External and intra-European Union trade. Monthly statistics

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External trade
Publié le : mercredi 18 janvier 2012
Lecture(s) : 56
Source : EU Bookshop, http://bookshop.europa.eu/
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ISSN 1017-6004
σι
External and intra-European
Union trade
l.P.S
Monthly statistics
EUROPEAN THEME 6
COMMISSION External trade eurostat
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ausführliche Datenmaterial: Bezugs­ ble, deux grandes catégories de docu­
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lich fundiert sind. Diese Daten werden in
statistical document is intended for ex­
einer sehr tiefen Gliederung dargeboten. Le document statistique s'adresse aux
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to the statistical data. zugänglich sind. publications sont présentées sur papier
ou dans des banques de données de type
Y. Franchet
Um Benutzern die Datensuche zu erleich­ vidéotex.
Director-General
tern, hat Eurostat Themenkreise, d. h.
eine Untergliederung nach Sachgebieten, Pour aider l'utilisateur à s'orienter dans
eingeführt. Daneben sind sowohl die ses recherches, Eurostat a créé les
Statistischen Dokumente als auch die thèmes, c'est-à-dire une classification
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junktur", „Methoden", untergliedert, um série — par exemple, annuaire, conjonc­
den Zugriff auf die statistischen Informa­ ture, méthodologie — afin de faciliter
tionen zu erleichtern. l'accès aux informations statistiques.
Y. Franchet Y. Franchet
Generaldirektor Directeur général en
en
01
External and intra-European
Union trade
Monthly statistics
.. .
EUROPEAN ΈΔ THEME 6
COMMISSION External trade eurostat A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999
© European Communities, 1999
Printed in Luxembourg
PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER Data availability
Data extraction dates :
■04.01.1999 indices 9 others
Lastest data available in this issue
O = Intra-EU D = Extra-EU ■ = Total
DK D EL ι EU B/L E F IRL NL A Ρ FIN s UK IS NO CH
August 1998
September 1998 D ■ ■ ■ D ■ ■ D ■ ■ D D D D ■ ■ ■ ■
October 1998 Π ■ α D D D Contents
Foreword 7
Abbreviations 12
Trends in European Union trade3
I: Main trends in world trade5
II: Extra-EU trade by main partner7
III:U trade by main product9
IV: Extra-EU trade by Member State 21
V: Intra-EU trade byr State
VI: Intra-EU trade matrix4
VII: Extra + Intra-EU trade by Member State
VIII: Seasonally adjusted time series
IX: Extra-EU trade indices by partner country8
X:U trade indices by product 30
XI: Intra-EU trade indices by product1
European Union and world trade3
1A Trends in world trade5
Share of trade with the European Union, the United States and Japan 31B
1C Product breakdown of external trade of the European Union, the United States and Japan9
European Union trading partners 4
2A: Main EU trading partners2
2B/C: Yearly/Monthly trends in EU trade by partner country4
2D: Product breakdown of EU trade by main partner country 56
Extra-EU trade by product 61
3A/B: Annual/Monthly trends in EU trade by product
3C: Geographical breakdown of EU trade by main product
3D: Main EU trading partners by main product 7
Member States and EU trade 83
4A Trade balance by Member State5
4B: Intra-EU trade by Member State6
4C Extra-EU trade byr State7
4D Breakdown by Member State of extra-EU trade by main partner country 88
4E n byr State of goods traded ¡ntra-EU 9
4F Breakdown by Member State of goods traded extra-EU 104 Contents
External trade by Member State 113
Belgium and Luxembourg4
Denmark8
Germany 122
Greece6
Spain 130
France
Ireland
Italy 14
Netherlands
Austria 15
Portugal4
Finland
Sweden 16
United Kingdom6
EFTA external trade 171
Iceland · 172
Norway
Switzerland 1 180
Annexes5
ECU exchange rate7
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC Rev. 3) product list 188
Geonomenclature 1998 19
Economic zones 19983
including Liechtenstein Foreword
Introduction 7. given for Member States only. Eurostat also
foresees broadening this information to include non-
The environment in which trade statistics are
member countries (notably central and eastern
collected has changed radically in recent years,
European countries) in accordance with bilateral
leading to a detailed revision of the regulations. For
agreements yet to be finalised.
statistics on trade with non-member countries, the
introduction in 1988 of the Combined Nomenclature
Statistics on external trade and intra-EU trade at the
of goods (CN) and the Single Administrative
most detailed classification level are published
Document had already led to considerable
monthly on CD-Rom (Series B: intra and extra-EU
methodological changes. However, the major
trade). They are also available on-line from
changes were brought about by the introduction of
Eurostat's database (Comext, Newcronos). Trends in
the single market on 1 January 1993. This led to the
external trade since 1958 and a comparison with
abolition of customs formalities between the Member
world trade are contained in the publication "External
States which had served as the traditional source of
and Intra-EU Trade Statistical Yearbook (Series A)".
trade statistics, and the introduction of a special
collection system called INTRASTAT. The accession
of three new membe states in 1995 led Eurostat to 2. Intra-EU trade
recalculate its historical series for the European
Statistics on trade between the Member States are Union to include Austria, Finland and Sweden;
based on Council Regulation (EC) N° 3330/91 of therefore figures published here concern the fifteen
7 November 1991 and on the various implementing Members unless stated otherwise.
regulations which have supplemented it or laid down
rules on methodology, thresholds and forms. The Trade statistics - both detailed and general results -
system set up for the collection of information on have now proved their worth. They are an instrument
trade between the Member States as from of prime importance for all users, both public and
1 January 1993 is commonly known as Intrastat. Its private. For instance, they enable Community
main features are: authorities to prepare for multilateral and bilateral
negotiations on the common trade policy, they help
- monthly statistical declarations sent directly by European businesses carry out market surveys and
businesses to the competent national thus improve their competitiveness and they are an
authorities;
essential source of information for statistics on the
balance of payments, the national accounts and
- a system of thresholds abolishing all statistical
short-term economic studies. This non-exhaustive list
obligations ror almost two thirds of businesses;
highlights the variety of users and their requirements.
- a close link with the VAT system.
The monthly bulletin on external and intra-European
Union trade, published by Eurostat in the Β series, Because of the introduction of this new system, the
Short-term Trends, sets out to provide data on short- comparability of the intra-EU results prior to and after
term trends in the trade of the European Union 1 January 1993 is limited, owing to a degree of
(considered as a whole) and its Member States. It under-estimation of flows. This was caused by the
contains data on the trade flows, broken down by failure of some businesses to respond and to the
major product group, of the EU with its main trading
introduction of thresholds which exclude the smallest
partners on the one hand and between the Member
businesses.
States on the other.
To correct this under-estimation, which varies
Statistics on external trade and intra-EU trade are according to the Member State, some countries
compiled on the basis of Community regulations. The make adjustments at an aggregate level (in general
same regulations are generally the basis for the by partner country). Arrivals, i.e. imports from other
compilation of statistics published nationally by each EU countries, are particularly under-estimated.
Member State. Nevertheless, methodological Consequently, Eurostat considers dispatches now to
differences do arise, as a result of which Community be the most reliable gauge of intra-EU trade.
statistics and national statistics do not match exactly.
If the dispatches of a given Member State are
In view of the importance of trade by members of the
compared with the corresponding arrivals of its
European Free Trade Association (Iceland,
partners, differences may emerge, mainly for the
Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) with the
following reasons:
European Union, Eurostat has added a description of
trade with these countries (Chapter 6) to that usually
- non-response by certain businesses; Extra-EU trade - the movement of goods such as industrial 3.
plants, boats and aircraft, automobile and
For data on the years 1978 to 1995, the Member
aircraft parts, military equipment and transport
States forwarded statistics on trade outside the
equipment repairs, which are not generally
European Union in accordance with a uniform
harmonised;
methodology provided for in Council Regulation
(EEC) N° 1736/75 and the regulations deriving from
- the difference in statistical values for
it. Since the beginning of 1996, data have been
dispatches (FOB) and arrivals (CIF);
collected, transmitted and diffused in accordance
with Council Regulation (EC) N° 1172/95 and its - the threshold effect: a business may be
implementing rules (Council Regulation obliged to provide statistical information in one
(EC) N° 840 196) which however retain the former Member State while its client or supplier,
methodological principles. depending on the case, in the partner country
may be dispensed from providing any or
External trade statistics are usually recorded on the certain types of statistical information (e.g.
basis of customs declarations submitted by the product classification);
declarant when clearing customs. The Single
- errors or omissions. Administrative Document is used for this purpose. In
some Member States, certain businesses are
For these reasons, figures on intra-EU trade should allowed to make a summary declaration.
be interpreted with caution. They are also subject to
frequent revision. Methodological notes and sources
recorded by each Member State. Arrivals and
7. Data sources dispatches are defined as follows:
The tables in this publication on EU trade and that of - arrivals are goods in free circulation within the
the Member States were compiled by Eurostat using European Union which enter the statistical
the detailed data forwarded by the Member States. territory of a given Member State;
Eurostat would like to take this opportunity to thank
the departments concerned in the Member States for - dispatches are goods in free circulation within
their co-operation, which makes it possible to compile the European Union which leave the statistical
these harmonised statistics and guarantee their territory of a given Member State to enter
quality. another Member State.
Some of the tables in the first two parts describe the Goods placed under the customs arrangements of
development of external trade as declared by some inward processing or processing under customs
of the EU's most important trading partners. With the control (for working, processing or repairs) are also
exception of Table 1C and the results concerning the regarded as arrivals or dispatches.
EU, these tables were compiled from data taken from
The reader should also note that statistics on trade the tapes sent each month by the International
between the Member States do not cover goods in Monetary Fund. The information in table 1C is taken
transit. from the Comtrade database, which is managed by
the United Nations.
2.3. Extra-EU trade
Statistics on trade with non-member countries cover
2. Coverage
movable property imported and exported by the
Series concerning the European Union were E ¿sopean Union. The definitions are as follows:
recalculated to include Austria, Finland and Sweden,
- imports are goods which enter the statistical and therefore relate to the Union of 15 members
territory of the European Union from a non-unless stated otherwise.
member country and are placed under the
customs procedure for free circulation (as a 2.1. Statistical territory
general rule goods intended for
The statistical territory of the European Union consumption),or following outward processing,
comprises the customs territory of the European or inward processing, or processing under
Union. From 1 January 1997 the statistical territory of customs control (goods for working,
France and Spain was modified to include processing or repair) immediately, or after
respectively the French overseas departments bonded warehousing;
(Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique and Réunion) and
the Canary Islands. The series concerning the Union - exports are goods which leave the statistical
and these two Member States will be recalculated as territory of the European Union for a non-
soon as Eurostat disposes of the necessary data member country after being placed under the
customs procedure for exports (definitive
In the meantime this modification has lead to a export) or outward processing (goods for
growth in intra-EU trade and a reduction in extra-EU working, processing) or repair or following
trade which in 1995 amounted to ECU 10.6 billion for inward.
exports and ECU 1.6 billion of imports. The overall
effect of this change on the European Union trade Statistics on trade with non-member countries do not,
balance with the rest of the world will be a reduction therefore, include goods in transit or those placed
in the trade surplus of almost ECU 9 billion. under a customs procedure for bonded warehousing
or temporary entry (for fairs, exhibitions, tests, etc.)
Likewise, Greenland, Ceuta and Melilla are not
nor do they include re-export following entry under
covered, nor are the overseas countries and
one of these procedures.
territories which are not part of the EU customs
The field covered by statistics on trade with non-
territory.
member countries corresponds to "special" trade.
This method of accounting differs from that of
2.2 Intra-EU trade
"general" trade, which includes all goods entering the
Statistics on trade between the Member States cover statistical territory and those leaving it, with the
the arrivals and dispatches of movable property exception, however, of goods in transit. Goods

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