鄧析子

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Deng Xi Zi (Thought of Deng Xi Zi), by Xi DengThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online atwww.gutenberg.netTitle: Deng Xi Zi (Thought of Deng Xi Zi)Author: Xi DengPosting Date: May 8, 2009 [EBook #7215] Release Date: January, 2005 First Posted: March 27, 2003Language: Chinese*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DENG XI ZI (THOUGHT OF DENG XI ZI) ***Produced by Wan Ting GongDeng Xi Zi (Thought Of Deng Xi Zi)by Deng XiThe original Chinese:鄧 析 子鄧 析無 厚 篇天 於 人 , 無 厚 也 。 君 於 民 , 無 厚 也 。 父 於 子 , 無 厚 也 。 兄 於 弟 , 無 厚 也 。 何 以 言 之 ? 天 不 能 屏 勃 厲 之 氣 , 全 夭 折 之 人 ,使 為 善 之 民 必 壽 , 此 於 民 無 厚 也 。 凡 民 有 穿 窬 為 盜 者 , 有 詐 偽 相 迷 者 , 此 皆 生 於 不 足 , 起 於 貧 窮 , 而 君 必 執 法 誅 之 ,此 於 民 無 厚 也 。 堯 舜 位 為 天 子 , 而 丹 朱 商 均 為 布 衣 , 此 於 子 無 厚 也 。 周 公 誅 管 蔡 , 此 於 弟 無 厚 也 。 推 此 言 之 , 何 厚 之有 ? 循 名 責 實 , 君 之 事 也 。 奉 法 宣 令 , 臣 之 職 也 。 下 不 得 自 擅 , 上 操 其 柄 而 不 理 者 , 未 之 有 也 。 君 有 三 累 , 臣 有 四 責 。何 謂 三 累 : 惟 親 所 信 , 一 累 。 以 名 取 士 , 二 累 。 近 故 親 疏 , 三 累 。 何 謂 四 責 : 受 重 賞 而 無 功 , 一 責 。 居 大 位 而 不 治 , 二責 。 理 官 而 不 平 , 三 責 。 御 軍 陣 而 奔 北 , 四 責 。 君 無 三 累 , 臣 無 四 責 , 可 以 安 國 。勢 者 , 君 之 輿 。 威 者 , 君 之 策 。 臣 者 , 君 之 馬 。 民 者 , 君 之 輪 。 世 固 則 輿 安 , 威 定 則 策 勁 。 臣 順 則 馬 良 , 民 和 則 輪 利 。 為國 失 此 , 必 有 覆 車 奔 馬 折 輪 敗 載 之 患 。 安 得 不 危 ! 輪 敗 策 折 , 馬 奔 輿 覆 , 則 載 者 亦 傾 矣 ( 此 三 句 從 意 林 補 ) 。 異 同 之 不可 別 , ...
Publié le : mercredi 8 décembre 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Deng Xi Zi (Thought of Deng Xi Zi), by Xi Deng
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: Deng Xi Zi (Thought of Deng Xi Zi)
Author: Xi Deng
Posting Date: May 8, 2009 [EBook #7215] Release Date: January, 2005 First Posted: March 27, 2003
Language: Chinese
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK DENG XI ZI (THOUGHT OF DENG XI ZI) ***
Produced by Wan Ting Gong
Deng Xi Zi (Thought Of Deng Xi Zi) by Deng Xi
The original Chinese: 鄧析子
鄧析
無厚篇
天於人,無厚也。君於民,無厚也。父於子,無厚也。兄於弟,無厚也。 何以言之?天不能屏勃厲之氣,全夭折之人, 使為善之民必壽,此於民無 厚也。凡民有穿窬為盜者,有詐偽相迷者,此皆生於不足,起於貧窮,而 君必執法誅之, 此於民無厚也。堯舜位為天子,而丹朱商均為布衣,此於 子無厚也。周公誅管蔡,此於弟無厚也。推此言之,何厚之 有?循名責實 ,君之事也。奉法宣令,臣之職也。下不得自擅,上操其柄而不理者,未 之有也。君有三累,臣有四責。 何謂三累:惟親所信,一累。以名取士, 二累。近故親疏,三累。何謂四責:受重賞而無功,一責。居大位而不治 ,二 責。理官而不平,三責。御軍陣而奔北,四責。君無三累,臣無四責 ,可以安國。
勢者,君之輿。威者,君之策。臣者,君之馬。民者,君之輪。世固則輿 安,威定則策勁。臣順則馬良,民和則輪利。為 國失此,必有覆車奔馬折 輪敗載之患。安得不危!輪敗策折,馬奔輿覆,則載者亦傾矣(此三句從 意林補)。異同之不 可別,是非之不可定,白黑之不可分,清濁之不可理 。久矣。誠聽能聞於無聲,視能見於無形,計能規於未兆,慮能防 於未然 。斯無他也,不以耳聽,則通於無聲矣。不以目視,則照於無形矣。不以 心計,則達於無兆矣。不以知慮,則合 於未然矣。君者藏形匿影,群下無 私,掩目塞耳,萬民恐震。
循名責實,察法立威,是明王也。夫明於形者分,不遇於事。察於動者用 ,不失則利。故明君審一,萬物自定。名不可 以外務,智不可以從他,求 諸己之謂也。
治世位不可越,職不可亂。百官有司各務其刑。上循名以督實,下奉教而 不違。所美觀其所終,所惡計其所窮。喜不 以賞,怒不以罰。可謂治世。
夫負重者患塗遠,據貴者憂民離。負重塗遠者,身疲而無功。在上離民者 ,雖勞而不治。故智者量塗而後負,明君視 民而出政。
獵羆虎者,不於外圂。釣鯨鯢者,不於清池。何則?圂非羆虎之窟也,池 非鯨鯢之泉也。楚之不泝流,陳之不束麾,長 盧之不士,呂子之蒙恥。
夫游而不見敬,不恭也。居而不見愛,不仁也。言而不見用,不信也。求 而不能得,無始也。謀而不見喜,無理也。計 而不見從,遺道也。因勢而 發譽,則行等而名殊。人齊而得時,則力敵而功倍。其所以然者,乘勢,非 在外,推辯所聽也。虛詞,非所應也。無益之辭,非所舉也。故談 者別殊類,使不相害。序異端,使不相亂。諭志通意,非務相乖 也。若飾 詞以相亂,匿詞以相移;非古之辯也。
慮不先定,不可以應卒。兵不閑習,不可以當敵。廟算千里,帷幄之奇。 百戰百勝,黃帝之師。
死生自命,貧富自時。怨夭折者,不知命也。怨貧賤者,不知時也。故臨 難不懼,知天命也。貧窮無懾,達時序也。凶 饑之,父死於室,子死 而不相怨者,無所顧也。同舟渡海,中流遇風,救患若一,所憂同也。張羅而畋,唱和 不差者,其利等也。故體痛者口不能不呼,心悅者顏不 能不笑。責疲者以舉千鈞,責兀者以及走兔。驅逸足於庭,求 猿捷於檻, 斯逆理而求之,猶倒裳而索領。事有遠而親,近而疏。就而不用,去而反 求。風此四行,明主大憂也。
夫水濁則無掉尾之魚,政苛則無逸樂之士。故令煩則民詐,政擾則民不定 。不治其本,而務其末。譬如拯溺錘之以 石,救火投之以薪。
夫達道者,無知之道也,無能之道也。是知大道不知而中,不能而成,無 有而足。守虛責實,而萬事畢。忠言於不忠, 義生於不義。音而不收謂之 放,言出而不督謂之闇。故見其象,致其形,循其理,正其名,得其端, 知其情。若此何往 不復,何事不成!有物者,意也。無外者,德也。有人 者,行也。無人者,道也。故德非所履,處非所處,則失道。非其 道不道 ,則諂意。無賢慮,無忠行,無道言,虛如受實,萬事畢。
夫言榮不若辱,非誠辭也。得不若失,非實談也。不進則退,不喜則憂, 不得則亡。此世人之常,真人危斯,十者而為 一矣。所謂大辯者,別天下 之行,具天下之物。選善退惡,時措其宜,而功立德至矣。小辯則不然。 別言異道,以言相 射,以行相伐,使民不知其要。無他故焉,故淺知也。 君子并物而措之,兼塗而用之。五味未嘗,而辨于口。五行在 身,而布於 人。故何方之道不從。面從之義不行,治亂之法不用,惔然寬裕,蕩然簡 易,略而無失,精詳入纖微也。
夫舟浮於水,車轉於陸,此自然道也。有不治者,知不豫焉。
夫木擊折 ,水戾破舟,不怨木石,而罪巧拙,故不載焉。故有知則惑,有心則嶮,有目則眩。是以規矩一而不易,不為 c 秦楚緩節,不為胡越改容 。一而不邪,方行而不流。一日形之,萬世傳之,無為為之也。
夫自見之明,借人見之,闇也。自聞之聰,借人聞之,聾也。明君知此, 則去就之分定矣。為君當若冬日之陽,夏日之 陰,萬物自歸,莫之使也。 恬臥而功自成,優游而政自治。豈在振目搤腕,手據鞭扑,而後為治與?
夫合事有不合者,知與未知也。合而不結者,陽親而陰疏。故遠而親者, 志相應也。近而疏者,志不合也。就而不用 者,策不得也。去而反求者, 無違行也。近而不御者,心相乖也。遠而相思者,合其謀也。故明君擇人 ,不可不審。士 之進趣,亦不可不詳。
轉辭篇 世間悲哀喜樂嗔怒憂愁,久惑於此,今轉之在己。為哀在他,為悲在己。 為樂在他,為喜在己。為嗔在他,為怒在己。 為愁在他,為憂在己。若扶 之與攜,謝之與議。故之與右,諾之與己,相去千里也。夫言之術:與智 者言,依於博。與 博者言,依於辯。與辯者言,依於安。與貴者言,依於 勢。與富者言,依於豪。與貧者言,依於利。與勇者言,依於敢。 與愚者。此言,依 言之術也。不用在早圖,不窮在早稼。非所宜言,勿言。非所宜為,勿為以避其危。非所宜取, 勿取以避其咎。非所宜爭,勿爭以 避其聲。一聲而非,駟馬勿追。一言而急,駟馬不及。故惡言不出口,苟 語不留耳。 此謂君子也。夫任臣之法,闇則不任也,慧則不從也,仁則不 親也,勇則不近也,信則不信也。不以人用人,故謂之 神。怒出於不怒, 為出於不為。視於無有,則得其所見。聽於無聲,則得其所聞。故無形者 ,有形之本。無聲者,有聲 之母。循名責實,實之極也。按實定名,名之 極也。參以相平,轉而相成,故得之形名。 夫川竭而谷虛,丘夷而淵實。聖人以死,大盜不起,天下平而故也。聖人 不死,大盜不止,何以知其然?為之斗斛而 量之,則并斗斛而竊之。為之 權衡以平之,則并與權衡而竊之。為之符璽以信之,則并與符璽而竊之。 為之仁義以教 之,則并仁義而竊之。何以知其然?彼竊財誅,竊國者為諸 侯。諸侯之門,仁義存焉。是非竊仁義耶?故遂於大盜霸 諸侯,此重利也 。盜跖所不可桀者,乃聖人之罪也。欲之與惡,善之與惡,四者變之失。 恭之與儉,敬之與傲,四者失 之修。故善素朴。任惔憂而無失,未有脩焉 ,此德之永也。言有信而不為信,言有善而不為善者,不可不察也。
夫治之法,莫大於使私不行。君之功,莫大於使民不爭。今也,立法而行 私與法爭。其亂也,甚於無法。立君而尊賢與 君爭,其亂也,甚於無君。 故有道之國,法立則私善不行,君立而賢者不尊。民一於君,事斷於法, 此治國之道也。明 君之督大臣,緣身而責名,緣名而責形,緣形而責實, 臣懼其重誅之至,於是不敢行其私矣。
心欲安靜,慮欲深遠。心安靜則神策生,慮深遠則計謀成。心不欲躁,慮 不欲淺。心躁則精神滑,慮淺則百事傾。治世 之禮,簡而易行。亂世之禮 ,煩而難遵。上古之樂,質而不悲。當今之樂,邪而為淫。上古之民,質 而敦朴。今世之 民,詐而多行。上古象刑而民不犯;教有墨劓,不以為恥 ,斯民所以亂多治少也。堯置敢諫之鼓,舜立誹謗之木,湯有 司直之人, 武有戒慎之銘。此四君子者,聖人也,而猶若此之勤。至於栗陸氏殺東里 子,宿沙氏戮箕文,桀誅龍逢,紂 刳比干,四主者亂君,故其疾賢若仇。 是以賢愚之相覺,若百丈之谿,與萬仞之山;若九地之下,與重山之
明君之御民,若御奔而無轡,履冰而負重。親而疏之,疏而親之,故畏檢 則福生,驕奢則禍起。聖人逍遙一世,罕匹萬 物之形。寂然無鞭扑之罰, 漠然無叱吒之聲,而家給人足,天下太平。視昭昭,知冥冥,推未運,睹 未然,故神而不可 見,幽而不可見,此之謂也。
君人者不能自專,而好任下,則智日困而數日窮,迫於下則不能申。行隨 於國,則不能持。知不足以為治,威不足以 行誅,無以與下交矣。故喜而 使賞,不必當功。怒而使誅,不必罪。不慎喜怒,誅賞從其意,而欲委 任臣下,故亡國 相繼,殺君不。古人有言,眾口鑠金,三人成虎,不可 不察也。
夫人情發言欲勝,舉事欲成。故明者不以其短,疾人之長。不以其拙,病 人之工。言有善者,則賞之。言有非者,則罰 之。塞邪枉之路,蕩浮辭之 端。臣下閔之,左右結舌,可謂明君。為善者君與之賞。為惡者君與之罰 ,因其所以來而報 之,循其所以進而答之。聖人因之,故能用之。因之循 理,故能長久。今之為君,無堯舜之才,而慕堯舜之治,故終顛 殞乎混冥 之中,而事不覺於昭明之術。是以虛慕欲治之名,無益亂世之理也。
忠怠於宦成,病始于少瘳。禍生於懈慢,孝衰於妻子。此四者,慎終如始 也。富必給貧,壯必給老。快情恣欲,必多侈 侮。故曰:尊貴無以高人, 聰明無以籠人,資給無以先人,剛勇無以勝人,能履行此,可以為天下君 。
夫謀莫難於必聽,事莫難於必成。成必合於數,聽必合於情,故抱薪加火 ,爍者必先燃。平地注水,者必先濡。故 曰:動之以其類,安有不應者 ,獨行之術也。 明君立法之後,中程者賞,缺繩者誅。此之謂君曰亂君,國曰亡國。 智者寂於是非,故善惡有別。明者寂於去就,故進退無類。若智不能察是 非,明不能審去就,斯謂虛妄。 目貴明,耳貴聰,心貴公。以天下之目視,則無不見。以天下之耳聽,則 無不聞。以天下之智慮,則無不知。得此三 術,則存於不為也。
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