//img.uscri.be/pth/a7ec33dda95fcd2c8ac0dc28945c1c4803abeeb3
Cet ouvrage fait partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le lire en ligne
En savoir plus

Le roman de Mohamed Toihiri dans la littérature comorienne

De
262 pages
Existe-t-il une littérature aux Comores ? Pour répondre à cette question, l'auteur a choisi le roman de Mohamed Toihiri pour matérialiser cette vie littéraire comorienne. Un roman qui, en plus d'être une spéculation verbale, porte, en son sein, une dimension sociologique, anthropologique et même politique.
Voir plus Voir moins

LeromandeMohamedToihiri
danslalittératurecomorienneCritiques Littéraires
Collection dirigée par MaguyAlbet
Dernièresparutions
DeniseBRAHIMI, Quelques idées reçues sur Maupassant,2012.
Ridha BOURKHIS, Lionel Ray. L’intarissable beauté de
l’éphémère,2012.
Krzysztof A. Je 0ewski, Cyprian Norwid et la pensée de l’Empire
du milieu,2011.
Camille DAMEGO-MANDEU, Laisse-nous bâtir une Afrique
debout deBenjamin Matip. Une épopée populaire,2011.
Bogdan GHITA, Eugène Ionesco, un chemin entre deux langues,
deux littératures,2011.
Debroah M. HESS, Maryse Condé : mythe, parabole et
complexité,2011.
Armelle LACAILLE-LEFEBVRE, La Poésie dansA la Recherche
duTempsPerdu de Marcel Proust,2011.
Vera CASTIGLIONE, Emile Verhaeren, Modernisme et identité
générique dans l’œuvre poétique,2011.
Jean-Pierre FOURNIER, Charles Baudelaire. Quand le poème rit
et sourit, 2011.
Jean Léonard NGUEMA ONDO, Le roman initiatique gabonais,
2011.
Chantal LAPEYRE-DESMAISON, Résonances du réel.DeBalzac
à Pascal Quignard,2011.
Saloua BEN ABDA, Figure de l’altérité. Analyse des figures de
l’altérité dans des romans arabes et francophones contemporains,
2011.
Sylvie FREYERMUTH, Jean Rouaud et l'écriture « les yeux
clos ».De la mémoire engagée à la mémoire incarnée,2011.
François HARVEY, Alain Robbe-Grillet : le nouveau roman
composite. Intergénéricité et intermédialité,2011.
eBrigitte FOULON, La Poésie andalouse du XI siècle. Voir et
décrire le paysage,2011.
Jean-Joseph HORVATH, La Famille et Dieu dans l’œuvre
romanesque et théâtrale de JeanGiraudoux,2011.
Haiqing LIU, André Malraux. De l’imaginaire de l’art à
l’imaginaire de l’écriture, 2011.NassurdineAliMhoumadi
LeromandeMohamedToihiri
danslalittératurecomorienne
Fiction d’un témoignage et témoignage d’une fiction
L’HARMATTAN©L'HARMATTAN,2012
5-7,ruedel'École-Polytechnique ; 75005Paris
http://www.librairieharmattan.com
diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr
harmattan1@wanadoo.fr
ISBN:978-2-296-96345-0
EAN:9782296963450mjpmsZojpjcY ijn _i‘Zion _oVZ7hZo
@Z km_hc1m_ kjpm nji njpoc_i ci]ji^cocjii_fY f_n
^_ptc1h_n kjpm h~Zqjcm Z]]jhkZai0 ojpo Zp fjia ^_ ]_oo_
m_]b_m]b_ -_i h_ k_mopm[Zio _o _i Z[6hZio h_n jpocfn ^_
omZqZcfQ8 B fZ omjcnc1h_ kjpm Zqjcm ojpdjpmn ]mp _i hjco~V:$bFE;:~bV
EV0R/b~VE$hRV:FR
F~/;bE$/;$~:~xER
mjpmlpjc 2om_ ]Zkocq0 kZm ]_ lpc Z f~Zcm ^_ npn]co_m ^p
^0ncio0m2o qjcm_h2h_ ^p h0kmcn n RomZia_ _o nciapfc1m_
^0hZm]b_Y iji n @~_iom_kmcn_ _no _t]coZio_ -kjpm ]_fpc lpc
n~cio0m_nn_ Zpt hZma_n8 hZcn k0mcff_pn_ -npm f_ kfZi
picq_mncoZcm_ _o n]c_ioc‘clp_8o ;Zm ^Zin fZ m_]b_m]b_Y cf _no
]jpmZio ^_ n~Zkkpu_m npmf_n omZqZpt _tcnoZion kjpm Zpnnco<o
hZmlp_m f_pmn ]Zm_i]_n nZin km0]cn_m np‘‘cnZhh_io lp_ fZ
]mcoclp_ k_po n~_t_m]_m ^c‘‘c]cf_h_io npmf_ i0ZioQKZcncf ‘Zpo
[c_i ‘Zcm_ nZ kfZ]_ ^Zin f_ hji^_ chkcojuZ[f_ ^_n nk0]cZfcno_n B
cf ‘Zpo [c_i _i‘ji]_m f_n km0^0]_nn_pmnkjpm n~0mca_m_i
nk0]cZfcno_ B cf ‘Zpo [c_i h_oom_ _i qZf_pm nji Zkkjmo i_p‘ -lpc i_
nZpmZco _tcno_m lp_ kZm]_ lp~cf u Z ^_ f~Zi]c_iQ8o ;_ njio f_n
m1af_n ^_ f~ZmoY ]jhh_ ^cmZcomc_mm_0jpm^c_po
*_ f_ ]ji‘_nn_ 6 cfh~ Z ‘Zffp qZci]m_ pi omckf_ j[noZ]f_ kjpm
_iom_km_i^m_]_oo_ m_]b_m]b_o @_ km_hc_m _no fc0 ) f~_iqc_
-ojpdjpmncmm0km_nnc[f_ ]b_v hjc8 ^_ ]jiocip_m ) 0op^c_m
2/_iabjm) lpc d~Zc ^0d) ]jinZ]m0 pi _nnZc B f_ ^_ptc1h_ Zp
k_p ^~cio0m2o lp_ npn]co_ fZ fcoo0mZopm_ ]jhjmc_ii_ ^Zin fZ
]jhhpiZpo0 ^_n nk0]cZfcno_n ^_n fcoo0mZopm_n ‘mZi]jkbji_n B
f_ ^_mic_m Zp qc^_ ^j]ph_ioZcm_ lpc _iojpm_ ]_oo_ fcoo0mZopm_
x ]_]c n~_tkfclpZio kZm ]_fZo
*~ u Zc omjpq0 ]_k_i^ZioY _o om1n mZkc^_h_ioY hji ]jhko_
kjpm Zp hjcin ^_pt mZcnjin 6 f_ n_ioch_io -]_mo_niZ7‘Q8
^~Zkkjmo_m lp_flp_ ]bjn_ ^_ q0mcoZ[f_h_io ijpq_Zp _o fZ
kmjhjocji ^~pi_ fcoo0mZopm_ 0h_ma_io_o
2Ei h0ocn ijhh0/_iabjmYmZmcnY@~sZmhZooZiY =&2&o
+;Zm fZ fcoo0mZopm_ ]jhjmc_ii_ i0_ _i 2+ ^ Zq_] fZ kZmpocji
^_@Z$0kp[fclp_ ^_n~h[_m[_n m_no_Y Zpdjpm^~bpc _i]jm_Y f~Ziaf_
hjmo ^_nm_]b_m]b_n npmf_n ;jhjm_no F~j@ f~cio0m2o ^_
]jh[f_m ]_ qc^_ 6 kmjkjn_m pi ^cn]jpmn ]mcoclp_ _i h_npm_
^~_n]jmo_m ]_oo_ fcoo0mZopm_ kjpm lp~_ff_ kpcnn_ n_ ^0q_fjkk_m
]jhh_ ^jhZci_ ^_ nZqjcm ‘Zpo_ ^_ lpjc_ff_ mcnlp_ ^_ m_no_m
fZ kmjkmc0o0 m0n_mq0_ ^_ lp_flp_n cicoc0n x pi ^jhZci_
0njo0mclp_o
;_oo_ fcoo0mZopm_ 0]mco_ ‘mZi]jkbji_Y kp[fc0_ kZm kfpn
2^~pi_ ^cvZci_ ^~0^co_pmn Y _in_cai0_ ) f~picq_mnco0 ^_n
;jhjm_nY ]jhkoZio Zpdjpm^~bpc^_n Ziobjfjac_nY m0]conY
ijpq_ff_nY mjhZinY kc1]_n ^_ ob0*om_Y m_]p_cfn^_ kj1h_n _o
_nnZcnY i_ ^cnkjn_ ojpdjpmn kZn ^~pi ^cn]jpmn ]mcoclp_ njfc^_
lpcY ) ^0‘Zpo ^_ hc_ptY f~ciq_iojmc_o @_n nk0]cZfcno_n ^_n
fcoo0mZopm_n ^_ ]_oo_m0acji ^p hji^_ x f~&]0Zi ~i^c_i x
]jiocip_io f_ kfpn njpq_io ^_ f~caijm_m jp i_ fpc Z]]jm^_ioY
^Zin f_pmn 0op^_nY lp_ ^_n nomZkjiocin lpZi^ cfn m0n_mq_io ^_n
]ji‘jmoZ[f_n ‘Zpo_pcfn Zpt fcoo0mZopm_n m0picjiiZcn_Y hZfaZ]b_
jp _i]jm_ hZpmc]c_ii_Q *_ km0]cn_ ojpo ^_ h2h_ lp_Y
k0mcj^clp_h_ioY fZ m_qp_ ;pfopm_n /p^ -Zi]c_ii_h_io Vjom_
@c[mZcmc_8 m_i^ ]jhko_ ^_n kp[fc]Zocjin ^_@~sZmhZooZi lpc Z
0o0 k_i^Zio pi_ lpcivZci_ ^~Zii0_n nji n_pf 0^co_pmo
/c *_Zid@jpcn *jp[_mo km0n_io_Y _i 2++2Y np]]ci]o_h_io
@Z$0kp[fclp_ ^_n ~h[_m[_n ^_KjbZh_^:jcbcmc ]jhh_ 0oZio
=n f_ km_hc_m q0mcoZ[f_ mjhZi ]jhjmc_i pY nc _i 2++HY f_
h2h_]mcoclp_ _tkjn_pi _tomZco ^_ ]_ mjhZi^Zin nji
Ziobjfjac_ _i ZdjpoZio lp_ n fZ fcoo0mZopm_ ]jhjmc_ii_ Z
2 @~sZmhZooZiY 5jh0^coY @_n 0_ff_n mZa_nY ~iuZd;j_fZ]Zio_Y FdZbZvcY
Ri]m_n ^p /p^Y @_n R^cocjin ^_ fZ fpi_Y 5ZfZhp ^_n 6f_nY 5sZivZZ
R^cocjinY R^cocjin ^_ f~b‘‘c]ci_Y @_n R^cocjin ^p 0Zj[Z[Y h_]ej
R^cocjinYR^cocjin ^pK$%;YR^cocjin ^pKc]KZ]q
= *_Zid@jpcn *jp[_moY @coo0mZopm_n^_f~b]0Zici^c_iY PZiq_nY
RF~;R]z%EmR@]Y 2++2Y ko = 2o
2&2hZcio_iZio pi Zq_icm pY nc*_Zid]mZi/jcn/Zhfjia ncaiZf_ fZ
kp[fc]Zocji ^_n ^_pt mjhZin ^_ :jcbcmc _i Z‘‘cmhZio lp~cfn
=njio ^_ n lpZfco0 Znn_vci0aZf_ pY KZmoci_ KZobc_p n_
]jio_io_ ^~ci^clp_m lp~Zpt ;jhjm_nYn )q? lp_flp_n
Ho_ioZocq_n ^_ ]m0Zocji n_ ‘jio djpm po ~f _noqmZc lp~_ff_ Z
Zdjpo0 ) nZ ]jpmo_ m_hZmlp_ lpZom_ m0‘0m_i]_n
S[c[fcjamZkbclp_n Q *_ZidKc]b_f $Z]ZpfoY [c_i lp~cf ^cn_
njpbZco_m lp_ f~b]0Zi ~i^c_i njco pi n )q? pi fc_p
^^~0]bZia_n hpfockjfZcm_n _iom_ kfpnc_pmn hji^_n )q? p
i~Z]]jm^_ Zp]pi_ kfZ]_ ) fZ fcoo0mZopm_ ]jhjmc_ii_ ^Zin nji
m0]_io jpqmZa_ B *_Zid;fZp^_ ;ZmkZici KZmchjpojp i_ ‘Zco
kZn hc_pt ^Zin pi iph0mj nk0]cZf ^_ @Z $_qp_ ^_ fcoo0mZopm_
i]jhkZm0_ lp~cf Z m0]_hh_io ]jjm^jii0 o
Kji Zh[cocji _no ^_ kmjkjn_m f_ km_hc_m omZqZcf
Zkkmj‘ji^c -d_ q_pt ^cm_ ^_ icq_Zp picq_mncoZcm_8 npm fZ
fcoo0mZopm_ ]jhjmc_ii_ _i ciZpapmZio pi q0mcoZ[f_ ^cn]jpmn
]mcoclp_o
@~0op^_ kjmo_mZn_pf_h_io npm f_ mjhZi^_ KjbZh_^
:jcbcmco mZm]_ lp_ ]~_nof_ k1m_ ^_ ]_oo_ fcoo0mZopm_ 6 ]~_no fpc
lpcZncai0 nji Z]o_ ^_ iZcnnZi]_ _i kp[fcZio @Z $0kp[fclp_
^_n ~h[_m[_n -2+ ^8 B lpc Zm0]c^cq0Y Zkm1n ]_o Z]o_
^~ciZpapmZocjiY _i ‘ZcnZio kZmZ6om__i 2++= @_ 5Z‘cm ^p
2 *_Zid@jpcn *jp[_moY %hciZ bnhZiY @cfcZi_ $ZhZmjnjZY %iobjfjac_ ^_n
fcoo0mZopm_n ‘mZi]jkbji_n ^_ f~b]0Zi ~i^c_iY mZmcnY hmjpk_ ^_ fZ ;co0
cio_miZocjiZfY 2++HY ko 2H^o
=*_Zid]mZi/jcn/ZhfjiaYn@coo0mZopm_n ^_ f~b]0Zi~i^c_i 6 pi_jpq_mopm_
npmf_hji^_ pYVjom_@c[mZcmc_Y 2=Y j]ood^0]o 2++iY ko H^o
H Kc]b_f sZpnn_mY KZmoci_ KZobc_pY @coo0mZopm_n ‘mZi]jkbji_n ~~~o %‘mclp_
ijcm_Yb]0Zi~i^c_iYmZmcnY0_fciY n0_fci/pko pY 2++ Y ko 2^io
S@_n ^_ptmjhZin ^_KjbZh_^:jcbcmcYEi;jci^_ qjcf_ npm f_n;jhjm_n ^_
sZhvZ /jcfbZ[jp^ _o @~ %iobjfjac_ ^~ciomj^p]ocji ) fZ kj0nc_ ]jhjmc_ii_
^~_tkm_nncji ‘mZi/Zcn_ -mZmcnY@~sZmhZooZiY 2++^8 0^co0_ kZm;Zmjf_0_]e_oo
^*_ZidKc]b_f $Z]ZpfoY K0hjcm_n ^p hmZi^ b]0Zio F_n m_fZocjin ^_ qjuZa_n Zpt
fcoo0mZopm_n ‘mZi]jkbji_n ^_ f~b]0Zi~i^c_iYmZmcnYmEm/Y =&&tY ko to
i *_Zid;fZp^_ ;ZmkZici KZmchjpojpY km0kZm0 kZmYn@coo0mZopm_n
ci^cZj]0Ziclp_n pY$_qp_ ^_ fcoo0mZopm_ ]jhkZm0_Y H2 Y Zqmcfddpci =&&io
22
5ZmobZfZB ]~_no njin_pf m_km0n_ioZio ^Zin f_n hZip_fn
fcoo0mZcm_n ‘mZi]jkbji_n [c_i lp~cf _tcno_ ^~Zpom_n 0]mcqZcin
]jhjmc_ino RoY kjpm ^0‘_i^m_pi_ ]Zpn_Y cf qZpo hc_pt
n~Zkkpu_mY ^Zin pi km_hc_m o_hkn^p hjcinY npmf_n bjhh_n
]jiipno Ro kpcnY cf ‘Zpo nZqjcm m_i^m_ bjhhZa_ ) pi
‘ji^Zo_pmQ Ro kjpmlpjc ]_oo_ m_nomc]ocji a0i0mclp_ Zfjmn lp_
2KjbZh_^ :jcbcmc Z 0]mco 0aZf_h_io ^_nkc1]_n ^_ ob0*om_ n
mZm ZooZ]b_h_io _o kmZahZocnh_ 6 ZooZ]b_h_io -n_ioch_ioZf8
) ]_ mjhZi ‘ji^Zo_pm B _o kZmnZ hZoc1m_ Znn_v ^_in_ ) h2h_
^~2om_ njphcn_ ) f~j[n_mqZocji mcajpm_pn_^~pi omZqZcf ^_
icq_Zp lpc n_ q_po 0f_q0o
~f n~Zaco kjpm hjcY ^Zin f~0op^_ ^_ ]_ mjhZiY ^~j[n_mq_m
^_ kfpn km1n]_ lp_ ^cnnchpf_ f~0]mcopm_ ^_ f~bcnojcm_ m0]_io_
^_n ;jhjm_n -@Z $0kp[fclp_8o %pom_h_io ^coY Zqjindijpn
Z‘‘Zcm_ n_pf_h_io ) pi_ omZin]mckocji i_pom_ ^_n 0q0i_h_ion
-nc oZio _no lp~ji kpcnn_ kZmf_m^~pi_ 0]mcopm_ i_pom_8n bp
f~0]mcopm_ ^_ f~bcnojcm_ ]jhjmc_ii_ qZdod_ff_ n_mqcm^_ km0o_to_
) pi_ m0‘f_tcji npm^~Zpom_n npd_onn xp_ ]Zhjp‘f_
q0mcoZ[f_h_io f~Z‘‘mjio_h_io lpc jkkjn_ f_ k_mnjiiZa_
kmci]ckZf ^p5Z‘cm ^p5ZmobZfZ) fZ nj]c0o0 ]jhjmc_ii_ n/~Zacod
cf ^_ fZ ]ji‘mjioZocji ]fZnnclp_ ci^cqc^pznj]c0o0 ^p mjhZi
m0Zfcno_ n bp [c_if) _i]jm_n~Zacodcf ^~pi km0o_to_ kjpm
^0q_fjkk_m Zpom_ ]bjn_ n
*~0op^c_mZc ]_ mjhZi ^Zin pi_ jkoclp_ nj]cjfjaclp_Y d_
q_pt ^cm_ afj[ZfcnZio_Y cio0amZio Zpnnc [c_i pi_ ^ch_incji
Ziobmjkjfjaclp_ _o nj]cjfjaclp_ lp_ kjfcoclp_o ;Zm kmj^pcm_
fZ km_hc1m_ 0op^_ ^~_iq_mapm_ ^_ ]_ mjhZi _i 0qZ]pZio ]_n
]Z^m_ndf) -Ziobmjkjfjaclp_Y nj]cjfjaclp_ _o kjfcoclp_8 n_mZco
‘mZi]b_h_ioY h_ n_h[f_dodcfY pi ]jiom_dn_in ]jhkf_oo
;_oo_ m0‘f_tcjin_ km0n_io_ _i omjcn kZmoc_n 6 fZkm_hc1m_Y
lpc km0n_io_ pi_ ^ch_incji ^j]ph_ioZcm_Y qjp^mZco h_oom_
_i ZqZio f_ ]<o0 c^_iocoZcm_ lp_ f_ mjhZi ojcbcmc_i q0bc]pf_ B fZ
2@ZVZocjiZfco0 -=&&28 _o@~R]jf_^_0ZiaZij -=&&^8o
2=^_ptc1h_Y lpc n~cinkcm_^_ fZ nj]cj]mcoclp_Y ]b_m]b_mZco )
^0qjcf_m fZ ]mcoclp_ nj]cZf_ _o kjfcoclp_ ^jio f_ mjhZi n_ ‘Zco f_
kjmo_dkZmjf_ B lpZio ) fZ omjcnc1h_Y _ff_ n_mZ Zoo_iocq_ ) fZ
lp_nocji ^_ fZ m0]_kocji ^p mjhZiom$RK~R$Rm%$:~R 6@R
$bK%VFR@~~FRV:~:R
;bKb$~RVVR~oh0i0mZfco0n npm f_ mjhZi ojcbcmc_i
%oEi mjhZi ^~ZiZfun_ nj]cjfjaclp_
xp_flp_n]jinc^0mZocjinkm0ZfZ[f_no mm_hc1m_ n0mc_ ^_
m_hZmlp_n 6:jcbcmc Z njpo_ip _i ^0]_h[m_ 2+ 2 )0jm^_Zpt
~~~ pi_ ob1n_ npm /_h[_i_ bpnhZi_ ciocopf0_ @_n @poo_n ^_
]fZnn_ ^Zin f~wpqm_ ^_ /_h[_i_ bpnhZi_ B _o lpZi^ /Zh[Z Fcjk
fpc Z kmjkjn0 ^_ kZmoc]ck_m ) pi_ kp[fc]Zocji lp~cf ^cmca_Zco
npm f_ mjhZi kjno]jfjicZfY cf fpc Z m_i^p pi_ m0‘f_tcji
2ijhh0_ nfZfZ jp f~chkpcnnZi]_ ^p kjno]jfjicn0 pY pi_
0op^_ npmf_n nj]c0o0n Z‘mc]Zci_n cnnp_n ^_nci^0k_i^Zi]_no
FZin pi m0]_io iph0mj ^_ Vjom_ @c[mZcmc_ ]jinZ]m0 Zpt
ijpq_ff_nqjct fcoo0mZcm_n Z‘mc]Zci_nY KjbZh_^ :jcbcmc Z
km0n_io0 pi Zpo_pm hZbjmZcn ]jhh_ 0oZio n pi [mcn_pm ^_
=oZ[jpn poxp_fn lp_ njc_ioY _i ‘ZcoY n_n 0]mconx ^~0]mcqZci jp
^_ ]jhh_ioZo_pm xY ji u n_io ojpdjpmn pi cio0m2o k_mhZi_io
Hkjpm f_n kmj[f1h_n nj]cZpt jp nj]c0oZpt o
F_ptc1h_ n0mc_ ^_ m_hZmlp_n 6KjbZh_^:jcbcmcY npmojpo
^1nnji Zmmcq0_ _i ]mZi]_ Zp ^0[po ^_nZii0_n 2+t&Y _no
^_q_ip pi amZi^ f_]o_pm ^_ mjhZin i0amjdZ‘mc]Zcin _o kfpn
km0]cn0h_io pi f_]o_pm Z^hcmZoc‘ ^_/_h[_i_bpnhZi_obmY
nc pi 0]mcqZci _no ‘jm]0h_io ^~Z[jm^ pi amZi^ f_]o_pmY ji
k_po ^ji] Z‘‘cmh_m lp_ :jcbcmc _no ^_q_ip 0]mcqZci kZm] _
lp~cf Z ^~Z[jm^ 0o0 f_]o_pm^_ fZ fcoo0mZopm_i0amjdZ‘mc]Zci_Y
pi_ fcoo0mZopm_Y ZfjmnY hZdjmcoZcm_h_io ^~cinkcmZocji m0Zfcno_ 6
2 KjbZh_^ :jcbcmcY nfZfZ jp f~chkpcnnZi]_^pkjno]jfjicn0p ci/Zh[Z
FcjkY ^cmoY ]c]ocjin Z‘mc]Zci_n _o kjno]jfjicZfcnh_YmZmcnY@~sZmhZooZiY =&&2Y ko
2=+d2tto
= KjbZh_^ :jcbcmcY nVZnnpm %oojphZicY f_ [mcn_pm ^_ oZ[jpn pY Vjom_
@c[mZcmc_Y 2^Y dpcff_odn_ko_h[m_ =&&^Y ko 2&=d2&Ho
H K2h_ cio0m2olp_ f~ji m_omjpq_ 0aZf_h_io ^Zin n_nkc1]_n ^_ ob0*om_ 6
@ZVZocjiZfco0 -=&&28 _o@~R]jf_^_0ZiaZij -=&&^8o
2t
%km1n 2+^& )q?Y f_n mjhZi]c_mn Zq_] f_n ]mcoclp_n
ijcmn Z‘mc]Zcin n_ hcm_io)q? ) ^0‘_i^m_ ]_ hj^_
^~_tkm_nncji )f_ m0Zfcnh_?o )q? cfn ^0]fZm_io ) f_pm
ojpmlp_ f_n Zpo_pmn 0omZia_mn ^0‘jmh_io fZ q0mco0 ^~j@
fZ i0]_nnco0 ^_ kmjpq_m lp_ f~%‘mclp_ i~0oZco kZnpi_
oZ[pfZ mZnZ bZ[co0_ kZm ^_n n nZpqZa_n pY hZcn kZm
^_n nj]c0o0n ]pfocq0_nY ]jhkf_t_n _o jmaZicn0_no% kZmocm
^_ f)Y f_n mjhZi]c_mn kp[fc1m_io Zq_] fZ qjfjio0Y kfpn jp
hjcin Zqjp0_Y ^~Z‘‘cmh_m f~_tcno_i]_ ^~pi hji^_
Z‘mc]Zci [c_i m0_f _o ^_ m0oZ[fcm fZ ^caico0 ^_ n_n
2]pfopm_n o
KZcn KjbZh_^ :jcbcmc Zpi_ km0‘0m_i]_lp~cf Z‘‘c]b_
^0d) ^Zin nZ ob1n_ _o lpcZkjpm ijh /_h[_i_ bpnhZi_ 6
nVjom_ ]jioZ]o Zq_] @_ KZi^Zo ^_ /_h[_i_ bpnhZi_Y )
0jm^_ZptY ‘po pi ]bj]q nZfpoZcm_oVjpn ^0]jpqm6h_n lp_ fZ
nj]c0o0 lpcu 0oZco ^0]mco_ m_nn_h[fZco) ijom_kmjkm_ picq_mn
nj]cZfY lp_ f_nbjhh_n m_nn_h[fZc_io Zpt;jhjmc_inY lp_ fZ
]pfopm_Y f_nhwpmnY fZ m_fcacji 0oZc_io n_h[fZ[f_n) fZ ]pfopm_Y
Zpt hwpmn _o) fZ m_fcacji ]jhjmc_ii_noVjpn ‘Ah_n 0ojii0
=_o n0^pcoop @_]o_pm ^_ mjhZin m0Zfcno_nY n0^pco kZm
f~_nob0oclp_ _o fZ ob0hZoclp_^p mjhZi m0Zfcno_ ^_ /_h[_i_
bpnhZi_YKjbZh_^:jcbcmcY qZ n~cin]mcm_ ]jhh_ mjhZi]c_m
iji kZn ^Zin pi_ 0]mcopm_ i0jm0Zfcno_ o_ff_ lp~_ff_ Z 0o0
H^0‘cic_ kZm 0mpij 0fZi]e_hZi hZcn ^Zin f~jkoclp_ m0Zfcno_
2 ;fZcm_ @o F_bjiY @_ $0Zfcnh_ Z‘mc]Zcio @_mjhZi ‘mZi]jkbji_ _i %‘mclp_
np[nZbZmc_ii_Y mZmcnY @~sZmhZooZiY n;mcoclp_n fcoo0mZcm_n pY =&&=Y ko ^ o
;~_nof~Zpo_pm lpc njpfcai_o
= KjbZh_^ :jcbcmcY @_n @poo_n ^_ ]fZnn_ ^Zin f~wpqm_ ^_ /_h[_i_ bpnhZi_Y
0jm^_ZptY0jm^_Zpt~~~Y 2+ 2Y ko 2=o
H 0mpij 0fZi]e_hZi^0‘cicof~0]mcopm_ i0jm0Zfcno_ ]jhh_ n )q? ]_ff_ lpc
km0f1q_ kZm^_n ijoZocjin kji]op_ff_nY npmpi hj^__obijamZkbclp_Y
lp_flp_n 0f0h_ion^_ qc_ n_inc[f_o Rff_ o_io_^_ nZcncm f_nfc_in lpc
Znnj]c_io ^_n ‘capm_n bphZci_nY ^_n fc_pt ncop0nY pi hcfc_pZh[cZioo
0ZfcnZio f_ m0]coY ^_n m_ZfcZ njpoc_ii_io pi omZqZcf ^_ ^0]bc‘‘m_h_io
cio_mkm0oZoc‘Y jmc_io_io pi_f_]opm_^phji^_]jio_hkjmZci _o m_fZi]_io
^_ ‘Z/ji jpq_mo_Y nZin _t]1n ^_ ]jiomZcio_^cn]pmncq_ ic ^~_n]jmo_
2 cnnp_ ^p ^ctdi_pqc1h_ nc1]f_ ‘mZi/Zcn _o m_kmcn_kZm f_n
2km_hc_mn mjhZi]c_mn i0amjdZ‘mc]Zcin Y ]~_nod)d^cm_^Zin pi_
n )q? m_km0n_ioZocji ^p lpjoc^c_iY Zp kfpn km1n ^p q0]pY _i
=kpcnZio ^Zin f_n ]bjn_n qp_nY nZin jh_oom_ f_ [ZiZf )q? po
mm0]cncji ]_mo_n pocf_ hZcn ijojcm_h_io cinp‘‘cnZio_ kjpm
]ZmZ]o0mcn_m f~_nob0oclp_ ^p mjhZi ojcbcmc_iomjpm n~_i m_i^m_
]jhko_Y cf np‘‘co ^_ fcm_ @Z $0kp[fclp_ lpc ^0mja_ ) ]_moZci_n
m1af_n ^p mjhZi m0Zfcno_ ]jhh_kZm _t_hkf_ fZ fci0Zmco0 ^_
f~bcnojcm_o % ^cm_ qmZcY ]_ mjhZi ^jii_ f~chkm_nncji ^_
n~ZkkZm_io_m Zp Vjpq_Zp $jhZio% hji n_inY nc :jcbcmc
Z^jko_ pi_ ^_n o_]biclp_n^_ ]_ ]jpmZio fcoo0mZcm_Y ]~_no
hjcin kZm Z^b0ncji ) nji _nob0oclp_ lp_ kZm f_ ^0ncm ^_
n~Zkkmjkmc_m pi_ o_]biclp_ kjpm ncaic‘c_m lp_flp_ ]bjn_ -d~ u
m_qc_i^mZc8o ~f ‘Zpo ijo_m ]_k_i^Zio lp_ nc :jcbcmc
i~ZkkZmoc_io kZn Zp ]jpmZio fcoo0mZcm_ ob0jmcn0 kZm %fZci
H$j[[_dhmcff_o Y cf ZkkZmoc_io) ]_ lp_/0sZijpFZ[fZ Zkk_ff_
f_n n$jhZi]c_mn)Z‘mc]Zcin?^_ fZ /_]ji^_ h0i0mZocji p lpcY
ojpmiZio f_ ^jn Zpt bZ[cop^_n ob0hZoclp_n -Zpoj[cjamZkbc_Y
jkkjncocji omZ^cocjizhj^_mico0q8 _o noufcnoclp_n -fci0Zmco0
^_n m0]conY fZiap_ om1n]b*oc0_ ipff_h_io chkm0ai0_kZm f_n
SfZiap_n Z‘mc]Zci_nq8 ^_nZ6i0n Y ciijq_io km0]cn0h_io npm f_
kfZi ob0hZoclp_ -cfn km2o_io pi_Zoo_iocji ojpo_ kZmoc]pfc1m_
c^0jfjaclp_Y fZ mji^_k_m^p_^p n_in pY ci n@_njp]c ^_ nj]c0o0 -npm
lp_flp_n 0]mcopm_n i0jm0Zfcno_n8 pY ci Kc]b_f ;jffjh[Y o_to_nm0picn kZmY
@~Rhkm_cio_ ^p nj]cZf ^Zin f_ mjhZi^_kpcn 2+ & YKjiok_ffc_mYEicq_mnco0mZpf
PZf0muY =&&^Y ko =to
2Pjcm npm]_oo_ lp_nocjiKZmoci:o0_nohZiY/_h[_i_bpnhZi_ _o f~_nob0oclp_
^p mjhZi i0amjdZ‘mc]ZciY/b_m[jjeYVZZhZiY nRop^_n pY 2+ 2 o
=mbcfckk_Fp‘jpmY@_$0Zfcnh_oF_0ZfvZ] )mmjpnoYmZmcnYmE]Y 2++ Y ko 2o
H Pjcm nji hZic‘_no_ mjpm pi ijpq_Zp mjhZi )2+iH?Y mZmcnY KcipcoY
n;mcoclp_ pY 2+t^o
S /0sZijp FZ[fZY Vjpq_ff_n 0]mcopm_n Z‘mc]Zci_no $jhZi]c_mn ^_ fZ /_]ji^_
h0i0mZocjiYmZmcnY@~sZmhZooZiY 2+ iY ko 2SoPjcm 0aZf_h_io ) ]_ npd_o@Zo0
Ro @Zsnjid%iZicnnjbY @_ $jhZi n ijpq_Zpp _i %‘mclp_ ‘mZi]jkbji_ -s_imc
@jk_nY/jiu@Z[jp:Zinc8oRf0h_ion^~pi_ kj0oclp_YPcff_i_pq_ ^~%n]lYmm_nn_n
Eicq_mncoZcm_n ^p/_ko_iomcjiY 2+++o
2+
Zptm0ach_n cnnpn ^_n ci^0k_i^Zi]_n8 _o npmf_ kfZi
2noufcnoclp_ -h0ocnnZa_ ^_n fZiap_n _o ^_n a_im_n q8o
0o@_ a_im_ mjhZi_nlp_ ]jhh_ i0]_nnco0
F_pti0]_nnco0n n_ njio km0n_io0_n ) :jcbcmco @~pi_
a0i0mclp_ _o f~Zpom_ _nob0oclp_o h0i0mclp_ ]Zm f_ mjhZi]c_mZ
^0]fZm0 i_ qjpfjcm 0]mcm_ lp~pi mjhZi -_i m0kjin_ ) fZ
lp_nocji kjpmlpjc i~Zqjcm kZn 0]mco pi _nnZc n8 6
Kjifcqm_ _no i0 ZqZio ojpo^~pi ^0ncm fcoo0mZcm_o*_
i_ h_ n_ioZcn kZnhjocq0 kjpm 0]mcm_ pi_ ZiZfun_
kjfcoclp_o *~Zc qjpfpnpmojpoh_ ^cnociap_m ^_ h_n
]jia0i1m_n ^_n kZun _i qjc_ ^_ ^0q_fjkk_h_io lpc
omZco_iobZ[cop_ff_h_io^_ npd_on kpm_h_io bcnojmclp_n
jp nj]cjfjaclp_no @_ a_im_ mjhZi_nlp_ _no _i]jm_ mZm_
=_i ]_ lpc ijpn ]ji]_mi_ o
mjpmlpjc f_ mjhZi n %[n_i]_ ^_ hjocqZocji kjpm
Z‘‘mjio_m pi_ ZiZfun_ kjfcoclp_Y _iqc_ ^_ n_ ^cnociap_m ^_n
mjhZi]c_mn ‘mZi]jkbji_n -_io_i^m_ kZm f) _nn_ioc_ff_h_io
Z‘mc]Zcin8 _o ^0ncm ^~ciZpapm_m pi_ omZ^cocji _i]jm_
ci_tcnoZio_ Zpt ;jhjm_n 6 ]_ff_ ^p mjhZio Ro kjpmlpjc f_
m0Zfcnh_ x ^_ptc1h_ i0]_nnco0 n F_pt m0kjin_n k_pq_io n_
^0aZa_m 6 kjpm pi_ mZcnji k_mnjii_ff_x f_ m0Zfcnh_ _no pi_
_nob0oclp_ lpc fpc kfZ6oo @~Zpom_ mZcnji kjpmmZco 2om_ _tomZd
k_mnjii_ff_ 6 f~_nob0oclp_ m0Zfcno_ fpc _no chkjn0_ kZm f_ ]jpmn
^_n ]bjn_n ]Zm jmcaci_ff_h_io n )q? f_ m0Zfcnh_ iZ6o ^~pi_
lp_nocji kjn0_ kZm f~scnojcm_o @~wpqm_ m0Zfcno_ q_po
]jhkm_i^m_ ]_ lpc Zmmcq_o )q? pi_ ijpq_ff_ nj]c0o0 qc_io
2~[c^oY ko =&d=2o
= ;bmcnoci_ P1q_ _o KjbZh_^ :jcbcmcY _iom_oc_iY n@_km_hc_mmjhZi
]jhjmc_i _i ‘mZi/Zcn pY Rfco_d%‘mclp_Y &Y 2+ i Y ko iSdiio @_ iph0mj _no
ciomjpqZ[f_ Zpdjpm^~bpc hZcn ji k_po ]jinpfo_m f~_iom_oc_i npm
book6zzssso]jhjm_ndjifci_o]jhzhs_vci_ozfcoo_mZmopm_zojcbcmcoboho
=&^~ZkkZmZ6om_Y ^jio f_ ‘ji]ocjii_h_io _no )0]fZcm]cmo Ei
ijpq_Zp hji^_ n~_no ]jinocop0 _o Zq_] fpc pi_ ijpq_ff_
hZic1m_ ^_ k_m]_qjcm _o ^_ m_km0n_io_m f_ m0_fo )q?@Z o*]b_
2^p m0Zfcno_ n_mZ ^_ k_in_m ]_oo_ ncopZocji ci0^co_ )q? po;~_no
dpno_h_io ]_ lpc Zmmcq_ ) :jcbcmc 6 cf Zqjpfp m_i^m_
cio_ffcac[f_n f_n [jpf_q_mn_h_ion nj]cZpt _o bcnojmclp_n
lp~jio q0]pn f_n ;jhjm_n ^_ 2+t^ ) 2++ 6 m0qjfpocji
^~cinkcmZocji hZmtcno_ -2+t^d2+t8 ) fZlp_ff_Znp]]0^0 pi_
^c]oZopm_ ]jin_mqZomc]_ _o n_hcdfc[0mZf_ npmf_ kfZi
0]jijhclp_ -2+td2+ +8o %pom_h_io ^coY ]b_v :jcbcmcY f_
m0Zfcnh_ _no Zpnnc [c_i pi_ _nob0oclp_ lp~pi_ kmZahZoclp_o
;oEi_ ^ch_incji ^j]ph_ioZcm_
n@_ mjhZiY 0]mco mbcfckk_ Fp‘jpmY ^cZfjap_ Zq_] f_n
nZqjcmno ~f f_n ciqjlp_Y cf ]Zflp_ f_pm ^0hZm]b_Y ^Zin nZ
a_i1n_Y ^Zin nji 0]mcopm_o )q?@_mjhZin_ mZia_ kZmhcf_n
nZqjcmnY kZm]_ lp~cf _noch_ Zqjcm ) _tkfjm_m pi ]bZhk ^0fZcnn0 kZm
=f_n n]c_i]_no ~f _io_i^ ]jh[f_m pi_ fZ]pi_ o p bi ]mjcmZco lp_ ]_oo_
m_hZmlp_ Z 0o0 ‘jmhpf0_ nk0]cZf_h_io kjpm f_ mjhZi
ojcbcmc_iQ bpco ;Zm ]_ ^_mic_m ]jhkm_i^ 0aZf_h_io pi_
^ch_incji ]fZcm_h_io ^j]ph_ioZcm_6 f_ mjhZi]c_m q_po ‘Zcm_
^0]jpqmcm Zpt f_]o_pmnnji kZun pi k_p ]jhh_ x
]jhkZmZcnji omjk ‘Z]cf_Q x f_ apc^_ ‘Zco ^0]jpqmcm ) n_n
ojpmcno_n f_n nco_n bcnojmclp_n _o Zm]b0jfjaclp_no mjpm 2om_
kfpn n0mc_ptY f_ mjhZi]c_m n~_no ‘Zco _obijfjap_ _o nj]cjfjap_
^_ nZ kmjkm_ nj]c0o0o mZm kfZcncm hZcn Zpnnc kZm ^_qjcm ]Zm )
]_oo_ 0kjlp_ f_n 0op^_n npm f_n ;jhjm_n hZilpZc_io
]mp_ff_h_io -f~0]mcopm_ ^_ @Z $0kp[fclp_ Z ]jhh_i]0 Zp
^0[po ^_ f~Zii0_ 2+ =8o @_n ;jhjm_n i_ m_km0n_ioZc_io kZn
Zfjmnpi ^0n_mo 0kcno0hjfjaclp_ hZcnji i~_i 0oZco qmZch_io
kZn fjcio xp_flp_n 0op^_n _tcnoZc_io ]_k_i^Zio npm]_ kZun
m_f_qZio ^_ omjcn ]Zo0ajmc_n ^~Zpo_pmn^c‘‘0m_io_no ;_ff_n
2mbcfckk_Fp‘jpmY@_$0Zfcnh_oF_0ZfvZ] )mmjpnoY jko ]cooY ko tdo
=~[c^oY ko 2&to;~_no hjc lpc njpfcai_o
=2
kmj^pco_n kZm ^_n ‘ji]ocjiiZcm_n ]jfjicZptY ]_ff_n 0]mco_n kZm
fZ ijpq_ff_ 0fco_ ]jhjmc_ii_ ‘mZ6]b_h_io njmoc_ ^_
f~picq_mnco0 ‘mZi/Zcn_ _o ]_ff_nY iji hjcin ijh[m_pn_nY
kp[fc0_n kZm ^_n]mZi/Zcn nk0]cZfcno_n ^_n;jhjm_no
Ei k_p ^_ ipZi]_ ojpo ^_ h2h_o @_ mjhZi]c_m i_ n_
q_po kZn n_pf_h_io apc^_ ojpmcnoclp_ B cf n_ q_po Zpnnc _o
npmojpo 0]mcqZci ^_ f~c^_ioco0 iZocjiZf_o *_ f_ mZkk_ff_ 6 f_n
;jhjm_n i~jio Z]]0^0 ) fZ njpq_mZci_o0 cio_miZocjiZf_ lp~_i
2+t^o ;~_no^ji] pi kZun ijpq_Zp ) fZ m_]b_m]b_ ^_ nji
c^_ioco0o :jcbcmc Z nZcnc f~_id_p _i ‘ZcnZio ^_ nji mjhZi
f~_nkZ]_ ^~_tkm_nncji ^_ ]_ff_d]co Pjfjio0 ^_ mZkk_f jp ^_
n ‘ctZocji p -nc oZio _no lp~ji kpcnn_ kZmf_m ^_ ‘ctZocji ^~pi_
c^_ioco08 ZqZio nji ci0fp]oZ[f_ omZin‘jmhZocji n %ii_dKZmc_
:bc_nn_Z‘Zco m_hZmlp_m lp~pi_ iZocji ^cai_ ^_ ]_ ijh ^jco
km0n_io_m pi_ fcno_ ^~0f0h_ion nuh[jfclp_n _o hZo0mc_fn 6
)q? pi_ bcnojcm_ 0oZ[fcnnZio fZ ]jiocipco0 Zq_]
f_namZi^n Zi]2om_nY pi_ n0mc_ ^_ b0mjn kZmZiajin
^_nq_mopniZocjiZf_nY pi_ fZiap_Y ^_n hjiph_ion
]pfopm_fnY pi ‘jfefjm_Y ^_n bZpon fc_pt _o pi kZunZa_
oukclp_Y pi_ h_ioZfco0 kZmoc]pfc1m_Y ^_n
m_km0n_ioZocjin j‘‘c]c_ff_n x buhi_ _o ^mZk_Zpx _o ^_n
c^_ioc‘c]Zocjin kcoojm_nlp_n x ]jnoph_Y
2nk0]cZfco0n ]pfciZcm_n jp ZichZf _h[f0hZoclp_ o
Rb [c_i KjbZh_^ :jcbcmc lpcY ^Zin f_nkZa_n
km0fchciZcm_n ^_ nZ ob1n_Y _i]jpmZa_ n )q? ojpn ]_pt lpc
j_pqm_io) f~Zq1i_h_io Zpt;jhjm_n ^~pi_ nj]c0o0 ijpq_ff_
=_o h_cff_pm_ )q? pY Zpom_h_io ^co Zpt [*ocnn_pmn ^p ijpq_Zp
kZunY ^0ncm_ Zkkjmo_m nZ kc_mm_ ) ]_oo_ ]jinomp]ocjiY _i n_
2 %ii_dKZmc_ :bc_nn_Y @Z ;m0Zocji^_n c^_ioco0n iZocjiZf_no Rpmjk_ fP~~~_d
ff_ nc1]f_ )2+++?Y mZmcnY /_pcfY nmjcion scnojcm_ pY =&&2Y ko 2So ;~_no hjc
lpc njpfcai_o
=KjbZh_^:jcbcmcY @_n @poo_n ^_ ]fZnn_ ^Zin f~wpqm_ ^_/_h[_i_bpnhZi_Y jko
]cooY ko So
==]bZma_Zio ^~0]mcm_ f~c^_ioco0 ^_ ]_ kZuno ~fn_ n_mqcmZ ^_n
hpfockf_n kjnnc[cfco0nlp~j‘‘m_ f_ mjhZi kjpm 0]mcm_ ]_ lp_
s_imc Kcoo_mZi^Y Zkm1n f_n Ziobmjkjfjap_nY Zkk_ff_ f_n
n hZic1m_n p ^_ fZ nj]c0o0 ]jhjmc_ii_ 6
)q? hZic1m_n ^p a_no_ _o hZic1m_n ^p fZiaZa_Y
hZic1m_n ^_ n_ q2ocmY ^_ hZia_mY ^~bZ[co_mY hZic1m_n ^_
omZqZcf _o hZic1m_n ^_ fcoY hZic1m_n ^_ fZ ‘2o_ _o
hZic1m_n ^_ fZ hjmoY hZic1m_n ^_ ]jio_m _o
^~Zmaph_io_mY hZic1m_n ^_ ]j^_Y hZic1m_n ^_ mco_nY
hZic1m_n ^_ omZinam_nncjiY hZic1m_n ^_ m0km_nncjiY
2hZic1m_n ^_ m0]jhk_in_nq
;_ ‘ZcnZioY f_ mjhZi]c_m Znncai_ ) fZ fcoo0mZopm_ pi m<f_
lp~ji fpc ]jiiZ6o ‘jmo [c_i 6 m_in_cai_m npm f_n ^cq_mn_n
nj]c0o0n ^Zinf_nlp_ff_n_ff_ iZ6o jp ^jio _ff_ q_po kZmf_m
]jhh_ f_ mZkk_ff_mZpf00ic]bjp cio_mmja0 kZm:j^jmjq 6
% ]<o0 ^_n wpqm_nY ijpn fcnjin ^_n omZco0n ^_ hjmZf_
_o ^_ ]cqcfco0Y ^_n ]Zbc_mn ^_ ijo_nY ^_n h0hjcm_nY ^_n
]jmm_nkji^Zi]_nY ^_n ^cn]jpmn kjfcoclp_nY ^_n
]bmjiclp_nY _i pi hjo ^_njpqmZa_nkfpn jp hjcin
kmj]b_n ^_ fZ fcoo0mZopm_ jp 0omZia_mn ) _ff_Y lpcY _i
lpZioco0 ]jinc^0mZ[f_Y ijpn m_in_cai_io npm fZ ‘Z/ji
^jio ji qcqZco _o k_inZco ) pi_ 0kjlp_o Vjpn
qjp^mcjin [c_i 2om_ m_in_cai0n ^_ ‘Z/ji kfpn qZno_ _o
kfpn ]jhkf1o_ npm f~0oZo ^_n _nkmconY) o_f hjh_ioY ^_
]bZ]pi_^_n m0acjin ^_ fZ nj]c0o0oKZcn ijpn f_ njhh_n
hZfo )q? fZ ^j]ph_ioZocji lp_ ‘jpmicnn_io ) ]_o
0aZm^ f_n wpqm_n fcoo0mZcm_n _ff_ndh2h_n _no dpnlp~)
2s_imcKcoo_mZi^Y@_Fcn]jpmn^pmjhZiYmZmcnYmE]Y nR]mcopm_ pY 2+ &Y ko
d+o
=H
ijpq_f jm^m_ ^_ [_Zp]jpk fZ kfpn mc]b_ _o fZ kfpn
2ncaic‘c]Zocq_ o
2:vq_oZi:j^jmjqY;mcoclp_ ^_ fZ ]mcoclp_omZmcnY/_pcfY 2+ S Y ko 2^^d2^io~~o@Z k_ciopm_ ^_n n hZic1m_n p
%oKZic1m_ ^_ -n_8 h0fZia_m
2o@Z kjkpfZocji
sZ7^Zm _orZnhci_ n_kmjh1i_io _i Zhjpm_pt Zp hZm]b0
^_ KjmjicY ]ZkcoZf_ ^p kZun _o cfn 6 n )q? 0oZc_io npmojpo
‘mZkk0nkZm fZ ^cq_mnco0 ^_ ]jpf_pmn^_n a_ino ;~_nopi_
‘cff_oo_ ^~pi ijcm ZiobmZ]co_ Zp i_v _o Zpt ]b_q_pt
Z[unncic_ino;_ ^cZhZio ijcm ]Z]b_ nZ ip[cf_ [_Zpo0 ^Zin f_n
bZm^_no ;~_no pi_ ]jhjmc_ii_o ~]c ]~_no pi amZi^ ^cZ[f_ Zpt
omZcon [Ziojpno ;~_no pi ;jhjmc_i po mfpn fjci 6 n;_oo_
‘_hh_ fZiajpm_pn_ _i ]bcmjhZic ) fZ k_Zp om1n]fZcm_ Zpt
omZcon ]bcmZvc_in Zq_] ^p dZnhci npmf_n ]b_q_pt )q?Y ]~_no
pi_ ;jhjmc_ii_o@Z ^Zh_ lpc q_i^ ^p ]bZm[ji _o ^jio f_n
omZcon mZkk_ff_io ]_pt ^_nZmu_inbci^jpt _no pi_
;jhjmc_ii_o ;_ d_pi_ aZm/ji Zpt omZcon ci^ji0nc_in _o Zpt
u_pthZfZcn _no pi ;jhjmc_io ;_ hjinc_pm ^cai_ lpc kZnn_
_o m_nn_h[fZio ]jhh_ pi ‘m1m_ Zp mjc ]Zb^^~%mZ[c__no pi
;jhjmc_io ;_oo_ k_oco_ ]bZkZm^_pn_ ^_ hZiap_n _i bZcffjin
_o Zpt u_pt 0ojiiZhh_io [f_pn _o Zpt ]b_q_pt ^_ Pcecian
_no pi_;jhjmc_ii_o:jpo ]_ h_fociadkjo n_ ]<ojc_ ^Zin pi_
2]ji‘mZo_mico0 bZmhjic_pn_xKjmjic 0Z[ufji_ op ;~_no lp_Y
jmcaci_ff_h_ioY nZin pi_ ]_mocop^_ ^_ fZ ^ZoZocjiY f_n
;jhjm_n jio 0o0 np]]_nncq_h_io k_pkf0n kZm ^_n %mZ[_n
-P~~~1h_nc1]f_8Y ^_n %‘mc]Zcin -k_p^_o_hkn Zkm1n f_n
%mZ[_n8Y ^_n ;bcmZvc_in -) k_p km1nZp f~ 1h_ nc1]f_8Y ^_n
mjmopaZcn -fP~1h_ nc1]f_8Y ^_n KZfaZ]b_n -dpno_ Zkm1nf_n
=mjmopaZcn8Y ^_n~i^c_in _o ^_ kfpnc_pmnZpom_nRpmjk0_in o
2 KjbZh_^ :jcbcmcY @Z $0kp[fclp_ ^_n ~h[_m[_nY jko ]cooY ko 2=Sd2=^o
F0njmhZcn@Z$0kp[fclp_o
= %f‘m_^ h_qm_uY RnnZc npm f_n ;jhjm_n )2 t &?YKZhjp^vjp )KZujoo_?Y R^o
^p0Zj[Z[Y 2++tY ko SSdS o
=^mmcn_ ^Zinnji _in_h[f_Y j[n_mq_ %f‘m_^ h_qm_u Zp
f~f1h_ nc1]f_Y fZ kjkpfZocji ]jhjmc_ii_ n_ ]ZmZ]o0mcnZco kZm
lpZom_ amZi^n ouk_n 6 f_n %ioZfjo_nY f_n ;Z‘m_nY f_nKZfaZ]b_n
2_o f_n%mZ[_n o
%q_] f_ o_hknY ojpo_n f_n kjkpfZocjin n_ njio [c_i
h0fZia0_n Zp kjcio ^_ kmj^pcm_ pi q0mcoZ[f_[mZnnZa_
_obiclp_ lpc ]ZmZ]o0mcn_ Zpdjpm^~bpc fZ kjkpfZocji
]jhjmc_ii_o Ei [mZnnZa_ lp_ f_ mjhZi]c_m km_i^ njci ^_
ncaiZf_mo Ri _‘‘_oY ]~_no[c_i ]_ lp~cf ‘Zpo qjcm lpZi^ cf
ci‘jmh_ f_ f_]o_pm lp_ f_ k_pkf_ ]jhjmc_i _no pi k_pkf_
n Z‘mZnc_i p6 n@~%‘mclp_ _o f~%nc_n~unjio ‘ji^p_n kjpm
‘jmh_m ]_ k_pkf_ kZn ojpo) ‘Zco ZmZ[_ ic ojpo ) ‘Zco Z‘mc]Zci _o
=kjpmoZio ZmZ[_ _o Z‘mc]Zci o p
%pom_ ‘Z]o_pm ^~bu[mc^Zocji 6 fZ ]jfjicnZocji ‘mZi/Zcn_o
@~R]jf_ Z Zkkjmo0 pi_ ]_moZci_ ‘mZi]cnZocji ^_ fZ nj]c0o0
]jhjmc_ii_ lpc n~_nokZmZ^jtZf_h_io cio_inc‘c0_ Zkm1n
f~ci^0k_i^Zi]_ kjpm kfpnc_pmn mZcnjino F~Z[jm^
f~ci^0k_i^Zi]_ Z 0o0 ) f~jmcaci_ ^~pi_ m_fZocq_
H^0hj]mZocnZocji ^_ f~0]jf_ Y fZlp_ff_Zhj^c‘c0 _i kmj‘ji^_pm
f~_nkmco ^_n d_pi_n a0i0mZocjin _o f_pmn k_m]_kocjin ^p hji^_
_o ]ji]jpmp ‘jmo_h_io ) fZ ]m0jfcnZocji ^_ fZ fZiap_
]jhjmc_ii_o Rinpco_Y f~ciomj^p]ocji ^_ fZ o0f0qcncji ^Zin f_n
‘ju_mn]jhjmc_in Z jpq_mof_ kZun npmf_ hji^_Y _o
nciapfc1m_h_ioY npm fZ ]mZi]_o Ri‘ci f~chhcamZocji
]jhjmc_ii_ ^Zin ]_ kZun Z]jiomc[p0 Zp hjpq_h_io ^_
h0ocnnZa_ 6 _i ^joZio f_n ‘Zhcff_n m_no0_n Zpt ;jhjm_n ^_
kmj^pcon ‘mZi/Zcn x ]pfopm_fn _o ^_ ]jinjhhZocji
-0f_]omjh0iZa_mnY q_noch_ioZcm_nq8Y _ff_ ZkZmoc]ck0 Zp
]bZia_h_io ^_ h_ioZfco0no
2~[c^oY ko S d^H o
=KjbZh_^:jcbcmcY@Z$0kp[fclp_Y jko ]cooY ko 2==o
H ~f uZqZco k_i^Zio fZ ]jfjicnZocji k_p^~0]jf_nZpt ;jhjm_nY qjcm
KZbhjp^ ~[mZbch_Y RoZo ‘mZi/Zcn _o ]jfjin Zpt ;jhjm_n -2+2=d2+Si8YmZmcnY
@~sZmhZooZiY n%m]bck_f ^_n;jhjm_n pY 2++tY ko 2&2d2&+o
=i