L'ombre d'affolées en pleurs

De
Publié par

L'écrivain cubain qui meurt du SIDA à Paris le 8 juin 1993, était né à Camagüey (Cuba) le 25 février 1937. Singulière et brillante, l'oeuvre de Severo Sarduy compte des romans, des essais, de la poésie, des pièces radiophoniques. Cet ouvrage distingue les textes où se déploie avec un particulier éclat l'homoérotisme de l'auteur, c'est-à-dire trois recueils de poèmes et quatre des sept romans.
Publié le : lundi 1 juin 2009
Lecture(s) : 14
Tags :
EAN13 : 9782296233089
Nombre de pages : 232
Voir plus Voir moins
Cette publication est uniquement disponible à l'achat

~V:$bFE;:~bV
2o@~REf~V/m~$$/
Z8;ZhZaB_u
VZcnnZi]_ ^_ f~bjhh_o/_q_mj/Zm^pu Z qp f_ djpm f_ =^ ‘0qmc_m 2+Ht
);ZhZaB_uY pi_ qcff_ ncop0_ ) _iqcmji i&& eh) f~_nodnp^d_no ^_@Z
sZqZi_o;ZkcoZf_ ^_ fZ kmjqci]_ ]p[Zci_ ^p h2h_ ijhY qZno_ kfZci_
[jm^0_ ^~pi ]<o0 kZmf~%ofZioclp_ _o ^_ f~Zpom_ kZm fZK_m ^_n;ZmZ7d
[_nY ;ZhZaB_u ‘po ‘ji^0_ _i 2^2S kZm Fc_aj ^_ P_f(vlp_v lpc fpc
^jiiZ f_ ijh ^_/Zcio_KZmc_ ^_mjmo Zpmmci]_Y qco_ Z[m0a0 _imjmo
Zp mmci]_ ZqZio ^_ ^_q_icm ;ZhZaB_uY fZ qcff_ j]]pkZco ) f~jmcaci_
f~_hkfZ]_h_io ^_ f~Z]op_ff_ Vp_qcoZnY npm fZ ]<o_ ZofZioclp_Y j@ _ff_
np[cnnZco f_n ZooZlp_n ci]_nnZio_n^_n ]jmnZcm_n_o^_n kcmZo_no Rt]0d
^0nkZm f_pmnkcffZa_nY f_n bZ[coZion n~_i ‘pm_iochkfZio_m f_pm qcff_
kfpn Zp ]_iom_ ^_ f~6f_Y -pi ^_n m_am_on ^_ /_q_mj /Zm^pu 0oZco ^_
i~Zqjcm kZn ]jiip fZ h_m^Zin nji_i‘Zi]_8o@Z]ZhkZai_ ]ZhZaB_d
u_ii_ i~ZuZio kZn ^_ m_nnjpm]_n bu^mZpfclp_n hZfam0 f_n Z[ji^Zio_n
km0]ckcoZocjinY q_mn f_ hcfc_p ^p fP~~~1h_ nc1]f_ ^_nkjoc_mn]ZoZd
fZinY chhcamZion q_ipnn~cinoZff_m ^Zin fZ qcff_Y _pm_io f~c^0_^~pocfcn_m
f~Zmacf_ fj]Zf_lpc ‘jpmicnnZco pi_ k*o_ ‘Z]cf_ ) hj^_f_m _o om1nm0ncnd
oZio_Y kjpm ‘Z[mclp_m ^~chh_in_n dZmm_nY Zkk_f0_n ociZdji_nY -]_moZci_n
‘jio pi h1om_ _o ^_hc ^_ bZpo _o kZm‘jcn lpZom_ h1om_n ^_ ]cm]ji‘0d
m_i]_8 ^Zin f_nlp_ff_n f_n ‘Zhcff_n ]jin_mqZc_io f~_Zp ^_ kfpc_o;ZhZd
aB_u ^jco nji npmijh ^_n qcff_ ^_n ociZdji_n p) ]_oo_ omZ^cocji lp_ f_n
kjoc_mnn~0oZc_io omZinhcn_ ^_ a0i0mZocji _i a0i0mZocji dpnlp~Zp
ff1h_ nc1]f_yojh[0_ Zfjmn _i ^0np0op^_Y ji _nnZc_ Zpdjpm^~bpc ^_
fZ m_fZi]_mo
@ZmZm_o0 ^_ f~_ZpY lp_kZffcZco Zpom_‘jcn f~pnZa_ ^_n ociZdji_n Y _no
2mZkk_f0_ [pmf_nlp_h_ioY ^Zin f_ mjhZi F_ ^ji^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_n
-R]mco _i ^ZinZio8Y kZm f_ ^cn]jpmn 0f_]ojmZf ^~pi ]_moZciKjmo_fm0m_vY
]Zi^c^Zo) pi nc1a_ ^_ ]jin_cff_m hpic]ckZfo/jpn pi_ kfpc_ ^_ omZ]on
lp_ fZi]_io n_n kZmocnZin _o ^jio cf n_io fZ kjmo0_h0ojiuhclp_Y cf
kmjh_oY fZ km0n_i]_ ^_nhc]mjn lpc Zhkfc‘c_iofZ qjct k_mh_o fZ ^0d
2
/_q_mj /Zm^puYb[mZ;jhkf_oZ Y _^o ]m4oc]ZYhpnoZqjhp_mm_mju]mZi/jcn[ZbfYmZmcnY
%@@;%ffY~+++Y oo~ _o~~Y ko H=tdS=Ho:jpo_n f_n ]coZocjin ^_n jpqmZa_n ^_/Zm^pu
m_iqjc_io) ]_oo_ 0^cocjioh_npm_ ^_ fZ kmjh_nn_Y ^_ ^0q_mn_m npm fZ kmjqci]_kfpn ^~_Zp lp_
2k_i^Zio f_ F0fpa_o ;j]Znn_n 0aZf_h_io f_n m0]fZhZocjin ^_ %ptcfcj
_o/j]jmmjY kmjoZajicno_n ^p mjhZiY lpc kZm hZilp_ ^~_Zp ^Zin ojpd
o_ fZ qcff_Y ^jcq_ioY ^cn_iod_ff_nY n_ mZ‘mZ6]bcm Zq_] pi_ fcia_oo_ ch[cd
=[0_ ^~Zf]jjfo /_mZ‘mZ6]bcm f_ ]jmknY jp f_ ajnc_mY [m_‘Y n~ch[c[_m ^~Zfd
]jjfY fZ fcia_oo_ ‘ZcnZio fcojo_oFjfjm_n$ji^:iY kmjoZajicno_ _ff_ Zpnd
nc ^Zin ]_oo_ kZmoc_Y _tca_ ]Zmm0h_io pi [Zci ^Zin pi_ [Zcaijcm_ m_hd
Hkfc_ ^_ mbph ) mZn [jm^o
*_ ^0q_fjkk_mZc kfpnZqZio f_ noZopo mjhZi_nlp_ ^0fc[0m0h_io
Zh[cap ^_ /j]jmmj _o %ptcfcjY hZcn lp~cf njco 0oZ[fc ^~jm_n _o ^0d)Y
kjpm ^cnnck_m ojpo_ 0lpcqjlp_Y lp_ fZ]_hh_ i~Z kZn ^_ kfZ]_ ^Zin
f~wpqm_o @_n k_mnjiiZa_n kmjoZajicno_n lpc kjmo_io ojpn ^_n ijhn
^_ ‘_hh_ jp lpc njio ^0ncai0n Zp ‘0hcici kZm pi_ ‘ji]ocji -@Z$0d
a_io_ ^_ ;jfc[m4Y KZ^Zh_ ^p :b0*om_ @umclp_ ^_ mjpk0_n ^Zin ;j d
[mZ8 jp pi nj[mclp_o lpc ]ji]_mi_ f_pmkbunclp_ -@Z F0]bZmi0_Y fZ
;jinph0_ ^Zin;jfc[m48Y ^Zin;j]pu j ojpo_ f~jijhZnoclp__i fcojo_Y fZ
:_mmc[f_Y fZ :jpo_ 0jii_Y _o]oY i~jio ^_ ‘_hh_ lp_ f_ a_im_ amZhd
hZoc]ZfY _o [c_i‘jf n_mZco f_ f_]o_pm lpc n~u ‘c_mZcoo FZin m(dZmjn ^_ fZ
SkfZuZ -bcn_Zpt ^_ fZ kfZa_8Y fZ qc_cff_ ‘jffZnn_ lpc kZmoZa_ n_n ‘Zq_pmn _id
om_ ^_pt h0^_]cin Zpnnc [cvZmm_nlp~_ff_Y;Z7hZi _o~nc^mj ^cof_;b_d
qZf kZm]_ lp~cf m_nn_h[fZco ) pi ]b_qZfY ‘_mh_ f_ ]jmo1a_ ^_ ]_n n ‘_hd
h_np kfpn_t]_iom0_n ^p n_t_ ‘0hcici f_n pi_n lp_ f_n Zpom_noPc_cfd
f_nY ^0[mZcff0_nY f_ q_iom_ m_[ji^c _o f_ ]b_q_p mZm_Y n _ff_np _t_m]_io
pi_ Zpojmco0 oumZiiclp_Y u ]jhkmcn f_ ^mjco ^_ ]pcnnZa_Y ^Zin ^_n [jmd
^_fn bjhjn_tp_fno ;_k_i^Zio kZm‘jcnY f_ o_to_ ]jin_io ) f_q_m pi
]jci ^p qjcf_ amZhhZoc]Zf lpc Z[mco_ f_ n_t_ _i lp_nocji 6 ^Zin pi fpd
kZiZm ^_ /humi_Y n fZ hZomji_ -_no8 pi hm_] j[1n_Y hjio0 npm ^_n
^oZfjin_opi_ ‘f_pm npmfZ o2o_ po bp kjpm f_ k_mnjiiZa_ ‘0hcici ^_
f~ciomcaZio *_ qjpn 0]jpo_Y 0]mco ^cm_]o_h_io_i ‘mZi/Zcn kjpm fZ mZ^cj _o
^c‘‘pn0 kZm ]mZi]_ ;pfopm_ _i 2+t+ 6 n @E~YR@@R -hZcn ji ^_qci_ lp~cf
i
n~Zaco ^~pi aZm/ji8 po Ri m_qZi]b_Y ^Zin f_ ]ch_oc1m_ ^_ ;ZhZaB_u
-F_ ^ji^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_n8Y) fZ qp_ ^_%ptcfcjY/j]jmmj _o;f_h_i]cZY
2
F_ ^ji^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_nYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko Hito
=
~^o ko Hi^o
H
~^o ko Ht2o
S
m(dZmjn^_fZ kfZuZYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko +2td2&&^o
^
;j[mZYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko SHSo
i
*_ qjpn 0]jpo_Yb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko 222=o
]bZ]pi_ ^0]mco_ ]jhh_ pin ^Zhjcn_Zp mjplpci _o ]cm_pt pY f_ iZmmZd
o_pm kjpnn_ ^_ bZpon]mcn 6n *_ i_ npkkjmo_ kZn ]_n omjcn ‘jff_nY ]_n
2bjmm_pmn po ;jhh_ ) nji bZ[cop^_ kf_ci^_ ^pkfc]co0Y f_ o_to_fZcnn_
kfZi_m f_ ^jpo_ npmf_ a_im_ ^_ ‘jff_n 6 Z^d_]oc‘ -lpZfc‘cZio omjcn‘_hd
h_n8 jp np[noZioc‘ -nuijiuh_ ^_n n ^Zhjcn_Zpt p8o
$_q_ijin );ZhZaB_uo%q_] nji _i]b_q2om_h_io ^_ mp_ff_nY;Zd
hZaB_u kjnn1^_ Znnpm0h_iof_ omZ]0 f_ kfpn h0^c0qZf ^_ ojpo_n f_n
qcff_n ^_ ;p[Zo F~Zp]pin_tkfclp_io nZ ^cnkjncocji fZ[umciobclp_
]jhh_ pi_ km0]ZpocjiY fZ ^_mic1m_Y ]jiom_ f_n ZooZlp_n ^_n kcmZo_no
;ZhZaB_u mZkk_ff_ f_neZn[Zb ^_]_v jp ^_ KZmmZe_]bo;~_nok_pod
2om_Y ]~_no nZin ^jpo_) ]Zpn_ ^_ ]_oo_ m_nn_h[fZi]_ lp_ n f_n ^_pt
amZi^_n^0]jpq_mo_n)^_ /Zm^pu? ‘pm_io ]_ff_n ^p hji^_ ZmZ[_ hZd
abm0[ci _o ^_ f~Rtom2h_dbmc_ioY n_pf_n ]ZkZ[f_n ^~ZqjcmfZ h2h_
=
^_inco0 lp_ f_ m2q_ ykfpnc_pmn‘jcnm_omjpq0y np^dZh0mc]Zci po
FZin f~wpqm_^_/_q_mj/Zm^puY f_nj]]pmm_i]_n^_;ZhZaB_u ncaiZd
f_io ^_nhjh_ion j@ ]b_v/Zm^pu Z‘‘f_pmZcokfpn‘jmo_h_io fZ ijnoZfd
ac_ ^~pi _tcf lpc kjpm 2om_ ^jm0Y _i kZmoc]pfc_m kZm f~_iqcmjii_h_io
cio_ff_]op_ff_h_io ‘ZqjmZ[f_ ^jio f_ ;p[Zci [0i0‘c]cZco) mZmcnY i~_i
aZm^Zco kZn hjcin kjpm ]_o bjhh_^_n omjkclp_nfZ h0fZi]jfc_ ^_
f~Zfo0mco0Y Zpah_io0_kZm f~jnomZ]cnh_ lp_ hZic‘_noZco) nji 0aZm^ f_
m0ach_ ]Znomcno_o
*~Zc ^co pi djpm )hjh[mjsc]vY )$juZphjio d_ ]mjcnY _i ojpo ]Zn njpn
pi Zm[m_ 6n*_ npcn k_m^p _o n_pfY d~0]mcn _i _nkZaijfY kfpn _tZ]o_h_io_i
]p[ZciY ^Zin pi kZun lpc i_ n~cio0m_nn_ ) mc_i lpc i_ njco nZ kmjkm_ ]pfd
H
opm_Y n_n omZ^cocjin po
@_n hjh_ion]ZhZaB_u_in m0q0fZo_pmn^_ ijnoZfac_n Zptlp_fnd_
‘Zcn Zffpncji n_ omjpq_io _nn_ioc_ff_h_io yhZcn kZn _t]fpncq_h_ioy
^Zin ^_pt mjhZinYF_ ^ji^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_nY kp[fc0)K0tc]j kZm*jZd
Slp4iKjmocv _i 2+itY _o;jfc[m4Y kZmp)0Zm]_fji_ ]b_v%majnP_maZd
^
mZ _i 2+ H o P_iZio Zkm1n ;j[mZY f_ mjhZi n ‘mZi/Zcnp ^_ /Zm^pu
2
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jko ]coo ko Hi&dHi2o
=
[ZbfY]mZi/jcnY n/_q_mj ^_ fZ mp_ *Z]j[ pY /_q_mj /Zm^puYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coY ko
2Sito
H
/Zm^puY/_q_mjYRf_noZhkc^j ^_fZ qZ]pc^Z^ -@Z^0‘fZamZocji^_fZ qZ]pco08Yb[mZ]jhkf_oZY
jko ]coo ko 2&+o
S
;jfc[m4Yb[mZ ]jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko i+2dt+^o
^
;j[mZYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko S=td^ S o
+2kjpm f_ ]Z^m_ -mZmcn _nn_ioc_ff_h_io8Y _oKZcom_uZY jmc_ioZf kZm f_ ob1d
h_ ^p0jp^^bcnh_KZbZuZiZ -:c[_o8Y ;jfc[m4 hZmlp_ _i 2+ H f_ m_d
ojpm mjhZi_nlp_ ) f~%h0mclp_fZoci_ 6 f_ [jm^_fhZn]pfci ^Zin f_lp_f
n_ kZnn_ pi_ amZi^_ kZmoc_ ^_ f~Z]ocji Z kjpm ]Z^m_ fZ dpiaf_ kmj]b_
^_ f~_h[jp]bpm_^~pi amZi^ ‘f_pq_Y lp_ /Zm^pu n_ kfZcnZco ) qjcm
]jhh_ f~%hZvji_ q0i0vp0fc_ii_ B _inpco_Y ]~_nof_K_tclp_Y j@;jd
fc[mc n_ m0‘pac_ kjpm 0]bZkk_m Zpt kjpmnpcqZion yf_n n ]bZnd
n_pmn py lp_ fZ$0a_io_Y fZ kZomjii_ ^p [jm^_fY Z fZi]0n) n_n omjpnd
n_noRi ^0kco ^_ f~pico0 ^_ fc_p m_q_i^clp0_ kZm f_Kb~ iZmmZo_pm ycf
_noqmZc ch[c[0 ^~Zf]jjf fpcZpnncyY pi 0kcnj^_ n_ kZnn_ ^Zin n pi
=kZocj ]jfjicZf ]ZhZaB_u_iY Zq_] ^_n ociZdji_n amjpcffZion ^_ fZmq_n p Y
kZm]_ lp_Kb~ _o;ZhZaB_u ^0ncai_io/Zm^pu nZin 0lpcqjlp_o
KZcn]_ i~_nokfpnf_ /Zm^pu mc_pm ^_ Fji^_ njifjn ]ZioZio_n y_id
]jm_ lp~cf u ZpmZ [_Zp]jpk) m_^cm_npm f_ ]<o0 mc_pm ^_ ]_ mjhZiyY
]~_nopi/Zm^pu lp_ f~Ziajcnn_Y ) ]_oo_ ^Zo_Y ]jhh_i/Zco ) oZmZp^_m )
kmjkjn^_ fZ ijpq_ff_ 0kc^0hc_ lpc _hkjmoZco oZio ^_ n_n kmj]b_no
@~ZqZiod^_mic_m ]bZkcom_ ^_ ;jfc[m4 ^0]mco n pi hZfj[n]pmY nZin
Hijh p lpc _to_mhci_ pi amjpk_ cnjf0 Zpt [jm^n^_f~%hZvji_Y pi
hZf ^jiof_n hZic‘_noZocjinnjionZin 0lpcqjlp_ ]_ff_n ^p /~F%
-n aZiafcjin _i‘fZhh0n ^_n Zcnn_ff_nY ]jino_ffZocji^_ kjcion ijcmn
lpc n_ omZin‘jmhZc_io _i kpnopf_n kpcn_i [p[jin ^pmnY iwp^n hZd
fcin pY _o]o8o@_ ]bZkcom_ n_ o_mhci_ kZmlpZom_]jpmo_n kbmZn_nY ^cnkjd
n0_n ]jhh_n~cf n~ZacnnZco ^_ lpZom_q_mn _o lpcY _i _nkZaijf iZopm_fd
f_h_ioY ]jinocop_io f~Z]mjnoc]b_ lp_ d_ njpfcai_o
/_ ocmZmjiZf ZapZ;jfc[m4 u _f;bcijo_o
~io_ioZmji iZ^ZmbZnoZ fZ jmcffZo
F_m_]bjY nc_hkm_ ^_m_]bjY [mZ]_Zi^j ]ji‘p_mvZo
S
% q_m nc ff_aZiq
;jfc[mc _o f_;bci_ojlp_ n_ d_o1m_io ) f~_Zpo
~fn _nnZu1m_io^_ aZai_m fZ [_ma_o
:jpo ^mjcoY ojpdjpmn ojpo ^mjcoY _i iZa_Zio Zq_]‘jm]_o
Rnk0mjin lp~cfn u Zmmcq_ioq
2
KZcom_uZYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]co o ko ^ tdi +o
=
;jfc[m4Y jko ]co o ko tS^o
H
~^o ko t t o
S
~^o ko t o
2&@Z h0oZkbjm_ _no 0fjlp_io_ 6 ^_n hZfZ^_n ^0mcq_io npm f~%hZvjd
i_Y ^Zin pi_ [Zmlp_ lp~cfn i~jio kfpn fZ ‘jm]_ ^_ ]jiom<f_moF0fcmZionY
hjpmZionY cfn _i Zmmcq_io)0qco_m ^_ n_ ojp]b_m kZm ]mZcio_^_n_ ]jid
oZhci_m f_n pinf_n Zpom_no ;jfc[mc _o nji ]jhkZaijiY Zp ]jiomZcm_
kf_cin ^~0i_mac_Y n_ d_oo_io) f~_ZpY Zp n_in kmjkm_ _o Zp n_in ‘capm0 6
fZ mcq_ lp~cfn _nnZc_io^~Zoo_ci^m_Y ^Zin fZ fjaclp_ mjhZi_nlp_@Z;Zd
njiZd[jm^_fq_mn fZlp_ff_ cfnm_qc_ii_io Zkm1npi_ fjiap_‘pap_Y _no
h0oZkbjmclp_h_io fZ hZfZ^c_ lp~ji ‘pcoY fZ qc_ lp~ji q_po ]jin_mq_m
) ojpo kmcto FZin fZ ^_mic1m_ kbmZn_Y f~_tkm_nncji _nkZaijf_ Z q_mnc
]jmmj[jm_ f_n hpfockf_n ncaic‘c]Zocjin^_ ff_aZm -Zmmcq_m) pi _i^mjcoY
m0pnncm ) ‘Zcm_Y njpbZco_mlp_ ]_fZ n_ ‘Znn_8 6 o_cio0_ ^_ ‘popm -ijpn Zfd
fjin qjcm n~cfn u Zmmcq_io8Y f~_tkm_nncji Ziiji]_ fZ npco_ ^p m0]coY f_ m0d
npfoZo^_n _‘‘jmon kjpm m0pnncm) aZai_m fZ mcq_ _o f~Zmmcq0_^_ ;jfc[mc
Zp [_m]Zcf B jkoZocq_h_io -_nk0mjin lp_8Y _ff_ n~Znnjh[mco bjmnm0]coY
_o i_ ]ji]_mi_ kfpn f_n k_mnjiiZa_n hZcn f~Zpo_pmY Ziajcnn0 kZm fZ
h_iZ]_ ^_ fZ hZfZ^c_ npm ^_n k_mnjii_nY npm nZ kmjkm_ k_mnjii_o
@Z m0ZfcnZocji^_ F_ ^ji^_ njiq ]jmm_nkji^ Zpt Zii0_n i&Y Zp
]jpmn ^_nlp_ff_n /Zm^pu ZqZco ]jiip pi Zpom_ ouk_ ^~cilpc0op^_Y f_
mcnlp_ ^~pi_ _tkpfncji^_]mZi]_ _o ^p m_omZco ^_ nji kZnn_kjmolp_
;p[Z m_‘pnZco ^_ m_ijpq_f_mo $c_i ^Zinf_ o_to_ i_ fZcnn_ kjpmoZio
omZinkZmZ6om_ f~Zitc0o0 ^_ fZ h_iZ]_ Z^hcicnomZocq_ lpc kfZiZco npm
f~Zpo_pm ymc_i iji kfpn ^Zin f_ ^_mic_mmjhZiY m(dZmjn ^_ fZ kfZuZ i_
m0q1f_mZ lp~_i f~0]mcqZio cf n_ nZqZco Zoo_cio ^p/~F%y o~f _no ncaic‘c]Zd
oc‘ lp_ f~0fZ[jmZocji ^p mjhZi Zco ]jhh_i]0 kZm ]_ lpcY ^Zin f~0^cd
ocji ^0‘cicocq_Y _no fZ omjcnc1h_ ^_nlpZom_ kZmoc_nY @% Fb@b$R/$bVd
FbVY ^0njkcfZio_ Zpoj[cjamZkbc_Y _i ^ct q_mnamZq0n npmpi_ kc_mm_
ojh[Zf_ ^p ]ch_oc1m_ ^_ ;ZhZaB_uY ^~pi_ hpf*om_nn_Zpo_pm ^p ^cd
vZci ) lpc f_ amZi^^mZhZopma_ _o kj1o_ _nkZaijf;Zf^_m:i ^_ fZ0Zmd
]Z km2o_Y ) nji ]jmkn ^0‘_i^ZioY lp_flp_n q_mnn_io_i]c_ptY ]jhd
h_io0n_on]0iZmcn0n q_mn kZmq_mnkZm ^_ptVZmmZo_pmnZpnnc ^0dZio0n
lp_ f_n k_mnjiiZa_no
FZin fZ lpZomc1h_ kZmoc_Y RV:$RRFE;s$~/:F%V/@%s%P%VRY
f_;bmcno_i;mjctY kjmo0 ^_/ZiocZaj ^_;p[Z dpnlp~) fZ ]ZkcoZf_Y ‘Zco
0oZk_ ) ;ZhZaB_u 6 n FR/ /%0@R/ ~@@E/:$R/Y ]_pt ^_/Zcio_KZmc_
2^_mjmoZpmmci]_@_ m_/pm_io hZf po @Z oukjamZkbc_ ^p o_to_ -k_ocd
o_n hZdpn]pf_n8 ]jiijo_ f~bcnojcm_n cffpnom_p ^_ fZ qcff_Y ‘ji^0_ Zp
[jm^ ^_ fZ h_m kZm f_ ajpq_mi_pmFc_ajP_f(vlp_v njpn ]_ ijh ^_
/Zcio_ KZmc_ ^_ mjmo Zp mmci]_o Rff_ mZkk_ff_ ZpnncY Zp kZnnZa_Y fZ
2
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jko ]coo ko S22o
22qc_cff_ omZ^cocji ]Zobjfclp_ ^_nbZ[coZionY ‘ji^Zh_ioZf_h_io bjnocf_n
Zpt c^0_n^_ aZp]b_Y ]ZmfZ m_hjio0_ ^_ /ZiocZaj ) fZ sZqZi_ _no
h0oZkbjmclp_ ^_ fZ hZm]b_ ^_]c^_f;Znomj _o ^_ n_n n [Zm[pnp ^jio
f~c^0jfjac_ hZmtcno_ZhZmlp0 fZ ‘ci ^_ f~chk0mcZfcnh_ ^_ f~Rafcn_ )
;p[Zo @_n ^Zh_n ^_ fZ [jii_ nj]c0o0 ]ZhZaB_u_ii_Y ^_mmc1m_ f_pmn
‘_i2om_nY ciq_]ocq_iof_;bmcnolp~_ff_n km_ii_iokjpm pi ]jmnZcm_ y
qc_pt njpq_icm yo
@pcY lpc 0oZco ^Zin oZio ^_ aj[_fcinY npmoZio ^_ oZ[f_n ^_ ipco -q8@pcY
^jio f_nncai_n y kjcnnjin kZmZff1f_nY ]jpmjii_nY ]mjct _o ]fjpny _id
ij[fcnnZc_io f_ q_mm_ ^_ ojpn f_n km_nn_dkZkc_mn _oY _i ]ch_ioY 0mj^0nkZm
fZ kfpc_Y f_n h0^Zcffjin ^_ ojpo_n f_n ‘Z/Z^_no
@pcY lpc ZkkZmZcnnZco ^Zin oZio ^_ kjmomZcon ^_ ‘Zhcff_o
2
Ro kjpmoZioY _ff_n i_@_m_]jiipm_io kZno
Rff_n i_ m_]jiiZcnn_io kZn f_;bmcno -f_ m0ach_ ]Znomcno_ n~_no np[nd
ocop0 ) fZ m_fcacji8Y jp i_ m_]jiiZcnn_iod_ff_n kZn -i~Z]]_ko_iod_ff_n
kZn8 f_ m0ach_ ]Znomcno_n@_^0]ZfZa_ _iom_ f_ o_hkn^_ f~bcnojcm_ _o
]_fpc ^_ fZ ‘c]ocji^jii_ ^_ fZ ‘jm]_ ) fZ nZocm_ 6 fjmnlp_ f_ mjhZi _no
kZmpY fZ kmcn_^p kjpqjcm ^_ ;ZnomjY f_ 2_m dZiqc_m 2+i&Y ^ZoZco ^_
n_ko ZinY _o f~Ziocd]Znomcnh_ ]jhh_i/ZcoY h2h_ ochc^_h_ioY ) n_ ‘Zcd
m_ _io_i^m_ ) mZmcno m_pod2om_Y nAm_h_ioY uZdodcfZpnnc pi_ kZmo
^~c^_ioc‘c]Zocji ^_ /Zm^puY m_d_o0 kZm ;p[ZY Zq_] f_ ;bmcnom_d_o0 kZm
;ZhZaB_uo
=;ZhZaB_u _noco0mZocq_h_io km0n_io_ -jp km0n_io n8 ^ZinF_ ^jid
^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_no;jhh_ nc 0]mcm_ npm;ZhZaB_uY mcm_ ^_;ZhZaB_u
]jidpmZco fZ ijnoZfac_ ^p njpq_icm ^_n Zii0_n ^~_i‘Zi]_Y ]jhh_ nc
ijhh_m ;ZhZaB_u fZ kfZo_Y Zp ]_iom_ ^_ f~6f_ -f_ kjcio ]pfhciZioY
;_mmj ^_ :pZ[Zlp_uY Zoo_cio ojpo dpno_ HH& hY _i ]jiomZno_ Zq_] f_n
fjhZnY f_n bZpo_pmn^_/c_mmZKZ_nomZ ^Zin fZ kmjqci]_ ^_bmc_io_Y Zp
np^Y ^~j@ qc_ii_iof_n ]bZio_pmn^p ]0f1[m_ nji Zplp_f f_ mjhZi Z
_hkmpio0 njiocom_8Y ijhh_m f_n 6fjon npm fZ ]<o_ ^_n;ZmZ7[_nkZm j@
ZqZco ]Z[jo0;bmcnojkb_;jfjh[ _i ^0]jpqmZio;p[ZY 0oZco pi_ hZd
ic1m_ ^~u m_q_icmo
2
~[c^o
=
;jhh_ ^cof_;jfjh[c_i]_miZi^j PZff_dj) kmjkjn ^_ nZ qcff_ iZoZf_K_^_ff4i 6
nbii_ nZco ojpdjpmn kZn nc ]~_no ^p hZn]pfci jp ^p ‘0hcicio%q_] f_n qcff_nY ]jhh _
Zq_] f_n a_inY ^_n‘jcn /Zn_ kZnn_]jhh_ /Z po -Rf‘p_aj n_]m_ojY0jajo(YmfZi_oZ;jd
fjh[cZiZR^oY 2+ i Y ko +8o
2=Fb@b$R/ 6$_aZm^_vdhjcY;ZhZaBu_inY ‘cfn ^_ fZ kmjqci]_ fZ kfpn kfZo_Y
fZ nZin hjioZai_nY ]_ff_ ^p@Z[umciob_ ^_nFjpv_@c_p_n _o ^_n*Zm^cin
_o*Zm^ci_on ^_ fZ$_ci_ B m_aZm^_vdhjcY afjmc_pn_ fcai0_ ^p [0oZcf [jqciQ
2
@%;bE:E$~R$R 6Ro ^_n ociZdji_n kf_cin ^_ ]mZkZp^n Q
Ei k_p ^_ a0jamZkbc_Y ^~bcnojcm_ _o ^~0]jijhc_ n~chkjn_o@Z$0d
kp[fclp_ ^_ ;p[Z _no pi Zm]bck_f ^_ fZK_m ^_n %iocff_njpK_m ^_n
;ZmZ7[_nY lpc ]jhkm_i^Y jpom_ f~6f_ ^_ ;p[ZY _iqcmji 2oi&& 6fjon mjd
=]b_ptY njco lp_flp_ Ho&i2eh o %p np^Y f~Zm]bck_f Zkk_f0 @_n*Zm^cin
^_ fZ$_ci_Y _no pi _in_h[f_ ^~6f_n^0fc]c_pn_n _o ‘_mocf_n ‘Z]_ ) fZ ]<o_
]_iom_djmc_ioZf_Y _of_ lpZomc1h_Zm]bck_f kZm f~chkjmoZi]_o@~6f_ ^co_
@Z[umciob_ ^_n Fjpv_@c_p_n ZkkZmoc_io) ]_o Zm]bck_f*Zm^cin^_ fZ
$_ci_Y Zcinc [Zkocn0 kZm;bmcnojkb_;jfjh[ _i f~bjii_pm ^_ fZ$_ci_
~nZ[_ff_ ^_;Znocff_oxpZi^%ptcfcj _o/j]jmmj ^0[Zmlp_io ) f_pm ojpm
) ;p[ZY ^Zin f_pm djpmiZf ^_ [jm^ y_ff_n oc_ii_io pi djpmiZf ^_
[jm^Y hZcn jpcY ]jhh_ ;bmcnojkb_ ;jfjh[yY _ff_nn n_ k_mh_oo_io
pi ^cvZci ^cZfjap0Y icZcn _o) fZ h0omclp_ ZkkmjtchZocq_Y npm f_n*Zmd
^cin_of_n*Zm^ci_on^_ fZ$_ci_Y pi Zm]bck_f ^_ fZ ]<o_ np^ ^_;ZhZd
=aB_u po ~f _no kZm Zcff_pmn_tZ]o lp_ f~0f_qZa_ ^p [0oZcf _nopi_ m_nd
njpm]_ chkjmoZio_^_ fZ kmjqci]_ ^_ ;ZhZaB_u ^_kpcn f~0kjlp_ ]jd
fjicZf_Y f_nRnkZaijfn ZuZio chkjmo0 ^_n [jqcinY m0ncnoZion _o ‘jpmicnd
nZio pi_ qcZi^_ _t]_ff_io_Y hZcn kc1om_n kmj^p]o_pmn ^_ fZcoo
Ri hZc 2++&Y /Zm^pu 0]mco@Z^u / o / oY pi_ Zpoj[cjamZkbc_Y [mcffZid
o_Y [pmf_nlp_Y [m1q_ _o omcno_Y ci‘cich_iokfpn omcno_ lp_ ]_ff_ ^_Fjfjd
m_n$ji^:io
/_q_mj/Zm^puY n_fji n_n kmjkm_n ^0]fZmZocjin yji i~ZdZhZcnm_omjpq0
nji Z]o_^_ iZcnnZi]_ hZfam0 f_n]jinoZio_n m_]b_m]b_n Zptlp_ff_nn_
njio fcqm0nf_n ]b_m]b_pmn^_ nji wpqm_ ^Zin f_nnZ]mcnoc_n^_ nZ qcff_ iZd
oZf_y _no i0_ );ZhZaB_uY;p[ZY f_ =^ ‘0qmc_m 2+Hto/ji ijh ^_ [Zko2d
h_Y n_h[f_dodcfY 0oZcoRf0jijm_Y [c_i lp_ kjpm nZ ‘Zhcff_ _ff_ Zco ojpdjpmn
0o0 VjmZY _o _inpco_Y kjpm hpnoZqj hp_mm_mjY *_Zii_ m0m_vo mjpm _ff_d
h2h_Y _ff_ ‘ponp]]_nncq_h_ioKZmc_d%iojci_oo_mjinY 0fZilpcoZ %hZd
mjY $jnZ ;ZmhciZY :jiajf_f_ jp Vciji /0qcffZY Zp ‘pm_o ) h_npm_
lp~jio 0qjfp0Y Zp ‘cf^p o_hknY n_nkm0‘0m_i]_n kjpm f_ ]ci0hZ _o fZ
H
mph[Zo
2
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jko ]coo ko HtSo
=
~^o ko H+^o
H
/Zm^puY/_q_mjY@Z^u /o/oYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko 2io
2H% ]_oo_ ^Zo_Y /_q_mj nZqZco lp~cf ZqZcof_ /~F%Y _o ]_oo_ kn_p^jd
[cjamZkbc_ 0oZco nZ hZic1m_ ^cn]m1o_ _o ^m<f_ ^_ kZmf_m^_ n_najAon
n_tp_fno @_n Z]omc]_n _nkZaijf_njp fZocijdZh0mc]Zci_n ]0f1[m_n
lpZi^ cf 0oZco _i‘ZiokpcnZ^jf_n]_io i~ZqZc_iokZn 0o0 f~j[d_o ^_ f~0mjd
ocnh_ ^~pi f~_i‘Zio kpcn ^~pi Z^jf_n]_ioY _ff_n 0oZc_iof_ npd_oZplp_f cf
1
n~c^_ioc‘cZcoY cf 0oZco _ff_no ;_ Kb~ ‘0hcici ZchZco f_n bjhh_no @Z^u
/o/o n_ o_mhci_ kZm omjcn kbmZn_n kfZ]0_n]bZ]pi_ npmpi_ fcai_ _i m_d
omZco -]jhh_ ^Zin;jfc[m48 6
*_ km0‘1m_ i_ kZn]jincai_m f_ m_no_ ^_ nZ qc_o
xpc ^_hZi^_mZpi[ji hjh_ioo
Ro ^jio d_ m_km_i^mZc f_ m0]co kfpn oZm^o
@_m_no_ ^_ nZ qc_Y omjcn ZinY i~ZpmZco kZn ^_hZi^0 [_Zp]jpk ^_
o_hkn ) mZ]jio_mY hZcn cf i~ZpmZ kZnf_ o_hkn^_ f_ ‘Zcm_o@_n omjcn fcd
ai_n ^_ ]ji]fpncji njio Zpnncpi_ hZic1m_ ^cn]m1o_ _o ^m<f_ ^_ mZkd
k_f_m Zq_] Zpojd^0mcncji lp_ nZ qc_ ZqZco 0o0 pi nbjs hjpq_h_io0
]jhh_ ]_fpc ^p:b0*om_@umclp_ ^_mjpk0_n ^jiocf mZ]jioZco f_n k0d
mck0oc_n ^Zin;j[mZY ^Zin f_n h2h_n o_mh_nY hZcn Zq_] fZ kjnnc[cfco0
kjpm f_ iZmmZo_pm ^_ m_km_i^m_ nji m0]cof_ hjh_ioq_ip 6
Ei_ njii_mc_o
@_mc^_Zpn~jpqm_npm f_ nbjso
=
Fjio d_ m_km_i^mZc f_ m0]cokfpn oZm^o
@Zh2h_ kmjh_nn_Yn*_ m_km_i^mZc kjpm qjpn f_ m0]co pY n_ m0k1o_
^Zin m(dZmjn^_fZ kfZuZo hpnoZqj hp_mm_mj lpc n~_no]bZma0 ^_fZ
nVjo_ kbcfjfjaclp_ km0fchciZcm_ p kjpm@~wpqm_ ]jhkf1o_ ^_ m0‘0m_i]_Y
u qjco pi pfoch_ bjhhZa_);_mqZio1nY f_ hZ6om_ q0i0m0o:_mhci0 _i
ijq_h[m_ 2++=Y f_ mjhZi Z kZmp _i dpcff_o +H ]b_v :pnlp_onY)0Zmd
]_fji_Y hZcn /_q_mj i~ZqZco kZn _p fZ ‘jm]_ ^_ ]jmmca_m f_n 0km_pq_n
_i Zqmcf +Ho
2
~f ZqZco ]_moZci_h_io ) f~_nkmco f_ mjhZi @Z omZbcnji ^_ $coZsZusjmob ^_ nji amZi^
ZhcKZip_fmpcaY lpc omZco_^_ fZ h2h_ kmj[f0hZoclp_o
=
;j[mZY jko ]coo ko SS2o
2S[8mZmcn
VZcnnZi]_ ^_ f~0]mcqZcioF1n 2+i&Y /Zm^pu lpcoo_;p[Z _o qc_io)mZd
mcn kjpm omZqZcff_m f~bcnojcm_ ^_ f~%mo ) f~R]jf_ ^p@jpqm_o %mZmcn f~Zod
o_i^ f_ nomp]opmZfcnh_Y fZ n0hcjfjac_Y fZ kbcfjnjkbc_Y fZ knu]bZiZfun_Y
f_Vjpq_Zp$jhZi_o npmojpo nZ kmjkm_fcoo0mZopm_o~f hjpmmZ^ZinfZ
]ZkcoZf_ ‘mZi/Zcn_f_ dpci 2++HY fZcnnZio pi ]jmkpn km_nlp_ _ioc1m_d
h_io 0]mco _i ]mZi]_Y _i kZmoc]pfc_m ) /Zcio@0jiZm^Y ^Zin f~bcn_Y f_
fc_p ^_ km0^cf_]ocji j@ cf n_ m_i^Zco ^_ kfpn _i kfpn njpq_iooKpfocd
‘jmh_Y ]jhkm_iZio _nnZcnY ob0*om_Y kj0nc_Y mjhZinY f~wpqm_]jhkf1o_
^_ /_q_mj /Zm^pu m_km0n_io_ f_n fcqm_n kp[fc0n ^_ njiqcqZio _o f_n
ijh[m_pt o_to_n -km0‘Z]_n kjpm ^_n ]ZoZfjap_n ^~_tkjncocji ^_ k_cid
opm_Y _iom_oc_inY m0kjin_n) ^_nlp_nocjin 0]mco_nY ]ji‘0m_i]_n8Y dZd
hZcn mZnn_h[f0n _i ‘jmh_ ^~jpqmZa_o
/~cf _noqmZc lp_ f~bjhh_ /_q_mj /Zm^pu _no i0 ) ;ZhZaB_u _i
2+HtY _o lp_ nZ qj]Zocji fcoo0mZcm_ n~_no km0]j]_h_io hZic‘_no0_ )
;p[Z ^1n 2+^^Y y^_n ]jio_nY ^_n ]mcoclp_n ^"ZmoY ^_n ]jffZ[jmZocjin )
^_nm_qp_n ^~ZqZiodaZm^_ ^_@ZsZqZi_Y ]jinocopZc_iopi kmjh_oo_pm
^0[poyY cf i~_i _nokZn hjcin ci]jio_noZ[f_ lp_]"_no )mZmcn lp"_no
i0 _o Z amZi^cY ) kZmocm ^_ 2+i&Y f~0]mcqZci /_q_mj /Zm^puo mZmcn _no
nji fc_p ^~jmcaci_o
y ;~_no]b_vijpnY d_ q_pt ^cm_ _i %h0mclp_ @Zoci_Y ojpo_pi_ omZ^cd
ocji^_ n_ ojpmi_m q_mn fZ ]mZi]_Y hZcn Zpnnc ylp~_nod]_ lp_ qjpn ]mjd
u_v ny ^~Z]]pn_m lp_flp~pi^~2om_ Z‘mZi]_nZ^jo -q8Kji ]ZnY nc hj^_no_
njcodcfY i~_no kZn om1n^c‘‘0m_io )^_ ]_fpc ^_ $p[0i FZm4j_o ^_ 0jma_n?o
;jhh_cf 0oZco km0qcnc[f_Y f~cio_ffca_ioncZ j‘‘c]c_ff_i~Z kZn qjpfp Z]]_kd
o_mlp_ h_n _t_m]c]_n ZkkZmoc_ii_io ) fZ fcoo0mZopm_ ]p[Zci_Y jph2h_Y )
fZ omZ^cocjiomjpm _ptY ]_ i_ njio lp_ ^_n hZic‘_noZocjinY Zq_] pi k_p
^_ kfph_n _o kZcff_oo_nY ^p :_f xp_f d_odn_oY lp_flp_ ]bjn_ ]jhh_ pi _
;Zmh_iKcmZi^Z ^_q_ip_ n0hcjfjap_q -q8
@~_tcfn V~jp[fcjin kZnlp_ ]~_nof~pi ^_nomjcn km0]_ko_ndju]c_in B
^ji]Y) m_nk_]o_m hcipoc_pn_h_ioo~f n_ k_po lp~cf njco cib0m_io) f~0]mcopd
m_Y nZ ]ji^cocji h2h_Y ]jhh_ nc fZ n_pf_mZomcZ 0oZco fZm(aciZ -q8
~fuZY [c_i nAmY ZpnncY f_n ^Zia_mn ^p ijhZ^cnh_Y ^p ijidm_ojpm Zp kZun
iZoZfoKji ]p[ZciY hji ZmajoY f_ kmj‘cf ^_ h_n k_mnjiiZa_nY nc f~ji k_po
^cm_Y njio m_no0nnpma_f0n lp_flp_ kZmo ^Zin f_nn ‘Z[pfjpn‘c‘oc_n pY cfn
]jhh_i]_io) Zqjcm pi ]<o0n qc_dZ kjnoZf^_n]jfjmc^Z pY qc_cff_ ]Zmo_
2^
kjnoZf_ dZpi*om_ _o kZnn0_o ~f‘Zp^mZ Zoo_i^m_ lp~cfnn_^0hj^_ioY _o
2
k_pod2om_ lp~cfn njc_io m0]pk0m0nkZm f_ kmj]bZci ojpm ^_ econ]bo y2+ ^
@~_noZ[fcnbh_io fcoo0mZcm_ ]p[Zci yf_n 0^cocjin ^~RoZo ;ZnZ^_ fZn
%h0mc]Zny f~Z hZmaciZfcn0 dpnlp~Zp [jpoY hZmaciZfcn0 hZcn kZn jp[fc0
kpcnlp_ f_n]mcoclp_n cmjicnZc_ionpm ]_on0]mcqZci ‘mZi]jd]p[Zci po
/Zm^puY lpc _i 0oZco n_]m1o_h_io [f_nn0Y cincnoZco ojpdjpmnnpm nZ ]p[Zd
ico0 _o h2h_ npm nji ]fZnnc]cnh_ 6
*~ZkkZmoc_in ) fZ kfpn nomc]o_ omZ^cocji ]p[Zci_Y ]_ff_ lpc n_ mZooZ]b_ ) fZ
omZ^cocjiojp‘‘p_ _o fptp_pn_ ^p [Zmjlp_ _nkZaijfY ]~_nod)d^cm_ ) hjid
ajmZ _o h2h_ ) fZ fcoo0mZopm_ ]fZnnclp_o *_ npcn pi 0]mcqZcink0]c‘clp_d
h_io _o oukclp_h_io ]p[ZcioFpkjcio ^_ qp_^_fZob0jmc_Y d_ k_pt h_
m_]jiiZ6om_^Zin f_n m_]b_m]b_n ^_ :_fxp_f jp ^_n nomp]opmZfcno_nY hZcn
^p kjcio ^_ qp_^_n m0npfoZonY ]_ lp_ d_omjpq_ ^Zin f_ fZiaZa_ _no ]jhd
kf1o_h_io ^c‘‘0m_io^_ ]_ lp~u omjpq_ pi 0]mcqZci ‘mZi/ZcnoKjc d~u omjpd
=
q_ f_ fpt_Y fZ kmjfc‘0mZocjiY f~bphjpmY f~0]fZo ^_ mcm_o
;~_nokjpm _tkfclp_mf_ ]ZmZ]o1m_Y _i q0mco0 nc k_p ‘mZi/ZcnY ^_ nji
wpqm_Y lp_/_q_mj Z hpfockfc0 f_n ^0]fZmZocjin _o f_n 0]mconnpm f~_nkZd
]_ [Zmjlp_ lpc _noY) njiZqcnYn ]_fpc ^_ fZ npmZ[ji^Zi]_ _o ^p ^0d
]b_oo ;jiomZcm_h_io Zp fZiaZa_ ^_ fZ ]jhhpic]ZocjiY 0]jijhclp_Y
Zpno1m_Y m0^pco ) nZ ‘ji]ocjiiZfco0Y f_ fZiaZa_ [Zmjlp_ n_ ]jhkfZ6o
H^Zinf_ npkkf0h_ioY f~_t]1nY fZ k_mo_ kZmoc_ff_ ^_ nji j[d_oo KZcn nji
^cm_Y Zpnnco<o hZf ]jhkmcnY f_ ‘Zco ^_kpcn fjmn]jinc^0m_m]jhh_ f_
ob0jmc]c_i ^p [Zmjlp_ Zfjmn lp~cf ]b_m]bZco ^0n_nk0m0h_io ) _tkfcd
lp_m f_ ‘ji]ocjii_h_io ^_ nji 0]mcopm_o;~_no lp_Y h2h_ _i]mZi]_Y
) kZmof~Z]]p_cf ]bZf_pm_pt ‘Zco ) ;j[mZY f_ kp[fc] n~_nohjiom0 ojpd
djpmnZnn_v ‘mjc^o~f ‘Zpo ^cm_ lp_/Zm^pu ZmmcqZco ^Zin f_ kZunZa_ fcoo0d
mZcm_ ‘mZi/Zcn) pi hjh_io j@ fZ ‘c^_f]ZnomjhZicZ [ZooZconji kf_cio
K2h_ $_ciZf^j %m_iZnY lpc ZqZco Z]]phpf0 ^Zinf~6f_f_n bphcfcZd
ocjinY f_n k_mn0]pocjinY f_n ]Zhkn ^_ omZqZcfY fZ kmcnjiY ojpdjpmn kjpm
fZ h2h_mZcnji ^~bjhjn_tpZfco0Y _o lpc ZqZco _i‘ci m0pnnc ) lpcoo_m
;p[Z _i 2+ & Y n~0ojiiZco ^_nm0oc]_i]_n lp_ nji Ziocd]Znomcnh_ m_id
]jiomZco _i]mZi]_ Zpkm1n ^_n picq_mncoZcm_nY ^_n djpmiZfcno_nY ^_n 0^cd
o_pmnoRi ]_ lpc ]ji]_mi_ /Zm^puY nji 0]mcopm_ iji njphcn_ Zpt oZd
2
/Zm^puY/_q_mjY ;~R/:;sR}VbE/qYb[mZ ]jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko =td= o
=
%fqZmZ^j :_ijmcjY sZmjf^Y n%q_] /_q_mj /Zm^puZp ;Z‘0 ^_ ]fjm_ pY Rf Kpi^jY
K_^_ff4i -;jfjh[cZ8Y =Sd22d2+t+o
H
/Zm^puY/_q_mjY0Zmmj]jYb[mZ;jhkf_oZY jko ]coo ko 2=^&o
2i[jpn fZiaZac_mnY Zpt km_n]mckocjin Z]Z^0hclp_nY Zpt ]jiq_iocjin mjd
hZi_nlp_nY ^0mjpoZco B nji 0mp^cocjiY nZ ]pfopm_Y nZ [jpfchc_ cio_ff_]d
op_ff_ _‘‘ZmZc_io f_n f_]o_pmno F_ kfpnY fZ kmZoclp_ ^p ;p[Zci i_ ]jmd
m_nkji^Zco kZn Zpt ]Zijinlp~chkjnZco f_Vjpq_Zp $jhZiY:_fxp_f
m0aiZco npm f~cio_ffca_ioncZ kZmcnc_ii_Y _o f_ ;jhco0 ^_:_fxp_f i~Zkkm0d
]cZco lp_ hj^0m0h_iopi 0f_]omji k0mckb0mclp_ ^jio ji n_ h0‘cZco
^~ZpoZio kfpnlp_ mbcfckk_ /jff_mn _o $jfZi^ 0Zmob_n ylpc i~0oZco
ap1m_ fpcdh2h_ _i j^_pm ^_ nZcio_o0y f_ kjmoZc_io Zpt ip_no
mfpnoZm^Y f~RnkZai_ _o f~%h0mclp_ fZoci_ m_i^mjio kf_ci_h_io
dpnoc]_ ) pi 0]mcqZci ^~_t]_kocji y^~_t]_kocji ]Zm i_ n_ ]jpfZio
^Zin Zp]pi hjpf_Y i_ m0kji^Zio ) Zp]pi_ 0oclp_oo_yY lpc ZqZco Zq_]
f_pm fZiap_Y Zq_] f_pm]pfopm_Y pi_ nc ]jhkf1o_ c^_ioco0o KZcnlpZi^
F_^ji^_ njiqZqp 0^cojmcZf_h_iof_ djpmY f~b_pm_ ^_ fZ hjqc^ZY lpc
^Zinf_n Zii0_n & ^0[mc^_mZco _i‘ci pi_ RnkZai_ _i]jm_ ‘ji]c1m_d
h_io ]jci]0_ ^Zinn_n oZ[jpn ]Zobjfclp_nY Zkjnojfclp_n _o mjhZcin
h2h_ nc _ff_ i~0oZco kfpn cinocopocjii_ff_h_io ‘mZilpcno_Y ]_oo_ fc[0mZd
ocji i~ZqZco kZn _i]jm_ njii0o~f i~u Z kZnfc_p ^_ mZkk_f_m c]c f_n ^c‘d
‘c]pfo0nlp~0kmjpqZ /Zm^pu kjpm omjpq_m pi 0^co_pm_i fZiap_ _nkZd
aijf_ y;Zmfjn 0ZmmZfY lpc _i 2+iH ZqZco kp[fc0 h_nojn nZin np]]1nY
m_‘pnZF_ ^ji^_ njiq kjpm n nZ ‘Zpnn_ 0mp^cocji omjpq0_ ) ]jpkn ^_
2^c]ocjiiZcm_ p yo *jZlp4i KjmocvY K_tc]jY f_ kp[fcZ _i 2+it hZcnY
^Zin f~_in_h[f_Y ]_ lpc i~0oZco lp_ fcoo0mZcm_h_io n]Zi^Zf_ptY ) fZ hZd
ic1m_ ^_0ZoZcff_Y kZnnZco kjpm amZq_h_ioc]jij]fZno_omZm _t_hkf_ f_
;bmcnoY ]cd^_qZio ;bmcno _i ;mjctY lp_ /j]jmmj _o %ptcfcj njmo_io ^_
fZ nZ]mcnoc_ ^_ /ZiocZaj j@ cf kjpmmcnnZco omZilpcff_h_io ^Zin pi_ Zmd
hjcm_Y _i kc1]_n ^0oZ]b0_nY _o lpc m_hjio0Y m_qcnn0Y m_]fjpo0 ^Zin nZ
omZ^cocjii_ff_ kjncocji]mp]cZf_Y _no kjmo0 kmj]_nncjii_ff_h_io q_mn
@ZsZqZi_o;jh[f_ ^_ f~cmm0q0m_i]_ nZ]mcf1a_ ^_ f~Zpo_pmY qjcf) lp~_i
omZq_mnZio;ZhZaB_u j@ k_mnjii_i_ f_ m_]jiiZ6oY f_;bmcno hZic‘_nd
o_ nZ k_mkf_tco0 kZm pi a_no_lpc _noY kZmZ6odcfY [c_i fZoci6n~f n_ amZooZ
]_ lp~cf ]jinc^0mZco f_ kfpnnuh[jfclp_ ^_ fZ ncopZocji -cf ZqZco ^0d)
=kmcn f_n hZic_n ]p[Zci_nQ8 po ;~_no kjpmoZio pi qmZc hcmZ]f_Y ^cai_ ^_
^0qjo_ Z^hcmZocjiY lp~Zq_] f_nhZcin ]fjp0_n npm fZ ]mjct cf m0pnncnn_
) n_ amZoo_m f_n o_noc]pf_no
2
n/_q_mj^_ fZ mp_*Z]j[ pY jko ]coo ko 2S H o
=
F_ ^ji^_ njiq jko ]coo ko S22o
2t]8R]mcopm_n _o k_ciopm_n
% mZmcnY f_ ;p[Zci qcnco_ Znnc^Ah_io f_nZo_fc_mn ^~Zmocno_n _o npmd
ojpo f_n hpn0_nY lp~cf Z]]pn_Y Zq_] bphjpmY ^_ fpc Zqjcm pn0 fZ qp_ _o
j[fca0 ) kjmo_m ^_n fpi_oo_no;~_noZp@jpqm_ lp~cfomjpq_mZ nji hjd
^1f_ ^_;jfc[mcY fZ noZop_ ^_ f~%kjffji ^_mcjh[cijo*~ZpmZc f~j]]Zncji
2^~0qjlp_m ^_n k_ciom_n ^jio /Zm^pu n~_no n_ioc kmj]b_Y hZcn kjpm
^jii_m ^~_iom0_ pi _t_hkf_ ^p m<f_ ^_ fZ k_ciopm_ ^Zin f~wpqm_ 0]mcd
o_ ykm0]cncji i0]_nnZcm_^p ‘Zco lp_/Zm^puY kZmZff1f_h_io ) f~0]mcopd
m_Y kmZoclpZco Zpnnc fZ k_ciopm_yY d_ h_iocjii_mZc f_n oZ[f_Zpt ^_$jd
[_mo F_fZpiZuY _i kZmoc]pfc_m @Z qcff_ ^_ mZmcnY k_cio _i 2+2=Y lpc n_
omjpq_ Zp Kpn0_ ^~%mo Kj^_mi_Y jp @_ hZi1a_ ^_ ]j]bjin j@ f_n ]_md
]f_n Zmoc]pf0n f_n pin Zpt Zpom_nY Zpt qco_nn_n ^_ mjoZocji qZmcZ[f_nY
npk_mkjn0nY ]jiomZno0nY ]m0_io pi _nkZ]_ ^uiZhclp_ i_ km0n_ioZio
kfpn ic bZpo ic [ZnY nZin kmj‘ji^_pmZnncaiZ[f_Y ^jio f_n]_iom_n ^cd
q_ma_ionnjio ^cnn0hci0n ) omZq_mnfZ npm‘Z]_ _ioc1m_ ^_ f~0]mZi kfZnocd
lp_o /Zin jp[fc_mY ) ]Zpn_ ^_n hpfockf_n Zffpncjin ^Zin F_ ^ji^_ nji
fjn ]ZioZio_n ) ^_n b0fc]jko1m_n _o ) ^_n Zqcjin -[cdhjo_pmnY Kjnlpcd
ojn8Y f_ oZ[f_Zp sjhhZa_ ) 0f0mcjo -2+2S8 j@ Zpt ]_m]f_n^_ fphc1m_
F_fZpiZu djcio f_ [mZnnZa_ ^_ f~Zcmkmjqjlp0 kZm f~b0fc]_^~pi Zqcji
km2o) ^0]jff_moF_fZpiZu k_caiZcofZ fphc1m_ _ff_dh2h_Y ]jhh_ pi_
ji^_ jp pi_ 0i_mac_o ;~_no km0]cn0h_io ]jhh_ pi_ ji^_ jp pi_
0i_mac_ lp~_no^0]mco ;jfc[m4 kZmpi o0hjci lpc mZ]jio_Zqjcm qp _i
kZnn_dhpmZcff_ nZ [fji^_pm v0[m0_ kZm f_n njpm]cfn ijcmn 6
~f omZq_mnZcomZkc^_h_ioY ]jhh_Zkk_f0 kZm pi_ pma_i]_Y jp kZm f_ qc^_Y
pi _nkZ]_ lpci_ ]jmm_nkji^ZcokZn ) ]_fpc ^_ fZ hZcnji6 cf kZnnZco Zp
omZq_mn ^~pi hpmo
y~f i_ n~ZacnnZco kZn y ^cnZcodcf y ^~pi ]jmkn hZo0mc_fY njfc^_Y hZcn
kfpo<o^~pi_ZaafpociZocji ^_ kjcionY ^~pi_ kpm_ 0i_mac_o F_ lp_flp_
]bjn_ ^~j[n]pmo;jhh_ nc ji f~ZqZco ]jpq_mo^ _ amc[jpcffZa_no bp k_pod
=
2om_ 0oZc_iod]_ n_n njpm]cfno
@_ o0hjci bZffp]ci_dodcf njpn f~_‘‘_o ^_ fZ ^mjap_Y jp ^_ f~Zf]jjfY
jp f_n ^_ptn ;jfc[m4 _nodcf ^jp0 ^_ kjpqjcmn hZaclp_nn Vc f~pi ic
f~Zpom_o@_ o0hjci i~Z ^~Zpom_ _tcno_i]_ iZmmZocq_ lp_ f_ o_hkn ^_ nZ
^0]fZmZocjiY _o ]_ff_d]c i_ ]ji]_mi_ kZn pi 0q0i_h_ioY pi_ Z]ocjiY _fd
f_ n~cin]mco ^Zinf~_in_h[f_ ^_n 0f0h_ion lpc ]jhkjn_iopi n_pf kmjd
2
n/_q_mj^_ fZ mp_*Z]j[ pY jko ]coo ko 2SiSdi^Y _o Zfo
=
;jfc[m4Y jko ]cooY ojh_~Y ko tt2o
2 oZajicno_Y ;jfc[m4o ;jfc[m4 ZkkZmoc_io Zp n_pf ^0ncm ^p iZmmZo_pm lpc
f~cinoZff_ ^Zin nji m0]co _i f_ ^joZio ^_ ojpo_n f_n 0kckbZic_n ^_ nji
ijhY [_Zpo0Y chkji^0mZ[cfco0Y fc[_mo0o
~f 0oZcoY 0qc^_hh_ioY [fji^oKZcn lpZi^ d_ ^cn [fji^Y cf ‘Zpo lp_ op qcd
npZfcn_n pi_]b_q_fpm_ chh_in_ _o 0[jpmc‘‘0_Y m_nkf_i^cnnZio_Y Zf[cijn
kfpo<olp_ [fji^_Y n~jpqmZioZpmZf_ioc _o _i qjfpo_n _i]bZ6i0 _nY jtua1d
i_Y jvji_ ^_ kfpc_Y [Zm[_n ^_ hZ7n fZcnnZio ojh[_m ^_n ajpoo_f_oo_n om1n
‘ci_n -q8
@_n njpm]cfn ZiipfZc_io ]_o jm _t]_nnc‘6 ^_n Zm]n kZm‘Zcon _o nuh0omclp_nY
ci]mpno0nY n_ ojp]bZio kZm f_ ]_iom_B cfn 0oZc_io ^~pi ijcm ^_ dZcnY ]jhh_
2
n~cfn ZkkZmo_iZc_io ) pi Zpom_ ]jmkno
@_n ^_pt ^_n]mckocjin ^_;jfc[mcY ]_ff_ ^p iZmmZo_pm lpc f_ ]m0_ _i
oZio lp~jcn_Zp ^_ fphc1m_Y ]_ff_ ^p k_mnjiiZa_ o0hjci lpc _i Zoo_no_
f~_tcno_i]_Y ]ZmZ]o0mcn_io fZ o_]biclp_ iZmmZocq_ ^_ /Zm^puo %p ^0[po
^p mjhZi -^_ptc1h_ ]coZocji8Y f_ aZm/ji _no kmcnZp mZf_iocY f_ o_to_ u
cincno_Y _i ](hZmZ f_ioZY _o f_ iZmmZo_pm Zhjpm_pt ^_ nZ ]m0Zopm_ ciqco_
f_ iZmmZoZcm_ ) omZin‘jmh_m f_nhjon_i chZa_nY ) qcnpZfcn_m fZ ^Zin_ ^_
;jfc[mc ^Zin f_ fpkZiZmo@_ mZf_ioc n~u km2o_oxpZi^;jfc[mc n~0]bZkk_
^_ nZ ]Za_Y f_ [jm^_f -km_hc1m_ ]coZocji8Y f_ iZmmZo_pm f_ ^0k_cio ) f~cid
q_mn_Y _i Z]]0f0m0Y _o ]~_no]_oo_ mZkc^co0Y ]_oo_ ‘fpc^co0 ^_ a_no_nY chd
kjnnc[f_ ^Zin fZ m0Zfco0 hZcn ]ji‘jmh_ ) nZ qj]Zocji ^~jcn_ZpY ]~_no
]_o Z]]0f0m0Y ]_o _‘‘_o^~cmm0Zfco0 Z]]jm^0 kZmf_ iZmmZo_pmY lp_ f_ o0d
hjci qcnpZfcn_ _o mZkkjmo_ ]jhh_ n~cf f~ZqZco qpo@Z ]jiijoZocji kc]opd
mZf_ ^_n v0[mpm_n ijcm_nnpm ‘ji^ [fZi]Y jp f~ciq_mn_Y lpc m_qc_ionc
njpq_io^Zin f_nmjhZinnZm^punc_inY n~Z]]jhkZai_ c]c^_ ^_pt ijd
o_n bphjmcnoclp_nY f_ dpa_h_io kjkpfZcm_ npm fZ k_ciopm_ iji ‘capmZocd
q_ cio_mkm0o0_ ]jhh_ ^_n amc[jpcffZa_nY aZmZ[ZojnY _o ]_namc[jpcffZd
a_nYn ]~0oZcok_pod2om_f_n njpm]cfn pY lpc omZq_mn_io n_pfn f~_nkZ]_Y
nZin ]jio_to_Y ]jhh_^Zin]_moZcin ^_nncin Zich0no bpf_njpmcm_
^p;bZo ^p;b_n]bcm_ ^Zin%fc]_ Zp kZun ^_n h_mq_cff_no
@_n ^_pt ]coZocjinZoocm_io 0aZf_h_io f~Zoo_iocji npmfZnomp]opm_
^p mjhZio@_ kjmomZco ciZpapmZf ^_ ;jfc[mc km_i^ nji n_in ^Zin f_ ‘cd
iZf_Y ]jinompco _i nuh0omclp_ ciq_mn_o@Z ]b_q_fpm_ 0kZcnn_ _o ^jm0_Y
f_n njpm]cfn Ziocob0oclp_nY ojpo_fZ [_Zpo0 cinjfco_ _o cinjf_io_ ^_ ;jd
fc[m4 ^cnkZmZ6o ^1nfjmn lp~cf m_ojpmi_ ^ZinfZ;ZnjiZ -]~_no Zcinc lp_ f_
mjhZi ^0ncai_ fZ [*ocnn_ omZin‘jmh0_ _i fpkZiZmhZn]pfci8 _o lp~cf
_i km_i^ f_ ]jhhZi^_h_ioo
2
~^o ko i+Ho
2+FZin]_ hcmjcmY fpclpc ^_kpcnncfjiao_hkni_ n~0oZco kZnm_aZm^0 ^Zin
pi hcmjcmY;jfc[mcn_km0]ckcoZ kjpm n_ m_aZm^_mo
FZinpikm_hc_m hjh_io6 ]jhh_ nc ^_mmc1m_ f_ h_m]pm_ ZkkZmZcnnZco
lp_flp~pi ^~Zpom_o
;_‘po nji _tkm_nncji ^~0ojii_h_io lpc fpck_mhco ^_ n_ m_]jiiZ6om_o
yKjiFc_p yn_ ^codcfyY lp~_nod]_ lp_ d~Zc k_m^p ]jhh_ ]b_q_pto
Ro ^p [jpo ^_n ^jcaoncf]Zm_nnZn_n o_hk_n ^0aZmic_nB cf fcnnZ nZ ]mcic1d
m_ 6 pi_ amjnn_ h1]b_ ]fZcm_ fpcm_noZ ^Zin f_n hZcin -q8
Ro ]_n njpm]cfnY lpc i_ njio kZnZnnjmocn Zp m_no_o
~f bphZ ojpn f_n ‘fZ]jino
%q_]^_ f~_Zp jtua0i0_ lp~cf omjpqZ ^Zin f~pi ^~_ptY _o pi ajpkcffjiY cf
2
n_ ^0]jfjmZ f_n njpm]cfno
@Z ]bpo_ ^_n ]b_q_pt y]jhh_ Zcff_pmn fZ o_i^Zi]_ ) f~_h[jid
kjcio _o f_ ajAo chhj^0m0 kjpm f~Zf]jjfy njio ^_n omZcon ^~ZhpnZio_
Zpojd^0mcncjiomjpm;jfc[mcY ]_ i~_no kZn lp_ f_ o_hkn Zco kZnn0Y k_pod
2om_ ZqZcodcf kZnn0 hZcn fZ lp_nocji i~_nokZn f) ]Zm /Zm^puY lpc i~ZqZco
Zp]pi_ ijocji ^p o_hknY i_ ]jhkoZ[cfcn_ dZhZcn ]_fpc lp~cf Z]]jm^_ )
n_n k_mnjiiZa_nY f_pmnZ]ocjin njio ^ji] cio_hkjm_ff_no;_lpc Z ^0d
ompco f_nncai_n ^_ d_pi_nn_ _i ;jfc[mcY ijpnf_ q_mmjinkfpn ZqZioY
]~_no^_ m_q_icmY ^~ciq_nocm f_mjpqjcm _o f_ k_mk0op_m o_f lp~_i fpcdh2d
h_ f~Zh[cocji n0i_n]_io_Y kZmojpoY ojpdjpmnY n~Z]bZmi_ ) f_ ]jin_mq_mo
xpZi^ ji c^_ioc‘c_ ^Zin f_ hcmjcm ^pmjpqjcmfZ ‘capm_ kjfcoclp_ lpc
n_ ^_nnci_Y]c^_f;ZnomjY f_ ‘ciZf_ ]jmmj[jm_ fZ kjmo0_ nZocmclp_ lpc Z‘d
‘f_pm_ Zp fjia ^p mjhZio
Ri‘ciY _o ojpdjpmn) kmjkjn ^_ nomp]opm_Y f_ kjmomZco ^0oZcff0 kZm f_
iZmmZo_pm Zp kmj‘co^p iZmmZoZcm_ ‘Zhcfc1m_h_io cio_mk_ff0 Ziiji]_ fZ
o_]biclp_ yZhjm]0_ ^1n F_ ^ji^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_n kjpm m0kji^m_Y
iji nZin hZfc]_Y Zpt ^jah_n nomp]opmZfcno_n npm f_ :_to_yY lpc ]jid
ncno_ ) hpfockfc_m f_n qjct kjpm pi h2h_ ^cn]jpmniZmmZoc‘Y ]_ff_ ^_
f~Zpo_pm lpc cio_mqc_io) ojpo [jpo ^_ ]bZhk _i fc_p_o kfZ]_^p iZmd
mZo_pm f0acoch_ lpc m_no_lpZi^ h2h_ f~cio_mfj]po_pmZpojmcn0 ^~pi
iZmmZoZcm_ ]jhkfc]_ _i opmkcop^_nY _o f_n qjct ^_niZmmZo_pmncio_hd
k_noc‘nlpc hj^c‘c_io ) f_pm apcn_f_ ]jpmn ^_ f~Z]ocji _o f_n]ZmZ]o0mcnd
oclp_n ^_ f~0]mcopm_o:jpo]_ djfc hji^_ n_ fcqm_ pi_ ap_mm_ nZin h_md
]c Z‘ci ^_ aZm^_mfZ hZci npmf_ kmjd_o iZmmZoc‘Y kjpm f_ kfpn amZi^
kfZcncm^p f_]o_pmlpc n~cinompcoY hci_^_ mc_iY npm f_n lp_nocjin ^_
kjcio ^_ qp_ _o ^_ qjct iZmmZocq_Y lp_nocjinob0jmclp_n lp_ f_ mjhZi
2
~^o ko t+So
=&‘c]ocjiiZfcn_ _i omZin‘jmhZiokfZcnZhh_iof_n ‘ji]ocjin_i k_mnjid
iZa_no
=o$RV;bV:$R/
@Z kbcfjnjkbc_ _o ^_ fZ knu]bZiZfun_ ]jhh_ a0i0mZo_pmn^p ^cnd
]jpmn ‘c]ocjii_f n~_tkfclp_iokZm fZ [cjamZkbc_ 6 f_ m<f_ lp_ ^Zin fZ
qc_ ^_ f~0]mcqZci jio djp0 pi kbcfjnjkb_Y pi n0hcjfjap_Y ipf hc_pt
2
lp_]mZi/jcn[Zbf i~_i Z o0hjcai0o
Z8@~cio_ff_]o
FZin f_mZmcn ^_n Zii0_n i&Y Zii0_n fphc1m_ ^_nn]c_i]_n bphZcd
i_nY/Zm^pu ^0]jpqm_^_pt k_mnjiiZfco0n]jiomjq_mn0_n ]bZ]pi_ ) nZ
hZic1m_Y f_ kbcfjnjkb_ Zff_hZi^ KZmoci s_c^_aa_m ^jio ]o [Zbf
0oZco nk0]cZfcno_Y _o *Z]lp_n @Z]ZiY fZ ]jlp_fp]b_^_n cio_ff_]op_fnY
^jiof_n n0hciZcm_n ‘ZcnZc_io ]jpmcm fZ ‘ci_ ‘f_pm ^_ f~cio_ffca_ioncZ kZmcd
nc_ii_ -h_i_oo_Y :j^jmjqY Kcff_mY 5mcno_qZY _o oZio ^~Zpom_n8o n/ji
mZkkjmo Zq_] @Z]Zi i_ ‘po ap1m_ lp~ci^cm_]o _o kmp^_ioY qjcm_ h0d
‘cZioY cf i~ZnncnoZ lp~cmm0apfc1m_h_io ) n_n n0hciZcm_np mZkkjmo_
=[Zbf Y hZcn cf ]jiiZcnnZco f_namZi^n ]ji]_kon fZ]Zic_in y]_moZcin
fpc ]jiq_iZc_ioY cf _i m0]pnZco ^~Zpom_nyY ]Zm cf ZqZco npcqc k_i^Zio
^_n hjcn f~0fZ[jmZocji ^_ f~0^cocji ^_n R]mcon lp_ [ZbfY _i oZio lp_
^cm_]o_pm fcoo0mZcm_Y km0kZmZcokjpm f_ /_pcfo @Z]Zi _os_c^_aa_m njio
km0n_ion ^ZinF_ ^ji^_ nji fjn ]ZioZio_nY ijhh0h_io -n lp_ fZ ‘Zcff_ fZd
H S]Zic_ii_ o~Znkcm_ p Yn f~jcn_Zpk_ciom_ ^_ @Z]Zi p 8 jp ^_ ‘Z/ji _pd
^kb0hcnoclp_ kjpms_c^_aa_mY n f_@Zco_pt ^_ fZ]jm2oVjcm_ p o
s_c^_aa_m bZ[coZco):j^oiZp[_maY ^Zinf_ hZnnc‘ Zff_hZi^ Zkk_d
f0]jm2o Vjcm_o;_mo_nY f_ ijh a0jamZkbclp_]jm2o Vjcm_ omZ]_ f~_fd
fckn_^Zinf_ kfZi ^_ fZlp_ff_ f~Z^d_]oc‘ ijcm_ ]jiqjlp_ f_ nuno1h_ _nd
ob0oclp_ nZm^punc_i ^_ fZ ]jhkf0h_ioZmco0 ^p [fZi] _o ijcmY kpcnlp_
f_]bjnjY fZco_ptY ^0ijo_ fZ ]jpf_pm [fZi]b_o Rof~jinZcof_n ^0nZam0d
h_ion lp~ZqZfpn)s_c^_aa_m ]_ lpc ‘po ]jinc^0m0 ]jhh_ pi_ Z^b0d
2
n/_q_mj^_ fZ mp_*Z]j[ pY jko ]coo ko 2SStd2^Sto
=
~^oY jko ]coo ko 2S^&o
H
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jko ]coo ko HH&o
S
~^o ko HH^o
^
~^o ko HHio
=22ncji Zp m0ach_ bcof0mc_i _o ) f~c^0jfjac_ ^_ fZ npk0mcjmco0 ^_ fZ mZ]_
[fZi]b_o @_]bjncojY Z‘‘_]o0 ^_ fZ ^0nci_i]_ _pkb0hcnoclp_) ]jiijoZd
=ocji mZcff_pn_ -]jhh_n fZ k_oco_ ‘fAo_p ^p h0i0mZf Y f_ ^0ncai_ Zpnnc
nZm]Znoclp_h_io ]jhh_ pi ]Znn_d]jpcff_n ^jio fZ kbcfjnjkbc_ _no pi
]Znn_do2o_oKZcn ^Zinf~_tkm_nncji n f_@Zco_pt ^_ fZ]jm2oVjcm_ pY f_
H^chcipoc‘ -f_]bjncoj8 ajhh_ fZ m0‘0m_i]_ a0jamZkbclp_ ^p ijh kmjd
km_ kjpm mZh_i_m f_n o_mh_n^p nuioZah_ Zp mZia ^_ ijhn ]jhd
hpinY pi_ ‘jm2o ijcm_Y ]jhh_ ^Zin f_n ]jio_no@_]bjncoj mch_ Zq_] mZd
oji]cojY njpmc]_ZpY f_ /jpmc]_Zp Kcap_f lpc fZ ipco m_]p_cff_ f_n ^_ion
^_ fZco lp_ f_n _i‘Zionh_oo_io njpn f~jm_cff_m _o f_nm_hkfZ]_ kZm pi
]Z^_ZpoEi_ ‘jm2oijcm_ _i omjhk_df~wcfY ]Zm fZ ]jiijoZocji iZmlpjcd
S @_]bjncoj ^0mcq_ ^_ f_]b_Y fZcoYn_ ^_ f_]bjncoj _noojpo nZp‘ _i‘Zioci_o
nuijiuh_ ^_ nk_mh_o Ri qjc]c ^_n _t_hkf_no FZin F_^ji^_ njiq 6
n qjpn Zq_v ‘Zco kZu_m ZphZfc]c_i qciao ^jffZmndn_mqc]_ iji ]jhkmcnY kfpn
^f~b<o_f _o f_ ^6i_m y]_ fZco ]bZp^ ) fZ ]Zii_ff_ lp_ qjpn Z^jm_v p B f_d
]b_ cio_mqc_io ^Zin ^_ ijh[m_pn_n Zffpncjin Zp fclpc^_ n0hciZf Znnjd
i]c0 Zp q_m[_ [jcm_Y ) fZ o2o_ -n f_n :_nochmjnn_n pY f_n :_nocFpm_n8Y )
tpi ‘fjo [fZi] -n ]Zn]Z^_ Zf[ci_ p 8 jp) pi m0]ckc_io omjk kf_ci -n ]jpd
k_n ^0[jm^Zio_n p 8oFZin;j[mZ 6
2
KZmoci s_c^_aa_m -2+ d2+ti8o @_ =2 Zqmcf 2+HHY cf _no 0fp m_]o_pm ^_ f~Eicq_mnco 0
^_ ]mc[jpma omjcnhjcn Zkm1n f~Zq1i_h_io ^_scof_m ]jhh_ ]bZi]_fc_m ^p $_c]b -f_
2& dZiqc_m 2+HH8o~f kmjiji]_ f_Fcn]jpmn ^p$_]ojmZoY lpc fpcn_mZ ]jinoZhh_io m_d
kmj]b0o mjpmoZioY _i ^0nZ]]jm^npm f~c^0jfjac_ kjfcoclp_^piZocjiZfdnj]cZfcnh_ lpc
i_ ]jmm_nkji^mZco kZn Zq_] f~c^0Zf kbcfjnjkbclp_ lpc 0oZco f_ nc_iY cf ^0hcnncjii_ ^_
n_n ‘ji]ocjin Z^hcicnomZocq_n f_ =2 Zqmcf 2+HSY hZcn ]jiocip_nji _in_cai_h_iodpnd
lp~) fZ ‘ci ^_ fZ ap_mm_o
=
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jkq ]coo ko HH o
H
% kmjkjn ^_ fZ km0n_i]_ ^_n ^chcipoc‘n ^Zin f_n 0iji]0n ^ _/Zm^puY ]_fpcd]c u qjco
pi omZco nk0]c‘clp_ ^_ fZ fZiap_ ]p[Zci_ _o cf mZ]jio_ lp_*pZihjuocnjfj fpc ZqZco pi
djpm ‘Zco fZ m_hZmlp_ npm f_ ]pmc_pt kZmZ^jt_ lp_ m_km0n_io_Y ]b_v pi k_pkf_ kjmo0
npm f~jpomZi]_ _o fZ omZa0^c_Y f~pnZa_ ]jinoZio ^_ ^chcipoc‘no
S
%pnnc k_p _i‘Zioci_ lp_ f_n mji^_n _o ^_nd_pt ^"_i‘Zion chco0n [pmf_nlp_h_io kZm
%ptcfcj _o /j]jmmj -nd ;bZiojinQ dn~_t]fZh1m_iod_ff_no Ro_i n_ o_iZio f_n hZcin 6 Vc
m0]jhk_in_n ic kpicocjin p _o]o ko H + 8o n Ro f_n qjcf) lpc djp_io ) nZfoZk_mc]j u Z fZ
hZmcnjfZp-ko H+&8Y ^jio f_ n_in Zmajoclp_ _no]jhkZmZ[f_) f~_tkm_nncji ‘mZi/Zcn_n fZ
q_pq_ kjcai_o po
^
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jko ]coo ko HSto
i
~^o ko H S Y H ^ o
t
~^o ko H=+o
~^o ko H = o
==

d~Zc d_o0 kZm o_mm_ f_nZhpf_oo_n‘pi0mZcm_nlpcY _iojpm0_n ^_ amZcin Zf[*d
om_Y kmjo0a0_nkZm ^_pt q_mm_n oZcff0nY _hkcfZc_io ^_ k_oconjn kjm_pt y
^_ion ^~_i‘ZioY ]ZmocfZa_n ^~jcn_Zpty B d_ f_n Zc Zmmjn0n ^_ hji fZcoo -q8
:b:RK6 Vjpn ijpn njhh_n hZnopm[0n 6 :~h$R R::EVF$% B /;b$d
m~bVR:Kb~o;bZ]pi ]ji]fpoojpo n_pfom_mnjii_ i_ ojp]b_ f_ fZco ^~pi
2
Zpom_o
Ro f_ kZmZamZkb_ npm f_ ]jmkn hZn]pfciY j@ f~0mjocnh_ _o f_ nuh[jd
fcnh_ n_tp_f ^p [fZi] _o ^p ijcmY ]b_mn )/_q_mjY n_ ]jidpap_ioo
/jf^Zonjp^ZiZcnomjmo_pm ^~_ZpZ[unncic_io ;ZqZfc_m^~Robcjkc_o ;jmkn
^_ [coph_Y fcnn_ _o [mcffZioY kpkcff_n ]jpf_pm ^_ mZcncio ~f [jco ^Zin pi_
]jmi_^_ [wp‘_o q_mn_ npm njin_t_ pi bu^mjh_f jkZlp_ _o Z]c^pf0o
;jp]b0 npmf_q_iom_Y cf ‘mjoo_ nji ‘m_ci o_i^p y]jm^_^_hZn_iejyY
njiafZi^ [pf[_pt _o qcjfZ]0 ]jiom_ fZ k_Zp ^_ ^Zchlp_ f_ fZco oZ]b_o~f
=
n_ m_ojpmi_o]fZlp_ Zhc^jii_pn_npm f_ q_iom_o$cm_o
@Z ]mcoclp_Y pi k_p k_jkf_Y Z npmojpo m_f_q0 fZ km0n_i]_^_ s_cd
^_aa_m ^jio[Zbf 0oZco nk0]cZfcno_Y jp[fcZio f_ kjpmoZio 0qc^_io s_d
a_fo /c /_q_mj /Zm^pu m0pnncoY _o Zq_] lp_f [mcjY) n"Zhpn_m Zq_]n f_
@Zco_pt ^_ fZ]jm2oVjcm_ pY lp_ ^cm_ ^p kZmoc lp~cf ocm_ ^p hZ6om_ ^_
HfZ ^cZf_]oclp_ Q mZm _t_hkf_Y ^Zin $bE@RKRV: FR0%hER::R/ Y
/j]jmmj _o%ptcfcj njio kfZcnZhh_io b0a0fc_ii_noRff_n ZkkZmZcnn_io
^Zinf_pm ]jnoph_ ^_ ;bcijcn_n ^_ fZ n]1i_ km0]0^_io_Y ^ji]Y ]jid
‘jmh0h_io ) fZ ]jiq_iocji ^p mcop_f ^_ fZ omZin‘jmhZocji n]0iclp_Y
_ff_n njio^_pt;bcijcn_nYn%ptcfcj;bjia _o/j]jmmj/cdr_iY ]bjmcnd
So_n^_ f~bk0mZ ^pxpZmoc_m ^_;bZiaZc p omjpmoZioY _i ]jiomZ^c]ocji
Zmocnoclp_ Zq_] ]_ lp~_ff_n njio_i n]1i_Y ^_nbmc_ioZf_nY hZcn lpc i~_no
lp~pi kZmZ6om_Y _ff_n_ioZh_io pi_ ]bjm0amZkbc_ ^~pi Z]Z^0hcnh_
ojpo j]]c^_ioZfY f_ kZn^_ ^_pto~f_no qmZc lp~_ff_n m0njfq_io ylp_ f_
o_to_ m0njpoy ]_oo_ ]jiomZ^c]ocji kZm f_ ijh[m_Y Zp kc_^ ^_ fZ f_oom_
kpcnlp~_ff_n njio _‘‘_]ocq_h_io ^_ptY ]_ lp~Zpnnco<o ^~Zcff_pmn _ff_n
^0ic_io lpZi^ fZ kjmo_ npm fZlp_ff_ _ff_n njio k_cio_n_i omjhk_df~wcf
n~jpqm_Y f_n jpqm_Y f_n n0kZm_Y kpcn f_n m0pico _i n_ m_‘_mhZio ^_ ijpd
q_Zpo
2
;j[mZY jko ]coo ko ^HHo
=
~^o ko ^&id^&to
H
F_ ^ji^_ njiqY jko ]coo ko H^&o
S
~^o ko HS&o
=H

Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.