l'eau, le coeur du dieu Camaxtle en souffre. Matlalcueyetzin, Déesse à la jupe vert foncé, Macuihllalinaltzin, Déesse aux cinq tresses! Conllne une fleur la bataille s'est retrouvée dans vos Inains, elle s'y trouve. En vérité, oÙ faut-il aller pour ne pas retrouver la mort? Voici pourquoi lnon coeur pleure. Prenez courage! Personne ne vivra ici. Mêlne les seigneurs sont venus pour Inourir, Inon coeur en brûle. Prenez courage! Personne ne vivra ici. C'est dans les delneures fleuries, que viennent s'entrelaçer les tnagnolias rouges comme l'oiseauspatule, que se répand la fleur de 01a-':5, qu'elle s'éparpille,

Can anh ui ? Can anh ui ?

Yhuihuayan yaonahuac,teopan, oncan on teycuiloaya, yehua tonan .Itzpapalotl, ixtlahuacan ,yyoo hohui ! ln teuhtlayehuayan, yah ue tlachinol aitic, icnotlama yyoliol in teotl Calnaxtle. y Matlalcueyetzin,
Macuilmalinaltzin !

Nehcaliztli xochitl iuhqui amomac mantiuh, mantia.

Can nelpa tonyazque canon aya micohua ? Ic nichoca hui noyolioI. Ximelaquahua! Ayac nican nemiz. Tel ca tepilhuan omicoaco, netlatiloc y hui noyoliol. Xilnellaquahua! Ayac nican nelniz. Xochincalaih tec, tnolnalinticac in ye tlauhquecholxiloxochitl, xelihuia izquixochitla, moyahua,

Ethnohistoire

et nahuatl

45

pixahuia ho xochida imanican.
Tla ic xonteyapanaya, da ic xontecuiltono icel teod,

qu'elles tombent en pluie sur le jardin fleuri. Il te faut en décorer les autres, il te faut en faire ta richesse, comme dieu

luiseul,
ho xochiithualpan ye nican! Zan ye icnoxochidi, zan ye icnomoyahua, tnoyahuatihcac. Xoncuica ya, xiuhtlapaltic, chalchihuitl amoxtlacuilolli moyolio, chichim ecatl Moteuczomatzin! Tlazozacuan quechol patlantinetnia xochia. Yahuiya ! Oc ximocehui nohueyotecuia, nehnenquetl in Moteuczomatzin. Cacahuacuauhtitlan, in oncan manic
y tonacaxochitl! Tlazozacuan quechol

dans cette cour fleurie, maintenant, ici!
Mais,

il n'y a que la fleur de chagrin,

elle seule répand sa tristesse, elle seule s'éparpille partout. Chante donc, maintenant, turquoise bleue, jade vert précieux, ton coeur est un livre de dessins coloriés, toi, le chichimèque, Moteuczomatzin ! D'aÎlnables zacuans dorés, des oiseaux rouges, volettent sur l'eau fleurie. Yahuia ! Repose-toi alors, mon grand seigneur, toi, le voyageur, Moteuczomatzin. Entre les cacaoyers, c'est là que detneure la fleur de notre chair! D'aitnables zacuans dorés, des oiseaux rouges, volettent sur l'eau fleurie. Yahuiya ! Chante donc, encore, Moteuczomatzin, regarde donc les entrées du temple, regarde les parures en plutne là où on les suspend. Voilà que descendent les hommes qui possèdent les fleurs dorées comme le zacuan, voici que chante l'Ototni, lui, qui te fait pleurer, toi, le chichinlèque. Ils sont là-bas, du côté des Inontagnes aux plumes de quetzal.

patlantinemia xochia. Yahuiya !

ln ma oc xoncuica, Moteuczonlatzil1, xondachia teocalli huiaconi, xondachia nlatnaztli ypilcayano.
In tern oh uayan daca zacuanxochih uaque,

on cuica Otomid, yehua, mitzayachoquilia, in ti chichimecad. In yeye yonoca, quetzal tepetitlan.

46

la quête du cinquième soleil

Ma xontlachiaean y nohueyohuan onean Tlaxcalteea, ye yehuan Tiox.

Regardez voisins

donc, TIaxcaltèques,

onoc Totatzin,

c'est là..bas que se tient Notre Dieu.

Père, lui,

ln tIacuilolxochipetlatl, ipan tIatohuaya TIamimiol ycelteotl in Tiox.

Sur une natte aux fleurs peintes, c'est là qu'il Les linceuls Lui. parle, lui seul, Dieu. sont au tréfonds du ciel, chez

iIhuicatl

itic, Ichan.

Nom

izquix<?chi

uh,

Mes fleurs de mezquite, d'acacia,

mes fleurs

notzihuacxochiuh,

Ines fleurs de tzioactli,

de cactus

aux fruits

rouges, cueponi ! ouvrent leurs corolles!

Noncuica,

ohoyo

h uiloyan,

Je chante, rOtolni, Personne personne oton1i,

le voilà parti collier d'aigle. plus le voir, entendre sa parole

ca ye Otomitl,

ye cozcaquauhtli.

Ayac hu~1 on ye coyaitaz, ye conyacaquiz yotontlatol,

ne pourra ne pourra

ca zan ticpiqui ln Axayacateuctli,
aic tIamiz

.
00,

nous Jamais

l'in1itons

seulement. fin la plut11e précieuse

ne prendra

de quetzal
yquetzalihuio.
du seigneur Ses jades Axayacatl, précieux 00. cOlnme des

Mochalchiuhacayotitia,

jailliront

rosea ux,
yayatiticac in imaquiznelhuayo.
les racines de ses joyaux vont se

perpétuer. Ayac huel on ye conyaitaz, ye coyacaquiz yotontlatol, Personne personne otol11i, ca zan ticpiqui. nous l'Îlnitons seulelnent. ne pourra ne pourra plus le voir, entendre sa parole

ln nocuic at ayhuin Macaço

ypan y ninentlat11atia, niquehua cuicatl.

Avec

1110n chant

je sais que le chant. pas ainsi,

je ne suis

rien,

j'ai du 111al à élever Mais, qu'il n'en donc soit

quen xicchihuacan,

amoyolloya! Auh in nelhuatl Zan ya oncan huel conehua ca nel notomitl can ya icac, y yectli ye icuic, !

cOIn posez Mais,

vos coeurs! je suis aussiOtomi !

il est vrai que h)..bas,

Il se tient il peut

debout, chant,

élever

son beau

Ethnohistoire

et nahuatl

47

huel ca cocui yn xochitl ihuan yayacach. Ma ye nican xonahahuiacan.

il peu t saisir les fleurs et ses grelots. Ici donc, Inaintenant, réjouissez-vous! Mais, il est vrai que je suis aussi Otomi !

Auh in nehuatl ca nel notomitl ! Nixochinentlamatia, ahtle nocuic, nitechalotepeh ua. Quenmach amique in tocnihuan, quilmach tlapalchalchiuhtica, on tlahcuilolli ynyollo. Niquitnonelehuia ha, oyamOtnan ya incuic. Zotolocan tlaca quiltnach, tIapalchalchi uh tica, on tlahcuilolli iyollo. Moxochian tzetzeloa, tnoxochian yehyectinelni, iztac Otolni tI yzaquanotonxahcal itec. Amotlapaltecuiznacoch, ancontimalotoque, an Mexica,

Je sais avec des fleurs que je ne suis rien, que mon chant n'est rien, je suis cOlnlne un écureuil qui grimpe. On dit que nos amis ne mourront pas, on dit qu'ils ont la couleur des jades précieux, que leur coeur est un dessin colorié. C'est eux que je désire ardelnlnent, leurs chants n'ont pas cessé. On dit que les hotnmes de Zotolocan, ont la couleur des jades précieux, que leur coeur est un dessin colorié. Ton eau de fleurs se répand, ton eau de fleurs a la vie belle, dans la hutte aux pllllnes dorées du zacuan où vit 1'0tolni blanc. Vos pendants d'oreilles aux couleurs de

terrejaune
vous ont rendus orgueilleux, vous, Mexicains, dans la hutte aux pllunes dorées du zacuan où vit l'Oton1i. Mais, où donc sont partis les seigneurs, qui avaient leur siège dans cette cité en jade,
Acamapichtli et Huitzilihuitl ?

yzaquanotonxacall itec.

ln canon ye huih teteuctinaya, zan conayatlalihque in chalchiuhtepetl, Acamapich y Huitzilihuitl ?

Ms. Can/ares Mexicanos , Bibliothèque nationale de Mexico, fois. 69vo - 71 rO.
(Ce poème aurait été composé par Teoxinmac à l'occasion de la mort du seigneur Tlacahuepan et de ses frères entre 1494 et 1498.)

48

La quête du cinquième soleil

II) AUH lN NEHUA NIQUI110A

- POUR

MA PART JE DIS...

Auh in nehua niquittoa, zan achica zan iuhqui in eloxochitl, ipan titomatico in tlalticpac ! Zan toncuetlahuico, antocnihuan ! Ma oc on polihui icnopillotl, Ina oc amellelquiza ye nican ! Tlein ticuazque, antocnihuan ? Tie ica tahuiazque ? Zan on in yoli tocuic can in tlacati tohuehueuh. Ninonentlamati tlalticpac can inemian. Mamalintimaniz in Icniuhyotl, InalnalintiJnaniz in Cohuayotl huehuetitlan. Mach oc niquizaquiuh ? Mach oc niquehuaquiuh in cuieatl ? Auh in zanio nican, inataca yenican, zan ayahuitl, zan yacahuilotl ninolnanaz. Ma tontlaneltocan noyollo. Cuix nican tochan tlalticpac ? Zan itolinican, iteopouhcan tinenli. Zan noconcuicatiuh, zan niquitlanitiuh : Cuix yuhqui xochitl Ina oc ceppa nicpixoz ? Cuix yuhqui in tonacayotl oc ceppa nictocaz ? In tota in nonan, cuix oc xilotiz on cacanlatiquiuh in tlaticpac ? Ica nichoca,

Pour nla part je dis, comme la fleur d'épi de maïs, comme le magnolia, nous venons nous ouvrir, sur la terre! Mais, nous ne venons que pour fâner, mes amis! Qu'alors s'évanouisse le chagrin, qu'alors vous vous réjouissiez ici! Conllnent Inangerons-nous, mes amis? COlnnlent, parfois, nous réjouirons-nous? Tout silnplelnent, notre chant a jailli là où était né notre talnbourin. Je ne sais donc rien sur la terre là oÙ ils ont vécu. Elle va delneurer 'enlacée l'Atnitié, elle va delneurer enlacée la Confrérie du côté des talnbourins. Viendrai-je encore jaillir? Viendrai-je encore Inoduler un chant? Mais je suis seul ici, eux sont partis, seul le brouillard, seul l'oubli s'offrent à 1110i. Il faut done croire Inon coeur. Est-ce ici notre foyer, sur la terre? Nous ne vivons qu'en souffrance, nous ne vivons qu'en angoisse. Tout silnplelnent je vais chanter, tout sÏlnplelnent je vais delnander: Conllne s'il s'agissait d'une fleur pourrai-je encore une fois la semer? Com111es'il s'agissait d'un fruit nourricier pourrai-je encore une fois le planter? Mon père et Ina n1ère, feront-ils prendre forme, encore, à un fruit qui viendra sur la terre? Voilà pourquoi je pleure,

Ethnohistoire

et nahuatl

49

ayac onteca. Techicnocauhque in ùalticpac !

personne n'y est. On nous a abandonnés sur la terre! Où est donc le chemin du Pays des Morts, là où nous descendons,
?

Can ihcac in ohtli Mictlan, itemoyan ,
ca Ximohuayan

où est le Pays de ceux qui n 'ont plus de

corps?
Cuix nelli nemohua Quenonamican ? Cuix ontlaneltoca toyollo ? Zan topco petlacalco on tetlatia, ontequitniloa in Ipanetnoani. Cuix oncan niquimittaz, imixco nontlachiaz in nonan in nota? ln cuix nechalmacazque incuic intlatol ? Nocontemohua,ayac Techicnocauhque
Ms. Cantares

Est-il vrai que l'on vit au Pays d'Au-Delà? Est-ce que ton coeur y croit? Il cache les gens dans un coffre, dans une natte, il les y ensevelit, l'Auteur de la Viè. Vais-je les voir là-bas, pourrai-je y regarder les visages de ma lnère et de Inon père? M'y prêtera-t-on leur chant et leur parole? J'y descendrai, et personne n'y sera. On nous a abandonnés sur la terre!
nationale de Mexico, fols.13 VO rO . -14

onteca.

in daticpac !
, Bibliothèque

Mexicanos

III)

TECAYEHUATZIN:

TIA OC TONCfJICACAN - CHANTONS

IvlAINTENANT

!

Tla oc toncuicacan, da oc toncuicatocan, in xochitonalo calitec, antocnihuan ! Catlique ?
In niquic nan1iqui canin quintetnohua, quen on huehuetitlan, ye nican ah !

Chantons Inaintenant, sen10ns donc des chants, dans la chaude lumière fleurie du soleil, vous, nos alnis ! Qui son t-iIs ? Je les trouve là oÙ je les cherche, là oÙ sont les clInbourins, ici 111êlne! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya !

OhuaYd ! Ohuaya ! Zan nixochitlatlaoncoya, in namocniuhtZin, in zan chichimecatecuhtli

Je n'in1agine que des chants fleuris, moi, qui suis votre ami, tout siInplement le seigneur chichimèque

50

La quête du cinquième soleil

Tecayeh uatzin ! Ac in, aoc timochin ticahuiltizque, tich uellamach tizque Moyocoyatzin ?

Tecayehuatzin ! N'y a-t-il plus personne parmi nous pour réjouir, pour rendre heureux l'Inventeur de lui-même? Puissent-ils se retrouver, là-bas, à TIaxcala, mes chants fleuris qui enivrent, puissent-ils s'y trouver aussi les chants grisants
'

Inda ca nipa yeccan ten Tlaxcala noxoxochipoyoncuica, da poyoncuica

in Xicontencatli,
in Temilotzin,

de Xicohténcad, de Tenlilotzin, et du seigneur Cuitlizcatl ! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya ! Le paradis des Aigles, leur Tamoanchan, la defneure nocturne des Jaguars sont à Huexotzinco ! C'est là-bas que se trouve le site où est fnort celui qui avait tant mérité, ce Tlacah uepan. C'est bien là-bas que se réjouissent les fleurs que fonnent les seigneurs asselnblés, les seigneurs réunis dans leurs demeures de printefnps ! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya ! Ce n'est qu'avec des fleurs de cacaoyer qu'il arrive vite pour tout nettoyer, c'est là-bas qu'il jouit des fleurs au plus profond de l'eau! C'est lui qui arrive vite avec son bouclier en or. Puissions-nous avec des éventails, avec la canne aux fleurs rouges, avec les bannières en plutne de quetzal, venir réjouir les autres au plus intinle des demeures du printell1 ps.

zan Cuidizcatl tecuhtli ! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya !

Cua uh tan1 iyoh uachan, Oceloyoh ualichan Huexotzinco! In oncan in idamicohuacan

in maceuhcatzin, in Tlacahuepan. Ninlan oncan on ahuiya ixochicua pilh uan, ixopancala itecuhhuan ! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya ! Zan cacahuaxochitica dapapahuitihuitze, ye oncan in xochiahah uiya aitec ! Yehuantzin conitquitihuitze iteocuitlachitnal. Ma da iecacehuaz, teoaxochicuauhcocoltica, quetzalipantica, tonteahuiltico xopancala itec.

Ethnohistoire

et nahuatl

51

Ohuaya ! Ohuaya !

Ohuaya!

OhuaYd !

Chalchiuh tetzilacatli ihcacah ua, xochiayauach quiyahuitl on quiztoc in tlalticpac. Zacuan cala imanca in ixtilah uaquitequi. Ye temohua ipiltzin ! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya ! Xoxopan in ompa temoya in Ipalnernohuani. ln mocuicaizhuayotia, moxochiapana huehuetitlan, momalina. Ye Inotech onquiza a ihuintixochitli ! Ma xonah uiyacan ! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya !

Ils résonnent les grelots en jade, c'est une pluie de rosée fleurie qui est venue tOlnber sur la terre. Dans la delneure du zacuan aux plumes

dorées
il pleut très fort maintenant. Voilà qu'il est descendu son fils! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya ! C'est au printelnps qu'il descend là-bas l'Auteur de la Vie. Ses chants nous grandissent, il s'orne de fleurs là oÙ sont les
ta ln bo u ri ns,

il les entrelace, il s'en natte. Voici qu'elles sortent d'ici les fleurs qui grisent! Réjouissez-vous donc! Ohuaya ! Ohuaya !
Eçpana , fois. lro - 2 rOo

Ms. ROlnances

de /o..çSeiiores de la Nueva

IV) AYOCUAN CUETZPAL1ZIN : LEs

FLEURS

ET LES

CHANTS.

A in ilhuicac itic ompa ye ya huitz in yectli yan xochitl, yectli yan cuicatli. Conpoloan tellel, conpoloan totlayocoli, in tlacahço yehuatl, in chichitnectal teuctli, in Tecayehuatzin.

C'est du fond du ciel que viennent les belles fleurs, les beaux chan ts. Nos soins les abîment, nos inventions les gâtent, si ce n'est ceux du prince chichitnèque, Tecayeh uatzin. Avec eux, réjouissez-vous donc!

Ycaxonahuiacan !
Moquetzalizquixochi in tzetzeloa

Con11ne une fleur précieuse frémit