Cet ouvrage et des milliers d'autres font partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour les lire en ligne
On lit avec un ordinateur, une tablette ou son smartphone (streaming)
En savoir plus
ou
Achetez pour : 21,75 €

Lecture en ligne (cet ouvrage ne se télécharge pas)

Partagez cette publication

@R :s$0:$R ]%;R %EmbEPb~$

;bmjiclp_n ^~pi_ m_fZocji jmZa_pn_
-2+i^x2+S8

$_i0_ /%E$R@

@R:s$0:$R ]%;R %EmbEPb~$

;bmjiclp_n ^~pi_ m_fZocji jmZa_pn_

2+i^d2+S

mm0`Z]_ _o ijo_n kZm

$j[_mo%0~$%;sRF

@~s%$K%::%V

:s$0:$R 6

bEP$%hR/FEK3KR %E:RE$

$RV$R/%E$R@ -2+2&d2+8

Rop^_ bcnojmclp_ 6
@_:b0*om_ Zff_hZi^ ]jio_hkjmZciod mZmcn6 @Z$_iZcnnZi]_ ^p fcqm_Yf+t^od +kod ;jff_]ocji
FcjiunjnYk_oco_ _i]u]fjk0^c_ ^p ob0*om_o
scnojcm_ ^p ob0*om_ Zff_hZi^ ^_2+=& ) 2+t&o

mc1]_ ^_ ob0*om_ 6
@Z]1q_ ijcm_od Fc``pn0_ kZm]mZi]_d;pfopm_ _i2+t=o

:mZ^p]ocjin _o Z^ZkoZocjin 6
@ZVpco~oZfc_ii_Ynpcqc ^_;_io ]cilpZio_ hZmen_o ^_Fji*pZi m_qc_io ^_ ap_mm_z &^=i
qjisjmqZobY omZ^o^_ f~Zff_hZi^ kZm$_i0_/Zpm_fod mZmcn6 hZffchZm^Y 2+itod =i=kod ;jffo Fp
Kji^_ _ioc_mo -;_io ]cilpZio_ hZmen_no kZm`jcn ciocopf0_@Z]jcYf~_nk0mZi]_ _o fZ ]bZmco0o8

:mZ^p]ocjin iji0^co0_n6
;Znchcm _o;Zmjfci_z&^=i qjisjmqZobY omZ^o $_i0_/Zpm_fo
0_fq0^1m_z&^=i qjisjmqZobY omZ^o $_i0_/Zpm_fo -Zpom_ ocom_6s<o_f0_ff_qp_8o
scnojcm_n ^_ fZ `jm2o qc_iijcn_z &^=i qjisjmqZobY omZ^o $_i0_/Zpm_fo

mm_nn_Ym_qp_n _o _i]u]fjk0^c_n 6
%moc]f_n jp ]bmjiclp_n ^Zin f_n lpjoc^c_in jp b_[^jhZ^Zcm_n6;jh[Zo-hZmn2+Stddpci2+^28Y
@~Rtkm_nn-2+^Sd2+^^8Y@~~i`jmhZocji-dZiqc_m2+^tddpci2+^8Y@_n@_oom_n `mZi/Zcn_n
-]mcoclp_ ^mZhZoclp_ ^_2+^i ) 2+ii_o ]mcoclp_^_ mZ^cj _o ^_ o0f0qcncji ^_2+iH ) 2+t=8o
;mcoclp_n ^mZhZoclp_n h_inp_ff_n ^Zin fZ m_qp_@_n :_hkn hj^_mi_n-2+^= ) 2+S8o
mfpnc_pmn Zmoc]f_n npm f_ ob0*om_ kp[fc0n ^Zin@~Ri]u]fjk_^cZ Eicq_mnZfcnY^jio6&^=i qji
sjmqZobYRpa_icj0Zm[Z _ob^ci :_Zom_o-2+H8

%^ZkoZocjin kjpm]mZi]_d;pfopm_ 6
F_2+S^ ) 2+iH6Z^ZkoZocjin ^_;Znchcm _o;Zmjfci_Y0_fq0^1m_-jps<o_f0_ff_qp_8_o
scnojcm_n ^_ fZ `jm2o qc_iijcn_^_ &^=i qjisjmqZobY@ZVpco Zq_pafZio_Y ^~%i^m0 ^_
$c]bZp^Y@_;bmcno m_]mp]c`c0Y ^_Vcejn5ZvZiovZecYF_pt bjhh_n Zp k_oco ^0d_pi_m-jp
@cfcob jp fZ ]jh0^c_ii_ kmcn_)nji d_p8 ^_5Zmf[cofcia_mo

R//%~/6

@~Rio_mm0_ qcq_6_nnZc npm f_n hpocfZocjin n_tp_ff_n `0hcici_no mm0` ^_/chji_ ^_0_Zpqjcmod
h_i1q_dmZmcn6 /fZoeci_Y 2+2od H2=kod
$0chkm_nncji ^_n Zmoc]f_n kZmpn ^Zin fZ m_qp_@_n:_hknKj^_mi_nY 2+t+d2+&o
0jp]b_n ]jpnp_n6f_n hpocfZocjin n_tp_ff_n `0hcici_n _o f_ hcfc_p h0^c]Zfod mZmcn6 :c_m]_Y
2+^od Hikod;jff_]ocji `_hh_n _o nj]c0o0od

mm0`Z]_

/bKK%~$R

2+i^d2+it

:b0*om_ kmcq0 _o ob0*om_ kp[fc]
@Zm0`jmh_ ^_ f~Zc^_ Zp ob0*om_ kmcq0

@Z ^0]_iomZfcnZocji _i ^Zia_m
Ei_ m0pnnco_ h_iZ]0_

s fZ m_]b_m]b_ ^p ob0*om_ k_m^p
KpoZocjin ^p ob0*om_ kZmcnc_io0Zm[Z _ohmjojsnec

Ei hZf_io_i^p _o pi kZmZ^jt_
;jifco) /oRoc_ii_o @_n nk_]oZ]f_n ^_ f~RoZia ^_ 0_mm_

@_ ]ji]jpmn ^_n d_pi_n ]jhkZaic_n
@_ ^_mic_m ]ji]jpmn-2+it8

2+id2+t&

@~$oZo `Z]_ Zp ob0*om_
@Z ob1n_ ^_ *Z]e @Ziao@~0*qc]ocji ^_od@o0ZmmZpfo

Ei_ hZpqZcn_ j^_pm ^_ 0ZndRhkcm_
@~Z``Zcm_hZooco $_ojpm npm f~0kcnj^_ 0jcnZia_m)fZ
;jh0^c_d]mZi/Zcn_

ko 22

ko 2+

ko =t

ko H2

ko S2

ko S+

ko i2

ko it

@_hjinom_ `mjc^ _o f_ ob0*om_ -~8
@_ob0*om_ kZpqm_ n_fjiKo Kc]b_f_oo ;jiom_ f_ ^cmcacnh_

@_ hjinom_ `mjc^ _o f_ ob0*om_ -~~8
K_iZ]_n npm f_ *_pi_:b0*om_o@_ ob0*om_ _nodcf i0]_nnZcm_n

@_ hjinom_ `mjc^ _o f_ ob0*om_ -~~~8
/copZocji [fjlp0_) /odF_icn-:b0*om_h0mZm^dmbcfck_8

2+tHd2+&

F_ic_mn kp[fc]n jp ]Znn_oo_ mjuZf_ -~8
@_ *_pi_:b0*om_ Znkbutc0o@cqm_ [fZi] ^_ f~%*:

F_ic_mn kp[fc]n jp ]Znn_oo_ mjuZf_n-~~8
@_:b0*om_ ^p/jf_cfo@_ [p^a_o hcicno0mc_f

:copnFmpjipn Zm[co_m cio_ffca_ioncZ_
@_ hcicno1m_Fmpji

FmpjiZ^_n )%ii_]u
Pc_ _o hjmo ^p:b0*om_ $]fZo0o0pff^jv_mno h0a1i_-~ji_n]j8o
@~EF$cio_mkm1o_ ^_ KoFmpji

KZfobpncZicnh_Y Zm[comZcm_ _o km_noc^cacoZocji -~8
@_n hZnlp_n ^p fc[0mZfcnh_o@_ [p^a_o2+tt

KZfobpncZicnh_Y Zm[comZcm_ _o km_noc^cacoZocji -~~8
@~Zc^_ Zpt d_pi_n ]jhkZaic_n-[p^a_o2+ttYnpco_8

Ei ob0*om_ kjpm fZ]mZi]c_ooZ
/pm f_ mZkkjmo ^_mc_mm_ Fpt Zp ;jin_cf0]jijhclp_ _o nj]cZfY]ji]_miZio
f_n^0q_fjkk_h_io ^_n Z]ocqco0n ob0*omZf_np -j]oj[m_2+tt8

ko tH

k 2

ko +2

ko ++

ko 222

ko 2=H

ko 2H^

ko 2S^

ko 2^t

k 2i+

;pfocq_vdqjpnYf_ amZi^ ]ZkcoZf `_mZ f_ m_no_-~8
@_ ]caZmj _o fZ fc[_mo0^_ fZ]pfopm_o @_ hcicno1m_@_]Zoo @_ ob0*om_ _o
f~$^p]Zocji iZocjiZf_

;pfocq_vdqjpnYf_ amZi^ ]ZkcoZf `_mZ f_ m_no_-~~8
:b0*om_ _o$^p]Zocji iZocjiZf_-npco_8o @Z kjfcoclp_ ]pfopm_ff_ n_fji fZ
^mjco_ _o fZ aZp]b_-)kmjkjn ^~pi_ _ilp2o_ ZqZio f_n0f_]ocjin8

Ko sjnn_ciYbuk_mdhZm]b0 ^_ fZ njpnd]pfopm_

;bmjiclp_ nc]cfc_ii_6Zq_]b^ci _o f_:_Zomj fc[_mj
@_ oc_mndob0*om_o FcZfjap_ Zq_] 0m_]bo Zkm1n nZ hjmo

2+S

ko 2H

ko 2++

ko =22

ko ==+

;_i^m_n `_mocf_n ^_$ja_m0fci jpmZqZi_ kjpm pi_ 0obclp_
^0`pio_n-~8
@_nijpq_Zp ob0*om_po /omci^[_mao%^Zhjqo%moZp^ko =SH

;_i^m_n `_mocf_n ^_$ja_m0fci jpmZqZi_ kjpm pi_ 0obclp_
^0`pio_n-~~8
@_ ob0*om_ _o f~Zma_ioo%^Zhjq _i]jm_o h_i_oko =i2

0cjamZkbc_

~i^_t

ko =t^

ko =tt

m$$]%;R

@jmnlp~_ff_ ciZpapm_ _i2+^=nZ ]jffZ[jmZocji Zq_]@_n:_hkn hj^_mi_nY
$_i0_/Zpm_f _no pi_ [_ff_ amZi^_ `_hh_Y )fZ lpZmZioZci_ mZujiiZio_Y
Zoo_iocq_ Zp hji^_ _o qjfjioc_mn cmjiclp_Y]jhh_ kjpm Z^jp]cm ]_
lp~ZqZco ^~Z[njfp nji ciomZinca_Zi]_ `Z]_ Zpt ]jhkjmo_h_ion ^_n
bjhh_nY )fZ hZm]b_ ^_n0q0i_h_ion _o)f~jm^m_ ^_n ]bjn_no0jii_
a_mhZicno_Y^jo0_ ^~pi_ njfc^_ ]pfopm_Y_ff_ n~0oZco Zap_mmc_ _i n~j]]pkZio
^~ci`jmhZocji ]pfopm_ff_ _o ^_ ]mcoclp_ ^mZhZoclp_ ^Zin kfpnc_pmn
djpmiZpt _oY`Zco _i]jm_ mZm_)f~0kjlp_Y_i o_iZio k_i^Zio n_ko Zin pi_
]bmjiclp_ ]jinZ]m0_)fZ mZ^cj _o)fZ o0f0qcncji ^Zin@_n@_oom_n `mZi/Zcn_nY
npm f"cinocaZocji ^~%mZajioRff_ Z[jm^_ nji omZqZcf ^Zin fZ m_qp_ ^_ *_Zid
mZpf/Zmom_ _i n_ ]jinZ]mZio k_i^Zio f_n km_hc1m_n Zii0_n)pi_ ZiZfun_
hcipoc_pn_ _o `jpcff0_ ^_nwpqm_n _o ^_ f_pm hcn_ _i n]1i_Y^_mcmZi^_ffj
) /omci^[_ma _o ^_@jm]Z)%p^c[_mocYZq_] pi_ ^cf_]ocji kZmoc]pfc1m_ kjpm
f_n ijpq_Zpt Zpo_pmno;~_no Zpojpm ^_2+i^Y )fcm_ n_n ]bmjiclp_nYlp_ n_
^0]fZm_ nji cio0m2o kjpm f_n Znk_]on cinocopocjii_fn _o kjfcoclp_n ^_ fZ qc_
^p ob0*om_6 )kZmocm ^_ f)Y_ff_ Zfo_mi_mZ ]mcoclp_ ^mZhZoclp_ _o ^0[Zon
kjfcoclp_n _o nj]cZptY^~ZpoZio hc_pt ci`jmh0_ npm f~Z]ocji ^_ f~$oZo _o npm
fZ ncopZocji ^p hji^_ ob0*omZf lp~_ff_ Z0o0ijhh0_ _i2+^Hh_h[m_ ^_
fZ ]jhhcnncji ]jinpfoZocq_ ^~Zc^_ Zpt ZichZo_pmnoRff_ u Z djp0pi m<f_
_nn_ioc_f dpnlp~_i2+tHY]jinoZhh_io npm fZ [m1]b_Y 0kfp]bZio
chkcojuZ[f_h_io ^j]ph_ion _o ^0]fZmZocjinY`_mmZcffZio ]jiom_ f_n
ci]jb0np]]_nnc`nm_i]_n _o f_n chkmjqcnZocjin ^_n ajpq_miZionYZoo_iocq_
Zpt ]jhkZaic_n _o Zpt ]jh0^c_inYkmjo0a_Zio ^_ ojpo_n n_n `jm]_n f_n
a0i0mZocjin hjioZio_n ^p *_pi_:b0*om_oRff_ m_km_i^mZ nZ fc[_mo0njpn f_
hcicno1m_ ^_ KZpmc]_FmpjiYnZin Zoo_i^m_ fZ `Zh_pn_ ^0]fZmZocji j@ cf
ZffZco Z]]pn_m f_n Zmocno_n ^_ n_ km0n_io_m Zpt apc]b_on ^_ nji
Z^hcicnomZocji pi_ n0[cf_ ^Zin pi_ hZci _o pi ]j]eoZcf Kjfjojq ^Zin
f~Zpom_o

11

$_i0_/Zpm_f kjpqZcod_ff_ n_ ^jpo_m lp_ nji _iom0_ Zpt:_hkn hj^_mi_n
ZffZco kmj^pcm_ Zp `cf ^_n hjcn pi_wpqm_ ]mcoclp_ hjiph_ioZf_Ylpc i~Z
_
kZn [_Zp]jpk ^~0lpcqZf_ion ^Zin fZ n_]ji^_ hjcoc0^pffnc1]f_n Ri
om_io_d^_pt Zin ^_ ]jiomc[pocjin h_inp_ff_n ^_ kfpn _i kfpn mc]b_n _
jpmic_n-Zkm1n Zqjcm ^0[po0ncjn_plmo_^]b_onicmjZ]^q_)nct kZa_nY_ff_
fcqmZ ^_n Zmoc]f_nd`f_pq_n lpc n~0o_i^Zc_io npm qciao jp qciaod]cil kZa_n8Y
_ff_ ^_qcio nZin Zqjcm f~Zcm ^~u ojp]b_m f~pi ^_n o0hjcin f_n kfpn _tbZpnoc`n
^_ fZ qc_ ^p ob0*om_ `mZi/Zcn ^_n Zii0_n ]cilpZio_ ) lpZom_dqciaoYZq_] ^_n
qp_n npm f~Rpmjk_ ^_ kfpn _i kfpn fZma_n _o `jpcff0_no /_n ZiZfun_n i~0oZc_io
kZn n_pf_h_io ^~pi_ km0]cncji npk_m[_Y 0]mco_n ^~pi_ kfph_ Zf_mo_
ji^0_n npm pi qZno_ nZqjcm _o pi _tY]_kocjii_f ^ji ^~j[n_mqZocji6_ff_ Z
_p fZ ]bZi]_ ^_ kjpqjcm f_n0h_oom_ ^_kpcn pi [_fq0^1m_ nZin kZm_cfY^~j@
_ff_ kjpqZco n~_tkmch_m Zq_] pi_ ojoZf_ fc[_mo0Y _i _i]bZ6iZio ]jhh_ _ff_
f~_io_i^Zco ]jhko_ndm_i^pnYkjmomZconYoZ[f_ZptYnZin dZhZcn ]0^_m Zpt
hj^_no~hkcojuZ[f_)f~0oZfZa_ ^_n qZico0n _o Zpt ]jhkmjhcnncjin kfpn
jp hjcin `_pom0_nYZfo_miZio n_fji f~bph_pm Zi_]^jo_nYkjcion ^~bcnojcm_Y
ZiZfun_n o_]biclp_nY_nlpcnn_n [cjamZkbclp_nYkfZc^ju_mn ojpm)ojpm
q0b0h_ion _o ]bZf_pm_ptYcf fpc ZmmcqZco Zpnnc ^_ `Zcm_ ^_ mZkc^_n Zffpncjin)
nZ kmjkm_ qc_YZam0h_io0_n ^_ m0]con ]mjlp0nnmp_fcq`
bi ZpmZ ^_qci0lp_ f~j[d_]ocqco0i~0oZco kZn f_ kmci]ckZf njp]c lpc
cinkcmZco fZ ^0hZm]b_ ]mcoclp_ ^_$_i0_/Zpm_fo /Zin mc_i ^cnnchpf_m ^_ n_n
jkcicjinYlp~_ff_ _tkmchZco kp[fclp_h_io lpZi^ cf f_ `ZffZco-_ff_ ncai_ _i
2+i&fZn F0]fZmZocji kjpm f_ ^mjco)f~cinjphcnncji _o ]jiom_ fZ ojmopm_
^Zin fZ ap_mm_ ^~%fa0mc_pY_o _i2+t2Yf_nKZic`_no_ ^_nHSH`_hh_n
kjpm f_ ^mjco)f~Zqjmo_h_iopYkZm _t_hkf_8Y_ff_ Z ojpdjpmn m_q_i^clp0f_
^mjco ^~0]mcm_ nZin m_nk_]o_m Zp]pi ^jah_Y_i ^jiiZio fc[m_ ]jpmn)n_n
n_ioch_ion _o)nji o_hk0mZh_ioYojpo nchkf_h_io kZm]_ lp_YkZmfZio ^p
ob0*om_Y_ff_ ZqZco ]jin]c_i]_ ^_ kZmf_m ^_ fZ qc_oF~j@ ^_n kjf0hclp_n
h0hjmZ[f_n -^jio pi_Y kZmoc]pfc1m_h_io qcq_Y Zq_]$ja_mmfZi]bji8Y ^_n
kmcn_n ^_ kjncocji fc[m_h_io Z``c]b0_n -_ff_ i_ qjo_ kZn kjpm;b0m_Zp Zp
]ji]jpmn ^_n d_pi_n ]jhkZaic_n ^_2+itY _i _tkfclpZio n_n m0oc]_i]_n8Y
^_n cio_mq_iocjin ^~pi_ qcmpf_i]_ _tom2h_ ]jhh_ ) f~_i]jiom_ ^_$j[_mo
sjnn_cio Ei_ n_pf_ m1af_Y^0]fciZ[f_ _i lp_flp_n Zmoc]f_n6i_ n_ fZcnn_m
`m_ci_m kZm Zp]pi oZ[jpYi_ kmZoclp_m Zp]pi_ m0q0m_i]_Ym_iji]_m Zpt
oc0^_pmn ^_ fZ kjfco_nn_Y]bZlp_ `jcn lp_ f~_nn_ioc_f kZmZ6o 2om_ hcn _i
]Zpn_o
~f `Zpo Zdjpo_m lp_/Zpm_f Z [0i0`c]c0^~pi Zojpo ci]jhkZmZ[f_Y_i
n~fZ ]mcoclp__iaZa_Zio ^Zin)pi hjh_io j@ f_ ob0*om_0oZco kmcn ^~pi_
0[pffcocji _tomZjm^ciZcm_ _o j]]pkZco _i]jm_ pi_ kfZ]_ ]_iomZf_ ^Zin fZ

12

nj]c0o0Y^_2+^& ) 2+t^o Rff_ Z ]jiip np]]_nncq_h_io f_n ^0[pon ^_ *_Zi
PcfZm Zp:VmYf_n km_hc_mn kZn ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji njpn *_Zii_
@Zpm_ioYfZ `ji^Zocji kZm%i^m0 KZfmZpt ^p hcicno1m_ ^_n%``Zcm_n
]pfopm_ff_nYf~_tk0mc_i]_ ^_nKZcnjin ^_ fZ;pfopm_Yf_n m_hjpn ^_2+iYfZ
kmcn_ ^p kjpqjcm kZm f_n h_oo_pmn _i n]1i_ ^Zin f_ ncffZa_ ^_$ja_m
mfZi]bjiYf~Zfo_miZi]_ kjfcoclp_ ^_2+2o Fp ]<o0^_ fZ ]m0Zocji ob0*omZf_Y
_ff_ Z Znncno0 )f~0h_ma_i]_ ^_0_]e_ooY^~%^ZhjqY^_h_i_oY^~~ji_n]jY
_iojpm0n ^~pi_ kf0cZ^_ ^_ ^mZhZopma_n)lpc _ff_ kjmoZco ^_ f~cio0m2oY nciji
ojpdjpmn ^_ f~_noch_oRff_ Z qp n~Z``cmh_m f_:b0*om_ ^p/jf_cfYf_n0jp``_nd
^pdVjm^YnZin ]jhko_m pi_ hpfocop^_ ^_ d_pi_n omjpk_n lpc jio Zoocm0
nji Zoo_iocji _o nZ nuhkZobc_oRo _i]jm_Y^Zin ]_ ^_hcdnc1]f_0[fjpcnnZioY
0m_]bo _o f_0_mfci_mRin_h[f_Yf_@cqcia:b_Zo_mYhmjojsnecY 5ZiojmY
FZmcj]j _o nji ]b_mRpa_icj0Zm[Zo%ojpo ]_fZY /Zpm_f Z0o0km0n_io_6
fphci_pn_Yo_i^m_ kZm`jcnYn0q1m_ lpZi^ cf f_ `ZffZcoYo_mmc[f_ lpZi^ ]~0oZco
i0]_nnZcm_oRkmjiji]ff_ i_ ^cnnchpfZco kZn f_n nuhkZobc_n0_n lp~_ff_
ZqZco)f~0aZm^ ^_ lp_flp_n d_pi_n h_oo_pmn _i n]1i_ jp Z]o_pmn lpc fpc
kZmZcnnZc_io h0mco_m m_]jiiZcnnZi]_ kp[fclp_ _o hju_in ^_ omZqZcf6kZmhc
]_n bZkku `_sY*_ZidKZmc_mZoo_Y Kc]b_fs_mhjiYFZic_f}_mecYFZic_f
Rhcf`jmeYlpc0oZc_io ojpn hpn kZm pi_ bZpo_ _tca_i]_ Zp n_mqc]_ ^p
ob0*om_o KZcnYn~cf `ZffZco ^0ncai_m ]_fpc lpcYZpt u_pt ^_/Zpm_fYZ ^jii0
f~_t_hkf_ ^_ fZ fc[_mo0^_ f~_nkmcoY^_ f~bjii2o_o0 cio_ff_]op_ff_Y ^_ fZ
kmj[co0 ^p oZf_ioY ]_ n_mZco nZin ipf ^jpo_$ja_m0fcio /_n ^_pt ^_mic_mn
Zmoc]f_n-pi_ ]cilpZioZci_ ^_ kZa_n Zp ojoZf8YkZmpn _i2+SYkjmo_io f_
ocom_0icahZoclp_ ^_;_i^m_n `_mocf_n ^_$ja_m 0fciYnpcqcYcf _no qmZcYkZm pi_
h0oZkbjm_ lpc fZcnnZco _iom_qjcm f_ k_nnchcnh_ lpc f~ZqZco nZcnc_ ^Zin f_n
^_mic1m_n Zii0_n ^_ nZ qc_6mZqZi_ kjpm pi_0obclp_ ^0`pio_n

C
C C

:jpo ]jhh_$_i0_/Zpm_f ZqZco Zoo_i^p pi_ ^jpvZci_ ^~Zii0_n ZqZio
^_ n_ fZi]_mY^Zin@_n:_hkn hj^_mi_nY^Zin pi_ ]mcoclp_ ^_ ]jh[ZoY
muobh0_ ojpo ZpoZio kZm f_n ]m0Zocjin ob0*omZf_n lp_ kZm f_n ]b_hci_h_ion
ochjm0n _o ]jiomZ^c]ojcm_n ^_ fZ kjfcoclp_ ]pfopm_ff_Y_ff_ ZffZco n_ m_ocm_m npm
fZ kjcio_ ^_n kc_^n)fZ `ci ^_n Zii0_n njctZio_d^ct ^_ fZ fpoo_ lp~_ff_ ZqZco
h_i0_ kjpm f_ ob0*om_ kp[fc] Zq_] oZio ^_ [mcj _o pi_ nc _tZ]o_ qcacfZi]_o
bi n_io hjio_m ]b_v _ff_ pi ^0nZkkjcio_h_io ]mjcnnZioY^1n f_
f_i^_hZci ^_2+i_o ^_n Znncn_n ^_Pcff_pm[Zii_Y^_qZio ]_ lp~_ff_
ZiZfun_ ]jhh_ pi mZkkmj]b_h_io ]jiom_ iZopm_ _iom_ f_n bjhh_n ^_ fZ

13

^0]_iomZfcnZocji _o f_ hcicno1m_o Rff_ n~cio_mmja_ ^_ kfpn _i kfpnY_i _``_oY
npm f_n ^Zia_mn ^_ fZ ]jffpncji _iom_ f_ ob0*om_ _o f_ kjpqjcmYojpo _i
^cnociapZio _iom_ pi_ Z^hcicnomZocji ^0qjp0_ _o ]jhk0o_io_ _o f_n
bjhh_n kjfcoclp_n lpc n_ fcqm_io f~pi Zkm1n f~Zpom_)^_ mcnc[f_n jp
^0kfjmZ[f_n hjpfci_on lpZi^ cfn njio ]bZma0n ^_ fZ ]pfopm_o~f i~_hk2]b_
lp_ ^_h_pm_ ]_oo_ lp_nocji a2iZio_6_nodji [c_i nAm lp~pi_ npd0ocji
omjk amZi^_ Zpt np[q_iocjin i_ k1n_ kZn npm fZ fc[_mo0^_ f~Zmo _o npm fZ
kpcnnZi]_ ^_ f~chZaciZcm_n V~_nod]_ kZnFZmcj]j lpc Z _p mZcnji ]jiom_
ojpn ^_ n~Z``mZi]bcm ^_ f~Zma_io kp[fc] _o ^_ `ji^_m pi_ _iom_kmcn_
^mZhZoclp_ ojoZf_h_io ci^0k_i^Zio_ ^_n kjpqjcmnn
%kZmocm ^_2+tY]_k_i^ZioYpi Zpom_ ]jh[Zo njffc]co_$_i0_/Zpm_f6
_ff_ _ioZh_ pi_ qZno_ _ilp2o_ npm f~_t]cncji _o ]jinZ]m_ kfpnc_pmn
]bmjiclp_n ^_ fZ m_qp_ Zpt hpocfZocjin n_tp_ff_n `0hcici_nY lp~_ff_ m0pico
_i pi qjfph_ _i2+2Y njpn f_ ocom_ ^_@"Rio_mm0_ qcq_o /~0fjcai_dod_ff_ ^p
ob0*om_nFcnjin kfpo<o lp~_ff_ km_i^ lp_flp_ ^cnoZi]_ Zq_] f~pojkc_
lp"_ff_ ZqZco oZio ]jiomc[p0 )^0`_i^m_6n/Zin ^jpo_ Zqjindijpn omjk
m2q0Y 0]mcod_ff_oRo m_`pn0^_ kZu_m f_ kmct ^_ fZ fc[_mo@~0o pZfo_miZi]_ ^_
2+2i~Zoocm_ kZn kfpn ^_ ]jhh_ioZcm_n ^_ nZ kZmo lp_ i_ f~ZqZco `Zco f_
m_hp_dh0iZa_ ^_2+iY )]_ qwp km1n lp~_ff_ _tkmch_ _i dpci2+2Y )fZ
q_cff_ ^_n0f_]ocjinY^_ qjcm pi_ m_nomp]opmZocji ^p nuno1h_ ]pfopm_f _i
a0i0mZf _o ob0*omZf _i kZmoc]pfc_m6n %pt `ji]ocjiiZcm_n ]jhk0o_ion ^_n
%``Zcm_n ]pfopm_ff_nYcf `Zp^mZ m_i^m_ fZ kZmo ^p kjpqjcm ^_ ^0]cncji lpc
f_pm m_qc_io _o ^jio f_n ]Zkmc]_n njpq_mZcin f_n jio ^_kpcn fjiao_hkn
kmcq0no $Zkk_f_m)]_moZcin ^cm_]o_pmn chkp^_ion lp~cfn omZqZcff_io Zq_] f_n
^_ic_mn kp[fc]no $_i^m_ fZ kZmjf_ Zpt Zpo_pmn qcqZionYZpt kj1o_nY]_n
kZmcZnoRo `Zcm_ kfZ]_ Zpt `_hh_nYhZcn jpcYh_nnc_pmno pRff_ i~_i ^cmZ
kZn ^ZqZioZa_o
/Z qc_ k_mnjii_ff_ _no cmm0h0^cZ[f_h_io Znnjh[mc_ kZm fZ k_mo_ ^~p
cfn Zch0_i2+Ho mh_ff_iijioi__nncmj`Y_ff_ _no Zoo_cio_ kZm fZ
^0kjnn_nncji ^_n ^mjcon lp~_ff_ ZqZco npm f~wpqm_ ^_sjmqZob _i]mZi]_Y
j@ _ff_ f~ZqZco ciomj^pcoY omZ^pco _o `Zco djp_mo mfpnc_pmn ^_n ijpq_Zpt
q_ipn ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji i_ fZ ]jiiZcnn_io ap1m_Y_o f_pm ^0nciqjfopm_
fZ `mjcnn_ ^~ZpoZio kfpn lp~_ff_ i_ q_po kZn _iom_o_icm ^_ mZkkjmo Zq_] f_
hcicno1m_ ^_ *Z]e@ZiaYlp~_ff_ Z kjpmoZio iZap1m_ [c_i ]jiip _o ^jio
_ff_ Z Zkkm0]c0fZ ob1n_ npm f~$oZo _o f_ ob0*om_o /_n ^_mic_mn o_to_n i~_i
njio kZn hjcin `fZh[juZionY_o cf `Zpo m_hZmlp_m lp~_ff_ Zdjpo_ pi kjcio
^~cio_mmjaZocji)mZqZi_ kjpm pi_0obclp_ ^0`pio_Ylp~_ff_ ^jii_ kjpm njpnd
ocom_)nji o_to_ pfoch_ _i f~bjii_pm ^_$ja_m0fcio @_ kcm_ i~_no kZn
ojpdjpmn nAmY^_qZcod_ff_ hZfam0ojpo k_in_moRo qjc]c lp~Zpdjpm^~bpcY_i

14

=&&Ynjiwpqm_ ]mcoclp_ ijpn kZmf_ ^_ ijpq_Zp _o ijpn Zc^_)h_oom_
^Zin pi_ kfpn dpno_ k_mnk_]ocq_ ijn kmjkm_n lp_nocjin _o ijn kmjkm_n
]jh[Zono bi qZ n~Zk_m]_qjcm ^0njmhZcn lp_$_i0_/Zpm_f Z [c_i h0mco0
^_ f~Zmo ^mZhZoclp_ _o lp~_ff_ oc_ioY^Zin f~bcnojcm_ ^p ob0*om_ kp[fc]Ypi_
kfZ]_ cmm_hkfZ/Z[f_ ^_ o0hjci _o ^_ apc^_o

C
C C

Vjpn Zqjin m0pic c]c fZ kfpkZmo ^_n ]bmjiclp_n lp_$_i0_/Zpm_f Z
]jinZ]m0_n)f~ZiZfun_ ^_n mZkkjmon _iom_ f_ ob0*om_ _o f_ kjpqjcmo~f n~ZacoY
^Zin fZ lpZncdojoZfco0^_n ]ZnY^p o_to_ cio0amZf ^_n Zmoc]f_nYlpc kjmo_io
ojpn fZ m0`0m_i]_ ^p iph0mj ^_n:_hkn hj^_mi_n^~j@ cfn njio ocm0no;_o
jpqmZa_ i~ZpmZco kp qjcm f_ djpm nZin f~_tomZjm^ciZcm_ omZqZcf Z]]jhkfc kZm
/chji_ _o0_miZm^mcnnZmmjY`cff_ _o a_i^m_ ^_$_i0_Ylpc jio ]jinZ]m0^_
fjian hjcn)]jffca_m f_n o_to_n _o)f_n Znnjmocm ^~pi_ [cjamZkbc_Y^"pi_
[c[fcjamZkbc_ _o ^~pi ci^_t lpc _no)fpc n_pf pi q0mcoZ[f_ ^c]ocjiiZcm_ j@
f"ji _h[mZnn_ ^p m_aZm^ om_io_d^_pt Zii0_n ^_ ob0*om_ kZmoc]pfc1m_h_io
mc]b_n _i0q0i_h_ionY_i ]m0Zocjin _o _i kmjd_onoRi o0hjcai_ f_
2
]0^0kmmjh lpc0n_io_ ^Zin nji cio0amZfco0fZ kmj^p]ocji ]mcoclp_ ^_
$_i0_/Zpm_f Zpt:_hkn hj^_mi_n6u ZkkZmZ6o pi qZno_ ]jmo1a_ ^~0]mcqZcinY
^~Z]o_pmnY ^_ h_oo_pmn _i n]1i_ jp ^_ n]0ijamZkb_nY ]jhh_ ) omZq_mn pi
mjhZi j@ n_ m_]jhkjn_mZco fZ qc_ ob0*omZf_ ^_ ]_n Zii0_ndf)YhZcn Zpnnc
]jhh_ ^Zin pi_ [c[fcjob1lp_ j@ n_ ]jidpap_mZc_io 0mp^cocji _o kZnncjiY
o_to_n _o ]jhh_ioZcm_nY omZ]_n ^~bcnojcm_ _o kmjd_]ocjin q_mn f~Zq_icmY
_i]jm_ qc[mZio_no

$j[_mo%[cmZ]b_^

1
C0^0mjh6n$_i0_/Zpm_fo HHZin ^_ ]bmjiclp_n ^mZhZoclp_n
-2+^=d2+S8kp[fc0_n ^Zin fZ m_qp_n@_n:_hknKj^_mi_npomZmcn6
=&&io
;_ ]0^0mjh ]jioc_io f~_in_h[f_ ^_n ]bmjiclp_n ^mZhZoclp_n-_iqcmji= =bbkZa_n8Y
f~ci^_t ^_n ijhn ^_n k_mnjii_nY wpqm_nYnk_]oZ]f_nYob0*om_nYjmaZicnh_nYZnnj]cZocjin _o
nui^c]Zon ]co0nYfZ fcno_ ]bmjijfjaclp_ ^_n ocom_n ^_n ]bmjiclp_nYf_n ijoc]_n
[c[fcjamZkbclp_n ^_n ]bmjiclp_nYfZ [cjamZkbc_ _o fZ [c[fcjamZkbc_ ^_n jpqmZa_n ^_$_i0_
/Zpm_f _o lp_flp_n o0hjcaiZa_no
Fcnkjic[f_ ]b_v6 /o_o0o mcnnZmmjY =2+mp_/Zciosjijm0Y t^&&2 m%$~/ o
:_fo_o `Zt6 &2 S= i& S^ ^& x;jpmmc_f6nckcnnZmmjy`m__o`m

15

2+i^ d 2+it

2
:s$0:$R m$~P$ R: :s$0:$R mE0@~;

@Zm0`jmh_ ^_ f~Zc^_Zp ob0*om_ kmcq0

m_i^Zio fjiao_hknddpnlp"_i2+Si dYfZ]mZi]_ ]pfopm_ff_ Z0o0pi
hjinom_ bu^mj]0kbZf_Yamjnn_ o2o_ _o ]jmkn ^0[cf_o mZmcn m_noZco f_ ]m_pn_o
hZaclp_ ^_ ojpo_n f_n ]jin0]mZocjinYpi [mcffZio ijcm kclp0npm fZ ]Zmo_ ^_
fZ]mZi]_o F_kpcn ^ctdbpco ZinYpi_ hpoZocji kmj`ji^_ _o f_io_ n_
kjpmnpcoo ;"_no lp_Y^_kpcn2+SiYZ0o0 0fZ[jm0_o hcn _iwpqm_ pi qZno_
kfZi ^_ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji ob0*omZf_o @"c^0_Y )qmZc ^cm_Yi"0oZco kZn ijpq_ff_6
pi ]_moZciVZkjf0jiYlpc n"j]]pkZco qjfjioc_mn ^_0_Zptd%mon _iom_ ^_pt
]ZmiZa_nYZqZco ]ji/p pi kfZi lpc ^_qZco ]jpqmcm fZ]mZi]_ ^"pi m0n_Zp
^mZhZoclp_ _o fumclp_Y kfZi lp"cf i_ kpo h_i_m ) [ji o_mh_Y0fB]b_m 0oZio
npmq_ipY ]jhh_ ji nZcoY f) j@ f~ji Zoo_i^Zcohmjp]buoooRo kpcnY^_
ap_mm_ _i ap_mm_Y^"bphcfcZocji _i qc]ojcm_ iZocjiZf_Y^_ m0qjfpocji `Zco_
kZm f_ k_pkf_ _i m0qjfpocji ]ji`cnlp0_ kZm fZ [jpma_jcnc_YfZ kmjqci]_
`mZi/Zcn_ Z Zoo_i^p lp_ ojh[_ fZ hZii_ ]pfopm_ff_Y _o f_nojpmi_pmnjio
]jiip ^_ [_Zpt djpmnY lpc kmjh_iZc_io ) omZq_mn _ff_ ^_n np]]1n [c_i
kZmcnc_in Zq_] ^_n q_^_oo_n njpq_io ^0hji0ocn0_no
F_kpcn ^ctdbpco ZinYf_n ]bjn_n jio [c_i ]bZia0o @_n m0kp[fclp_n
ZpnncYcf _no qmZco KZcn f"Z]ocqco0]pfopm_ff_ i"0oZio kZn qmZch_io kmcn_ Zp
n0mc_pt kZm f_n ajpq_mi_h_ion m0Z]ocjiiZcm_nYcf n"_no omjpq0lp_ f_n
bjhh_n _i kfZ]_ Zpt ]jhhZi^_n ^p n_]o_pm Zmocnoclp_ jio kp
kjpmnpcqm_ chk_mopm[Z[f_h_ioYlp_ f_ hcnomZf q6io ) njp``f_m ^_ ^mjco_ jp
f_ ncmj]]j ^"%fa0mc_Y fZ o*]b_ _iom_kmcn_ kZm f_pmn km0^0]_nn_pmno
/"Z^ZkoZio)ojpn f_n o_mmZcinYf_ ]bZmcjo ^_:b_nkcn ZqZi]_oF_n a_in
hj^_no_nYlpc i"ZqZc_io dZhZcn hcn f_n kc_^n ^Zin pi ob0*om_Y^0]jpqm_io
Zq_] djc_Y_o njpq_io Zq_] kfpn ^_ `mZ6]b_pmY ^_ n_inc[cfco0 lp_ f_ kp[fc]
omjk [fZn0 ^_mZmcnY f_n amZi^_n kc1]_n ]fZnnclp_n _o hj^_mi_no;_oo_

2
@_ ocom_ jmcaciZf ^_ ]_oo_ ]bmjiclp_ _no6Ei kZmc Zp^Z]c_pt6fZ m0`jmh_ ^_ f"Zc^_ Zp ob0*om_
kmcq0o

19

wpqm_ chh_in_Y_o)fZlp_ff_ ijpn Zqjin ^0d)`Zco ZffpncjiYZ i0]_nnco0
[_Zp]jpk ^"Z]bZmi_h_io ^_ fZ kZmo ^_ n_n kmjhjo_pmnY[_Zp]jpk ^_
]jpmZa_ _o ^_ ^0ncio0m_nn_h_io ^p ]<o0^_n ZichZo_pmnYlp"cfn `pnn_io
^cm_]o_pmn ^"pi;_iom_ ^mZhZoclp_ iZocjiZfY^"pi_KZcnji ^_ fZ ]pfopm_
jp nchkf_h_io ^_ f"pi_ ^_ ]_n omjpk_n ^co_nk_mhZi_io_nlpc m_/jcq_io pi_
Zc^_ Ziip_ff_ ^_ f"$oZooxp_ f_n hju_in Z]]jm^0n Zpt ^c``0m_ion;_iom_n
njc_io _i]jm_ cinp``cnZionYlp_ f"0lpck_h_io ob0*omZf njco ^Zin fZ kfpkZmo
^_n ]Zn k0mch0oZio npm f_ kfZi ^_ f"_nob0oclp_ lp_ npm ]_fpc ^_n hju_in
hcn _iwpqm_ kjpm Z]]mj6om_ f"ci^c]_ ^_ `m0lp_ioZocji ^p kp[fc]Y lp_
_
f"0^c`c]Zocji ^_n qciao KZcnjin ^_ fZ;pfopm_ km0qp_ ^1n2+i2Zp~P mfZi
n_ kjpmnpcq_ ) pi muobh_ om1n f_ioY ]_fZ _no ci]jio_noZ[f_Y _o cf i"_no kZn
^Zin ijn cio_iocjin ^_ [mjnn_m ^_ fZ ncopZocji ^p n_]o_pm np[q_iocjii0
pi oZ[f_Zp kZmZ^cncZlp_o KZcn cf n_mZco cidpno_ ^"_i o_icm mcap_pm)]_fpc lpc
2
Z fZ ]bZma_ ^_ f"Z]ocji ]pfopm_ff_6 KoRo0cZncico;Zm nc fZ m_fZocq_
ci^c``0m_i]_ ^_n kjpqjcmn kp[fc]n)f"0aZm^ ^_n Zmon _i a0i0mZf _o ^p
ob0*om_ _i kZmoc]pfc_m k_mh_o ^_ kmZoclp_m pi_ kjfcoclp_ Znn_v fc[0mZf_Y_ff_
<o_ Zpnnc ojpo _nkjcm ^_ qjcm dZhZcn Z]]jm^_m fZ kmcjmco0Zpt [_njcin
]pfopm_fnYlpZi^ qc_io f_ hjh_io ^"0oZ[fcm f_ [p^a_o iZocjiZfo~f
i"_hk2]b_ lp"Zp ]jpmn ^_ fZ ^_mic1m_ ^0]_iic_Y ]"_no _i kmjqci]_ lp"jio
0o0 ]m00_n f_n wpqm_n f_n kfpn cio0m_nnZio_nY ]_ff_n lpc m_f1q_io ^p ob0*om_
qcqZioo;"_nosp[_mohcaijptY^_/omZn[jpmaYlpc Z ]m00_i kf_ci_ ap_mm_
^"%fa0mc_-2+^8]_$jhpfpn f_hmZi^^_FBmm_ihZooYm_kmcn _i2+iHkZm f_
:VmoRo Zpnnc@_nmbunc]c_inY^jio ijpn Zqjin kZmf0m0]_hh_ioo;"_no fZ
;jh0^c_ ^_/ZciodRoc_ii_ lpc Z hjio0fZ [_ff_ kc1]_ ^_hZ[mc_f;jpnciY
@_]pepmupdKZmpYnpm f_ ^Zia_m Zojhclp_YZfjmn lp"Zp]pi ob0*om_ kZmcnc_iY
h2h_ np[q_iocjii0Y i"_i ZnnphZco f_ mcnlp_Y _o ]"_nomfZi]bjiY )
Pcff_pm[Zii_Y lpc Z f_ ]jpmZa_ ^_ hjio_m f_n kc1]_n ^"%mhZi^hZooco
%po_pm kjpmoZio ]jinZ]m0Y%p^c[_moc Z Zoo_i^p lpciv_ Zin fZ m0kjin_
^"pi amZi^ ^cm_]o_pm kZmcnc_i Zplp_f cf ZqZco njphcn f"pi_ ^_ n_n kfpn
0ojiiZio_n kc1]_n6@_;ZqZfc_m n_pfYkjpm fZ qjcm `ciZf_h_io hjio0_ kZm f_
om1n hj^_no_:b0*om_ ^p;jobpmi_Y ) @ujiY]_ ob0*om_ hcipn]pf_ i_
m_]_qZio ^_ f"$oZo lp"pi_ Zc^_ nuh[jfclp_o;_ lpc i_ f"Z kZn _hk2]b0 ^_
]m0_mY [c_i ZqZiomZmcnY@ZVpco Z nZ ]fZmo0^_]mu _o f"Z^hcmZ[f_F_bjmn

2
Rhcf_ *o0cZncicYi0_i2+==Y_no ijhh0_i2+i&]jin_cff_m o_]biclp_ Zp ]Z[ci_o
^~%i^m0KZfmZptYkpcnY^_2+i2 ) 2+iiY^cm_]o_pm ^p:b0*om_Y^_ fZ Kpnclp_ _o ^_
f~%]ocji ]pfopm_ff_o bi f_ omjpq_ pfo0mc_pm_h_io ^cm_]o_pm ^_ fZ:0f0qcncjiYkm0nc^_io ^_
fZKcnncji ^~Zh0iZa_h_io ^_ fZ ]<o_%lpcoZci_Ykm0nc^_io ^_ f~0oZ[fcnn_h_io kp[fc] ^p
hmZi^@jpqm_ _o _i`ci n_]m0oZcm_ ^~$oZo ZpthmZi^n:mZqZpt njpn fZ km0nc^_i]_ ^_
]mZi/jcnKcoo_mmZi^o

20

^_qZio fZ kjmo_-FmZpnn_i qjm ^_m:Bm8^_[o0jm]b_moY^jiomZmcn i"Z qjpfp
lp_ `pmocq_h_ioYkjpm pi_ m_km0n_ioZocji piclp_ _o ^0nZnom_pn_o*"Zmm2o_
f) ]_oo_ 0iph0mZocjiY kjpm i_ kZn Z]]Z[f_m f_ f_]o_pmoRff_ np``coYd_
f"_nk1m_Y )`Zcm_ ]jhkm_i^m_ lp_ f_ o_hkn i"_no kfpn j@ f"ji kjpqZco ^cm_6
~f u ZmZmcn _o f_ ^0mon_imZ/Zcno bi kjpmmZco h2h_Y nZin ]mZcio_ ^"2om_ cidpno_Y
ciq_mn_m fZ kmjkjncocjio~f m_no_ kjpmoZio) mZmcn pi ob0*om_ ^cai_ ^_ nji
ijh6cf n_ `Zco ^Zin f_n np[q_iocjii0nYu ]jhkmcn f_ ^_mic_mdi0Yf_
:b0*om_ ^_ f"Rno kZmcnc_iYlp_ ^cmca_hpu$0ojm0o -~]cYd"jpqm_ pi_ mZkc^_
kZm_iob1n_ kjpm ^cm_ lp_ f_ nk_]oZ]f_ m0]_hh_io km0n_io0kZm f_:Rm 6
%m^_i ^_]Zq_mnbZhh"Z kZmp Znn_v h0^cj]m_Y_o k_p ]jiqZci]Zio nZp` _i
]_ lpc ]ji]_mi_ f"pocfcnZocjiYom1n bZ[cf_Y^p fc_p n]0iclp_ _o ^p kfZo_Zp
ojpmiZioo;"_no Zff_m pi k_p qco_Y_o n"Z[Zi^jii_m)fZ ^0hZajac_Ylp_ ^_
`Zcm_ ^0d)^p:Rmf"0aZf ^p:Vm8o @_ qmZcYf_ [ji ob0*om_Yn_ `Zco ZpnncY_o
n_ `_mZ ^_ kfpn _i kfpn Zpojpm ^_mZmcnY_o ijoZhh_io ^Zin fZ [_ff_ nZff_
m0ijq0_ kZm f_n njcin ^_ fZ hpic]ckZfco0]jhhpicno_ ^"%p[_mqcffc_mnYZp
kmct ^"pi _``jmo `ciZi]c_m nZin km0]0^_ioo;"_no f)YZpn:b0*om_ ^_ fZ
2
;jhhpi_pYlp_ qZ 2om_ ]m00_ fZ kc1]_ ^_KZt]mcn]b6%i^jmmZYcaijm0_
jp ^0^Zcai0_ kZm f_n amZi^_n nZff_n kZmcnc_ii_no /ZciodF_icnY Pci]_ii_nY
;jpm[_qjc_Y Pcff_dpc`/ZciodKZpmYZpoZio ^_ fc_pt ob0*omZpt Zq_] f_nlp_fn
cf `Zpo ]jhko_m ^0njmhZcno m_i^Zio ]_ o_hknY^ZinmZmcndPcff_Y )^_ mZm_n
_t]_kocjin km1nYf_ ob0*om_ ^0aZa_ pi_ hZpqZcn_ j^_pm6]_ff_ ^"pi qc_pt
]Z^Zqm_Y^jio ijpn Zpom_n ]mcoclp_n kc]jmjin fZ ]Zm]Znn_Yf_n pin Zq_]
kfZcncmYf_n Zpom_n Zq_] ^0ajAoo

C
C C

sjhh_ ^uiZhclp_Y_o ^"pi kmZahZocnh_ cibZ[cop_f Zpt amZi^n
]jhhcn ^_ f"$oZoYKo0cZncic Z qjpfp Zkkjmo_m pi [Zffji ^"jtua1i_)]_
ob0*om_ hjmc[ji^o @_ ^0]m_o ^p=Hj]oj[m_2+iSZ m_i^p kp[fclp_ pi_
m0`jmh_ chkjmoZio_Ylpc Z i0]_nnco0pi fjia omZqZcf km0kZmZojcm_YZplp_f
=
jio om1n pocf_h_io kmcn kZmoKo0mZdjo Zcinclp_KKoF_b_mk_ _oho
@_mhcic_mYcink_]o_pmn a0i0mZpt ^_n nk_]oZ]f_no;_oo_ m0`jmh_ ^_ f"Zc^_
_m
Zp ob0*om_ kmcq0_no _iom0_ _i qcap_pm f_2ijq_h[m_ ^_mic_mo]Z]_)fZ

2
@_:b0*om_ ^_ fZ;jhhpi_ Z0o0`ji^0_o ^_h_pm_ ^cmca0kZmhZ[mc_fhZmmZio
=
hpu0mZdjoYi0_i2+=YZ^hcicnomZo_pm ]cqcf ^_ fZ]mZi]_ ^~bpom_h_mY_no Z``_]o0_i
2+i2Zp hcicno1m_ ^_n%``Zcm_n ]pfopm_ff_n _o ]bZma0dpnlp~_i2+i^p [pm_Zp ^_n
ob0*om_nYZqZio ^~2om_ ijhh0 ^cm_]o_pm ^_n:b0*om_nY^_nKZcnjin ^_ fZ;pfopm_ _o ^_n
@_oom_n6cf j]]pk_mZ ]_n `ji]ocjin dpnlp~_i2+t+o

21

n]f0mjn_ a0i0mZf_ ^_n nomp]opm_n ob0*omZf_nY_o)fZ ojoZf_ ZiZm]bc_ ^p
hZm]b0Y_ff_ ]jinocop_ pi kZmc Zp^Z]c_ptd^"Zp]pin ^cmjio cia0ipdnpm f_n
m0Z]ocjin ^p amZi^ kp[fc]o Rff_ ]ji]_mi_ piclp_h_io f_n ob0*om_n kmcq0nY
^_mZmcn _o ^_ kmjqci]_Ylp_fn lp_ njc_io f_pmn ^ch_incjin _o f_pm
m0k_mojcm_o
*pnlp")]_ djpmYf"Zc^_ ^_ f"$oZo Zp ob0*om_ kmcq0n"_``_]opZco njpn fZ
`jmh_ ^_ np[q_iocjinYpi ]_moZci ijh[m_ ^_;jhhcnncjin ]jinpfoZocq_n
-;jhhcnncji ^"Zc^_ Zpt d_pi_n ]jhkZaic_nY ;jhhcnncji ^_n ob0*om_n
kZmcnc_inY ;jhhcnncji ob0*om_ _o _in_cai_h_ioY ;jhhcnncji ^_ f~Zc^_)
fZ km_hc1m_ kc1]_Y ;jhhcnncji ^_n `_nocqZfn _o ^_n ojpmi0_n8kmjkjnZio)
fZ ncaiZopm_ ^p hcicnom_ ^_n njhh_n ^"pi hjioZio ojpdjpmn bjmn ^_
kmjkjmocji Zq_] f_n [_njcin m0_fn ^p ob0*om_o ;_n np[q_iocjin0oZc_ioY^p
hjcin _i kmci]ck_Ym0]pk0mZ[f_n kZm f"$oZo _i ]Zn ^_ [0i0`c]_ Zp o_mh_ ^_
f"_tkfjcoZocji ^_ fZ kc1]_o ;_io hcffcjin ^"Zi]c_in `mZi]n _iqcmji0oZc_io
Zcinc m0kZmocn [ji Zi hZf ZiYZkm1n ^_n n0Zi]_n kZm`jcn k0ic[f_nY_o ^_n
hZm]bZi^Za_n lp_ Ko0cZncic Z njpq_ioY_o Zq_] mZcnjiYlpZfc`c0n
^"bphcfcZion kjpm f_n ^_pt kZmoc_no;_ nuno1h_)]ZmZ]o1m_ ^_ [jii_n
wpqm_n kZmjcnncZf_n ZqZcoY_i jpom_Yf"ci]jiq0ic_io ^"ci]co_m f_n ^cm_]o_pmn)
fZ kmp^_i]_ kfpo<o lp")f"Zp^Z]_ ^Zin f_ ]bjct ^_nwpqm_n km0n_io0_nY_o cf
_no ]_moZci lp_ f_ m_ijpq_ff_h_io ^p m0k_mojcm_ n"_i _no omjpq0`m_ci0Y^p
hjcin) mZmcno bi n_ njp]cZco hjcin ^_ m0q0f_m pi Zpo_pm ^_ oZf_io lp_
^"j[o_icm pi_ np[q_iocji Znn_v mji^_f_oo_ kjpm ]jinocop_m f_ ijuZp ^"pi_
]jhhZi^co_oRo fZ amZi^_0kjlp_ lpc npcqco fZ@c[0mZocjiY_o qco f_n kc1]_n
^_/]b0bZ^0Y~ji_n]jY%f[_mocY%p^c[_mocYhb_f^_mj^_Y%^ZhjqY
PZpobc_mYhjio0_n ^Zin ^_ om1n hj^_no_n ob0*om_n kZmcnc_inYn_h[fZco)
dZhZcn m0qjfp_o
@_ h0mco_ ^_Ko0cZncic _no ^_ n"2om_ m_`pn0 Zpt ^_hcdh_npm_nY )fZ
ob0mZk_poclp_ kmp^_io_ lpc ]jincno_)Zkkfclp_m pi _hkf*om_ npm pi_
dZh[_ ^_ [jcno~f Z ^ji] npkkmch0 -nZp` kjpm pi n_]o_pm kZmoc]pfc_m ^jio
d_ kZmf_mZc pfo0mc_pm_h_io8ojpo_n f_n np[q_iocjin _o Z chZaci0pi nuno1h_
_ioc1m_h_io ijpq_Zpo KZcnYZpkZmZqZioYcf n"_no ZooZlp0 )fZ `cn]Zfco0om1n
fjpm^_Y_o ^_kpcn fjiao_hkn ^0iji]0_ kZm f_n ^cm_]o_pmn ^_ nZff_no Ei
km_hc_m m0npfoZo ^Zin ]_ n_in Z0o0Z]lpcn _i ^0]_h[m_2+iH 6kZm pi qjo_
^p=2Yf_mZmf_h_io ]jin_ioZco pi_ m0^p]ocji ^_=^g _iqcmji ^p oZpt ^_
fZ `cn]Zfco0am_qZio f_n m_]_oo_no;_o Zff0a_h_io `po Z]lpcn Zp o_mh_ ^"pi_
mp^_ [ZoZcff_ _o am*]_)fZ ]jhkm0b_incji `ciZf_ ^_ kfpnc_pmn
^0kZmo_h_ion hcicno0mc_fn cio0m_nn0nYijoZhh_io f_n]ciZi]_n _o
f"~io0mc_pmo~f n"ZacnnZco _i _``_o ^_ m0^pcm_ f_n oZt_n k_m/p_n Zp kmj`co ^_

22

^cq_mn_n ]jff_]ocqco0n fj]Zf_no @"_in_h[f_ ^_ ]_n oZt_nYlpc Z``_]oZco
_iqcmji2=g ^_ fZ m_]_oo_ [mpo_Yi_ n"0f1q_ kfpn lp")_iqcmji+go
Ei_ `jcn Z]lpcn ]_o Zff0a_h_io ^_ fZ `cn]Zfco0Ycf m_noZco)chZaci_m pi
nuno1h_ m_hkfZ/Zio ]_fpc ^_n np[q_iocjino ;"_no f)lp_ m0nc^_ f"_nn_ioc_f
^_ fZ m0`jmh_YnZ kZmoc_ Z]ocq_YqcqZio_o bi Z ^ji] ]m00pi `ji^n ^_
njpoc_i Zfch_io0kZm pi_ oZt_ Z^^cocjii_ff_Y_o f0a1m_h_io ci`0mc_pm_ Zpt
^0oZt_n kmZoclp0_no @_ oZpt ^_ ]_oo_ ijpq_ff_ oZt_ qZmc_ n_fji f_ kmct ^_n
kfZ]_n6cf qZ ^_&Y=& ]kjpm f_n kfZ]_n ^jio f_ kmct i"_t]1^_ kZn2& ] )
&Y^& ]kjpm f_n kfZ]_n ^jio f_ kmct ^0kZnn_=& ]Y]_ lpc _no f_ kmct hju_i
^p `Zpo_pcf ^"jm]b_nom_ ^Zin f_n ob0*om_n kmcq0n kZmcnc_ino ;_oo_ oZt_Y^_
iZopm_ kZmZ`cn]Zf_Y_no m_]jpqm0_ kZm f_ n_mqc]_ ^_ fZFcm_]ocji a0i0mZf_
^_n chk<onY_o nji kmj^pco q_mn0Zp ]jhko_ jpq_mo kZm f_:m0njm)
f"%nnj]cZocji kjpm f_ njpoc_i ^p ob0*om_ kmcq0o ;"_no0qc^_hh_io
f"%nnj]cZocji lpc Z fZ ]bZma_ ^_ a0m_m f_n ]ZkcoZpt Zcinc mZnn_h[f0nY_o
^jio f_ hjioZio Ziip_f kjpmmZco Zoo_ci^m_2^& ) =&&hcffcjin ^"Zi]c_in
`mZi]no @_ ]jiom<f_0]jijhclp_ _o `ciZi]c_m ^_ f"$oZo n"_t_m]_ npm fZ
a_nocji ^_ ]_oo_%nnj]cZocjio F"Zpom_ kZmoYnjio _tji0m0n ^_ fZ ijpq_ff_
oZt_ Z^^cocjii_ff_ f_n nk_]oZ]f_n km0n_io0n kZm f_n ]jhkZaic_n ob0*omZf_n
Ziip_ff_h_io _o m0apfc1m_h_io np[q_iocjii0_n kZm f"$oZoo
@"%nnj]cZocji kjpm f_ njpoc_i ^p ob0*om_ kmcq0_no km0nc^0_ kZmKo
2
F_icnKZpm_uYkm0nc^_io ^p/ui^c]Zo ^_n ^cm_]o_pmn ^_ ob0*om_no Rff_
]jhkm_i^ ^_pt n_]ocjin6f"pi_ ]jhkjn0_ _t]fpncq_h_io ^_
m_km0n_ioZion ^_ fZ kmj`_nncji ob0*omZf_Y_o ijoZhh_io ^_ h_h[m_n ^_ fZ
]0^0mZocji iZocjiZf_ ^p nk_]oZ]f_Yf"Zpom_)hZdjmco0Z^hcicnomZocq_
]bZma0_ ^_ fZ a_nocji ^_n ^_ic_mn kp[fc]n ciq_nocn ^Zin f_ `ji^no
Pjc]cYamjnnj hj^jY]jhh_io `ji]ocjii_ f_ ijpq_Zp nuno1h_6f_
^cm_]o_pm ^"pi ob0*om_ kmcq0lpc q_po hjio_m pi_ kc1]_0oZ[fco pi ^_qcnY
Zq_] pi kfZi ^"Zhjmocnn_h_ioY_o Z^m_nn_ f_ ojpo)f"%nnj]cZocjio Ei
]jhco0^_ n0f_]ocjiYZp n_ci ^plp_f nc1a_io f_n cink_]o_pmn a0i0mZpt ^_n
nk_]oZ]f_nYZ]]_ko_ jp m_d_oo_ f_ ^jnnc_mo @Z lp_nocji lpc n_ kjn_ c]c _no
0qc^_hh_io ]_ff_ ^_n ]mco1m_no %p]pi o_to_ i_ hjocqZio)f"ZqZi]_
f"Z]]_koZocji jp f_ m_`pnYji k_po ojpo ]mZci^m_ jp ojpo _nk0m_m n_fji f_
ob0*om_ lp_ f"ji Zch_o /Zin ^jpo_ `Zp^mZdodcf Zp hjcin pi_ Zii0_
^"_tk0mc_i]_ kjpm lp_ f"ji kpcnn_ ^cn]_mi_m ncY^Zin f"_in_h[f_Y]_oo_
m0`jmh_ _no [0i0`clp_ jp iji Zp ob0*om_ _t_m/Zio pi_ `ji]ocji ]pfopm_ff_
_i kfpn ^_ ]_ff_ ^p ^cq_mocnn_h_ioo~f i"_no kZn chkjnnc[f_ lp_ ^_n
]jiomZ^c]ocjin cio_mi_n npmacnn_io6kZm _t_hkf_Ylp_ f_ ]jhco0^_

2
F_icnKZpm_u-2+2&d2++S8Y^cm_]o_pm ^p:b0*om_ ^_nPZmc0o0nYZ djp0pi m<f_ _nn_ioc_f
^Zin fZ ]m0ZocjiYkpcn ^Zin fZ m0pnnco_ ^p `ji^n ^_ njpoc_i Zp ob0*om_ kmcq0o

23

n0f_]ocji n_ qjc_ oZt0^_ ^cmcacnh_ n"cf Z o_i^Zi]_)njpo_icm pi m0k_mojcm_
^_ lpZfco0kfpo<o lp_ f_ qZp^_qcff_ ^_ kZkZo bp [c_i _i]jm_ lp_ f_n
m_km0n_ioZion ^_ fZ]0^0mZocji iZocjiZf_ ^p nk_]oZ]f_ n_ omjpq_io ]jci]0n
_iom_ f_ ]mco1m_ ^_ lpZfco0_o f_ njp]c ^p kf_ci _hkfjc ^_n Z]o_pmn _o
o_]bic]c_in ^p ob0*om_o
FZin f_ ]Zn j@ f_ ^jnnc_m njphcn kZm f_ ^cm_]o_pm ^_ nZff_ _no Z^hcn )
[0i0`c]c_m ^p `ji^n ^_ njpoc_iY f_ ]jhco0 ^_ n0f_]ocji kmjkjn_ pi
]j_``c]c_io ^_ m_h[jpmn_h_io ^p ^0`c]co 0q_iop_fo ;_ ]j_``c]c_io jn]cff_
_iom_=^g _ot^go FZin nji ^_qcnYf_ ^cm_]o_pm ^jco kmjkjn_m pi ]bc``m_
^_ `m0lp_ioZocji hju_ii_o /c fZ kc1]_ ^0hZmm_ [c_i _o n_ hZcioc_ioYcf i"u
Z kZn ^_ kmj[f1h_o /c _ff_ i_ hZm]b_ kZnYf_ ^cm_]o_pm m_/jco ojpo ^_ npco_
^&g ^_ fZ aZmZioc_Y hZcn cf k_po Zpnnc `Zcm_ pi _``jmoY o_io_m ^"Znnpm_m fZ
npmqc_ ^_ fZ kc1]_ _i m_]b_m]bZio pi kp[fc] ijpq_ZpY `od]_ _i Z[ZcnnZio
f_ kmct ^_n kfZ]_no ;_moZci_nwpqm_nYcio0m_nnZio_n hZcn [jp^0_n kZm f_
kp[fc] [jpma_jcn kZmcnc_i _tom2h_h_io hjpojiic_m _o ]ji^cocjii0 kZm
pi_ ]_moZci_ km_nn_Y kjpmmZc_io Zcinc omjpq_m f_pm kp[fc]Y _o `mZi]bcm f_ ]Zk
^_n om_io_ m_km0n_ioZocjin _tca0_n kZm f_n m1af_h_ion nui^c]Zpto ;_fZ
npkkjn_ pi _``jmo ^_ kmjnk_]ocji ^_ fZ kZmo ^p ^cm_]o_pm ^_ ob0*om_o~f _no
k_p kmj[Z[f_ _i _``_o lp_ f"Z[Zcnn_h_io ^p kmct ^_n kfZ]_n np``cn_)fpc
n_pf)Zh_i_m pi kp[fc] ZkkZmo_iZio)^_n ]jp]b_n nj]cZf_n Zpom_n lp_
]_ff_n lpc `m0lp_io_io ^"jm^ciZcm_ f_ ob0*om_ _i lp_nocjio;_fZ _no qmZc ^p
hjcin kjpm f_ nk_]oZo_pm cnjf0Yf_ kp[fc] ^_n ]jff_]ocqco0n6]jhco0n
^"_iom_kmcn_nYnui^c]ZonYamjpk_h_ion ]pfopm_fn0oZioYfpcYZnn_v `Z]cf_)
mZh_po_mYhZcn i_ `jpmicnnZio ap1m_Y_i hju_ii_Ylp"pi_ ^cvZci_ ^_
nZff_no @_ nuno1h_ chZaci0kZmKo0cZncic _no cia0ic_pt hZcn npkkjn_ f_
^uiZhcnh_ ^_n ^cm_]o_pmn Zptlp_fn cf ^_qmZco k_mh_oom_ ^"0]bZkk_m)fZ
m_^jpoZ[f_ Zfo_miZocq_6np]]1n chh0^cZo _o ojoZf-]"_nod)d^cm_ m_]_oo_0aZf_
)fZdZpa_^p ob0*om_8Yjp ]ZoZnomjkb_ `ciZi]c1m_oRo ]_n ^cm_]o_pmn
kZmcnc_inY^jio fZ kfpkZmo i_ njioYcf `Zpo [c_i f_ ^cm_Ylp_ ^_n0kc]c_mn
kmp^_ionYZpmjio hjcin ^"_t]pn_)m_d_o_m pi_ kc1]_ qZfZ[f_o
*"Zc ^co kfpn bZpo lp"cf _tcnoZco pi n_]o_pm ^Zin f_lp_f0oZco hZcio_ip f_
nuno1h_ ^_n np[q_iocjino;"_no ]_fpc ^p *_pi_:b0*om_Y]_fpc lpc ^jco
Znnpm_m fZ m_f1q_oFZin ]_ ^jhZci_Ycf _no mZm_ lp_ f"_tkfjcoZocji ^"pi_
kc1]_ n_ njf^_ kZm pi [0i0`c]_Yh2h_ _i ]Zn ^_ np]]1n ^"_noch_ _o ^_
km_nn_o%pnnc `Zpodcf n_ m0djpcm lp_ f_n np[q_iocjin Zffjp0_n ^_h_pm_io
Z]lpcn_n ^0njmhZcnYlp_ff_ lp_ njco f"cnnp_ `ciZi]c1m_ ^_ f"_iom_kmcn_o;_
n_]o_pm0oZco om1n ZiZm]bclp_ _o Ko0cZncic Z _p mZcnji ^_ o_io_m ^_ f_
]fZmc`c_m _o ^_ f"ZnnZcicmY^_ h2h_ lp"cf Z [c_i `Zco ^_ hj^c`c_m f_ nuno1h_
^_ f"Zc^_ ) fZ km_hc1m_ kc1]_Y ]jhkf1o_h_io ^0a0i0m0 ^_kpcn lp_flp_n

24

Zii0_no*_ m_qc_i^mZc npm ]_oo_ ^jp[f_ lp_nocji ^Zin pi_ kmj]bZci_
]bmjiclp_o :jpo_`jcnYd_ qjp^mZcn _tkmch_m ^1n hZcio_iZio f"cilpc0op^_
lp_ d"0kmjpq_)qjcm f"ZiZm]bc_ ojoZf_ `Zcm_ kfZ]_)pi nuno1h_ omjk mcac^_Y
cinocopZio pi_ njmo_ ^_ `cfc1m_ Zq_] kmjhjocji lpZnc ZpojhZoclp_ kjpm f_n
d_pi_n h_oo_pmn _i n]1i_ Zam00nY_o m_i^Zio)k_p km1n chkjnnc[f_ f_
km_hc_m _nnZc kjpm f_n h_oo_pmn _i n]1i_ lp_ d"Zkk_ff_mZc `mZi]ndocm_pmn
kZmocnZin ^"pi_ ]_moZci_ ^mZhZopmac_-kZn `jm]0h_io kjfcoclp_8_o lpc
`pm_io f_n n_pfnY^_ ojpo o_hknY )_hk2]b_m f_ ob0*om_ ^_ njh[m_m ^Zin fZ
n]f0mjn_ _o fZ f0obZmac_o

@_n:_hknKj^_mi_nYiE==^ d`0qmc_m2+i^ dkko 2^=Sd2^H&

25

2
@% F$;RV:$%@~/%:~bV RV F%VhR$

Ei_ m0pnnco_ h_iZ]0_

VZap1m_Yf_hm_ic_m ^_:jpfjpn_Y ;_iom_ ^mZhZoclp_ iZocjiZf ^p/p^d
bp_noY`2oZco Zq_] 0]fZo nji qciaoc1h_ Ziicq_mnZcm_o mfpn m0]_hh_iodf_
2ShZcdfZKZcnji ^_ fZ;pfopm_ ^_0jpma_nYlp_ ^cmca_ Zq_] oZf_io
hZ[mc_fKjii_oYm_]_qZco fZ qcnco_ ^p a0i0mZf ^_hZpff_Y
lp"Z]]jhkZaiZc_ioKo KZfmZpt _oKo $hcf_0cZncico %]_oo_ j]]ZncjiYf_
]b_` ^_ f"$oZo Z kmjiji]0pi_ Zffj]pocji ^Zin fZlp_ff_ cf Z``cmhZco fZ
i0]_nnco0_o fZ k0m_iico0^_ ijom_ ]pfopm_Y_o _tkmchZco nZ nZocn`Z]ocji
^_qZio f"wpqm_ Z]]jhkfc_o~f ZdjpoZco6*"_i m_ocm_ Zpnnc lp_flp_n ]ji]fpncjin npm
]_ lp"cf u Z fc_p lp_ f"$oZo ]jiocip_ ^_ `Zcm_ kjpm fZ ]pfopm_ `mZi/Zcn_ _i a0i0mZf _o
kjpm f_n KZcnjin ^_ fZ;pfopm_ _i kZmoc]pfc_mo mjpm lpc npco ^_ km1nY]jhh_
ijpn f_ `Zcnjin c]cYf_ ^_q_icm ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji ]pfopm_ff_Yf_n kZmjf_n
kmjiji]0_n kZm f_ km0nc^_io ^_ fZ$0kp[fclp_ ]jioc_ii_io kfpn lp"pi
qZap_ _i]jpmZa_h_io6fZ kmjh_nn_ lp"pi Z]o_ ^_hjpq_mi_h_io qc_i^mZ
m0njp^m_ f_ om1n ZiajcnnZio kmj[f1h_ lpc n_ kjn_ Z]op_ff_h_io Zp
hcicnom_ _o Zp ^cm_]o_pm ^_ f"%]ocji ]pfopm_ff_oRnkjcm ^"ZpoZio kfpn `ji^0
lp_ f_ a0i0mZf ^_hZpff_Y^"jm^ciZcm_Yi_ m0kpai_ kZn)f"Z]o_ ^_
ajpq_mi_h_ioo
Vpf i_ ]jio_no_ kfpn fZ m0pnnco_ _nob0oclp_ _o hjmZf_ ^_ fZ
^0]_iomZfcnZocji ob0*omZf_o /c0qc^_io_ lp"_ff_ njcoY]_oo_ m0pnnco_ _no
kjpmoZio h_iZ]0_o Vjpn Zffjin o_io_m ^_ ^cm_ kjpmlpjco @jmn ^"pi_
m0picjiY`ci dZiqc_m2+iSYf_n ^cm_]o_pmn ^_n ]_iom_n ^mZhZoclp_n ZqZc_io
_tkjn0 ) Ko KZfmZpt fZ ^0amZ^ZocjiY^_kpcn2+i=Y^_ f_pm ncopZocj
ciZi]c1m_ _o _tkmch0jqmc_mji]im_f_pm]mZcio_i^_^_)f_pm hcnncji nc ^_n
hju_in Z]]mpn i_ f_pm0oZc_io kZn ^jii0no Ei Zi Zkm1nY]_oo_ ncopZocji Z
`jm]0h_io _hkcm0Y[c_i lp"pi n0mc_pt _``jmo Zco0o0`Zco ^_ f"cio0mc_pm kjpm

1
Vjpn m_kmj^pcnjin c]c f_n ^_mic1m_n kZa_n ^_ fZ ]bmjiclp_ ciocopf0_Pour une culture
sans démagogie.

27

m0^pcm_ f_n `mZcn a0i0mZptY_o [c_i lp_ f"ji Zco m_]b_m]b0pi_ kZmoc]ckZocji
kfpn np[noZioc_ff_ ^_n ]jff_]ocqco0n fj]Zf_no Ri _``_o6kjpm f"_t_m]c]_2+i=
f_n ]m0^con Z]]jm^0n)fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji0oZc_io ^_]o mH &&& &&&jpm
2+iSYpi_ Zpah_ioZocji np[noZioc_ff_ ZqZco0o0^_hZi^0_Ypi_ kZmo ^_
]_oo_ Zpah_ioZocji ^_qZio k_mh_oom_ ^_ m_nk_]o_m fZ ]jiq_iocji
]jff_]ocq_ ncai0_ _i2+i2Zq_] f_/ui^c]Zo iZocjiZf ^_n%]o_pmnYpi_ Zpom_
kZmo0oZio Z``_]o0_ Zp ^0q_fjkk_h_io ^_n ]_iom_n ^jio f_n [_njcin qjio
]mjcnnZioo~f `Zpo km0]cn_m lp_ nc ]_n Zpah_ioZocjin jio k_n0fjpm^ ^Zin f_
[p^a_o ^_n;_iom_nYfZ ncopZocji hZo0mc_ff_ ^_ f_pmn ]jh0^c_in m_no_ om1n
hj^_no_6fZ ]jiq_iocji ]jff_]ocq_ ^_2+i2`ct_) t&&]f_ nZfZcm_
hcichph h_inp_f _o `Zco kZnn_m ^_H& ) H^]f_ ^0`mZc_h_io lpjoc^c_i _i
ojpmi0_o @"Zpah_ioZocji ^_ ]m0^con ^_hZi^0_ kjpm2+iSi_ `po lp_
kZmoc_ff_h_io nZocn`Zco_ _o fZ kfpkZmo ^_n;_iom_n n_ qcm_io ]jiomZcion ^_
m0^pcm_ f_pmn Z]ocqco0nYmZh_iZio Zcinc fZ ncopZocji)pi icq_Zp ci`0mc_pm)
]_fpc ^_2+i=oRi dZiqc_m2+iSYijpq_ff_ Zpah_ioZocji kjmoZio) &&]f_
nZfZcm_ hcichph _o) S&]f_ hjioZio ^p ^0`mZc_h_io _i ojpmi0_o;_o
Zdpno_h_io0oZco ^"Zcff_pmn kZm`Zco_h_io dpnoc`c0kZm f"Zpah_ioZocji ^p ]jAo
^_ fZ qc_ _o ^_n oZmc`n b<o_fc_mno /c hj^clp_ lp"cf njcoYcf i"_i am1q_ kZn
hjcin f_ [p^a_o a0i0mZf ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji ^_t&& &&&]o
@Z ncopZocjiYji f_ qjcoY_no kZmZ^jtZf_ _o ZiajcnnZio_o KZcn f_n ]bc``m_n
njio kfpn kmj[Zion lp_ f_n ^cn]jpmn6kjpm fZ nZcnji2+iHd2+iSf_n
2
;_iom_n ^mZhZoclp_n _o f_n:mjpk_n k_mhZi_io_njio m_/p2 H&& &&&
nk_]oZo_pmn ]jiom_2 ^^& &&&kjpm f_n ]cil ob0*om_n iZocjiZpt kZmcnc_ino
;_n2 H&& &&&nk_]oZo_pmn ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji jio ]jAo0 )f"$oZo
S t&& &&&]-u ]jhkmcn fZ ^joZocji kZmoc]pfc1m_ ^p;_iom_ ^_ f"Rno Zp ocom_
^_ f"%fnZ]_d@jmmZci_8YZfjmn lp_ f_n2 ^^& &&&nk_]oZo_pmn ^_n ]cil
ob0*om_n iZocjiZpt ^_mZmcn ]jAoZc_ioSi ^2 &&&]Ynjco km1n ^_ jiv_ `jcn
kfpnooo /c f~ji km0`1m_ pi hj^_ ^_ ]Zf]pf Zpnnc _tZ]oYhZcn kfpn amZ]c_ptY
^cnjin lp"pi `Zpo_pcf j]]pk0^Zin pi ob0*om_ iZocjiZf ]jAo_)f"$oZo
H=Yi&]kjpm f_ fumclp_ _o22Y2+]kjpm f_ ^mZhZoclp_Y Zfjmn lp"cf i_
m_qc_io lp")HY^&]kjpm f"_in_h[f_ ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocjio
@jiao_hkn ojpmi0_ _i ^0mcncji kZm f_n [_Zpt _nkmcon kZmcnc_inYf"wpqm_
^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocji i_ f"_no kfpn Zpdjpm^"bpc lp_ kZm f_n a_in ^_

2
Ri2+iSd2+i^Yf_n;_iom_n ^mZhZoclp_n iZocjiZpt njio6 /omZn[jpmaY $_ii_nY
:jpfjpn_Y :jpm]jciaY /Zciod$oc_ii_Y %ctd_idmmjq_i]_Y 0jpma_nYPcff_pm[Zii_o
Ro f_n:mjpk_n k_mhZi_io_n6;jh0^c_ ^_n%fk_nY :b0*om_ ^_0jpmajai_Y :b0*om_ ^_
;Z_iY :b0*om_ ^_;bZhkZai_Y :b0*om_ kjkpfZcm_ ^_n]fZi^m_nY;jh0^c_ ^_VZio_nY
:b0*om_ xpjoc^c_i ^_ KZmn_cff_Y :m0o_Zpt ^_]mZi]_Y :b0*om_ ^_ f"RnomZmcnc_io -Vjo_ ^_
$o /o8

28

hZpqZcn_ `jcY_o fZ m_ijhh0_ ^"pimfZi]bjiY^"pihcaijptYZ ^_kpcn
fjiao_hkn kZnn0ijn `mjioc1m_no KZcn ji k_po Zch_m kZnncjii0h_io f_
ob0*om_ nZin km0o_i^m_)fZ nZcio_o0Y_o cf i_ n_h[f_ ic dpno_Yic ijmhZf
lp"pi ZichZo_pm ]jhh_ *_ZiFZno0n_ m_omjpq_ Zpdjpm^"bpc Zpnnc ^0hpic
lp"cf u Z qciao Zino @"chkZnn_ `ciZi]c1m_ ^Zin fZlp_ff_ n_ omjpq_ fZ
^0]_iomZfcnZocji mcnlp_ ^ji] ^"ci]co_m f_n kfpn km_nocac_pt ^"_iom_ n_n
^cm_]o_pmn)Z[Zi^jii_m kjpmmZmcn jp kjpm f"0omZia_m-f_KZm]b0
]jhhpi ob0*omZf0oZio _i omZci ^_ iZ6om_8Y fZ kmjqci]_ lp"cfn jio nc
]jpmZa_pn_h_io ^0`mc]b0_o bpom_ f_ `Zco lp"cf i_ m0njp^mZco Zp]pi
kmj[f1h_Y]_ m_hkfZ]_h_io ^_n Zi]c_in ^cm_]o_pmn kZm ^_ kfpn d_pi_n
n_mZco fZ i0aZocji h2h_ ^_ f"_nkmco ^_ ^0]_iomZfcnZocjio @Z ^cm_]ocji
kmjqci]cZf_ ]_nn_mZco ^"2om_ pi_ `ci kjpm ^_q_icm pi hju_iY pi_ 0oZk_
^Zin fZ ]Zmmc1m_ ^_ ojpo ^cm_]o_pm jp ]jh0^c_io
%cincY )f"b_pm_ j@ ojpo f_ hji^_ n"Z]]jm^_ ) m_]jiiZ6om_ f"Zhkf_pm _o
fZ lpZfco0 ^p omZqZcf Z]]jhkfc ^_kpcn [c_io<o qciao ZinY f_ kjcio ^_ mpkopm_
_no Zoo_cioY _o f"0^c`c]_ mcnlp_ ^_ n"0]mjpf_mo Rnod]_ kZm]_ lp"cf i"ZqZco
Zp]pi_ ZnnpmZi]_)f_pm ^jii_m lpZio)f"Zq_icm lp_Ko0cZncic Z m_hcn Zp
kmcio_hkni^fZ m0picji ^_n ^cm_]o_pmn ^_;_iom_nYkm0qp_ kjpm
^0]_h[m_ ^_mic_mn;_oo_ m0picji Z _i`ci _p fc_p _o ^p omZqZcf _i ]jhhpi
lpc n"u _no `Zco cf m_nnjmo lp_ fZ njhh_ ^_ S&& &&&]_no i0]_nnZcm_)fZ
npmqc_ ^_ fZ ^0]_iomZfcnZocjiY_i Zoo_i^Zio f_n2& ^&& &&&njpbZco0no Vjpn
njhh_n fjciYji f_ qjcoY^_nH &&& &&&]^_2+i=o /"cf i"j[o_iZco kZn ]_oo_
njhh_Y Ko0cZncic n_mZco ]jiomZcio ^_ kmj]0^_m)fZ `_mh_opm_ ZpojmcoZcm_
^"pi jp kfpnc_pmn;_iom_nY_o)fZ npkkm_nncji ^_ kfpnc_pmn:mjpk_n
k_mhZi_io_noRo lp_ f"ji i_ n"u omjhk_ kZn6ojpo_ m0am_nncjiY^Zin ]_
^jhZci_Yncaic`c_ fZ hjmo kmj]bZci_ ^_ ojpo_ f"_iom_kmcn_o;"_no f)pi_
]_mocop^_ k_pod2om_ chkjnnc[f_)^0hjiom_mYhZcn lp_ ojpn f_n a_in ^_
ob0*om_ m_nn_io_ioo
@"pi ^_n m_h1^_n)]_oo_ ncopZocji n_mZco0qc^_hh_io fZ kZmoc]ckZocji
Z]]mp_ ^_n [p^a_on fj]Zpt)f"wpqm_ ]pfopm_ff_o;"_no f)pi kmj[f1h_ om1n
]jhkf_t_Yom1n ^0fc]ZoY_o npm f_lp_f cf i_ `Zpo n"Zq_iopm_m lp_ hpic ^"pi
^0o_]o_pm ^_ hci_no /pn]_koc[cfco0n fj]Zf_nYchkfc]Zocjin kjfcoclp_nY
mcqZfco0n _iom_ f_n qcff_nYhcff_ Zpom_n `Z]o_pmn _i]jm_ f_ m_i^_io)k_p km1n
cinjfp[f_o bi k_po Z``cmh_m kjpmoZio lp")^_ mZm_n _t]_kocjin km1nYf_n
]jff_]ocqco0n fj]Zf_n i_ n_ n_io_io kZn np``cnZhh_io o_ip_n)fZ m0]ckmj]co0
`ciZi]c1m_ qcnd)dqcn ^_ f"$oZoY jp lp"_ff_n jio o_i^Zi]_ ) n~Zkkmjkmc_mY _i
0]bZia_ ^_ f"_``jmo ]jin_ioc kZm _ff_nY pi_ Z]ocqco0 lpc ^jco 0qc^_hh_io
^_h_pm_m iZocjiZf_Y ) f"Z[mc ^p `jfefjm_ Zpnnc [c_i lp_ ^p ^cmcacnh_o;_n
m_hZmlp_n ]ji]_mi_ioY[c_i _io_i^pYf_n ]jff_]ocqco0n njpo_iZio f_n

29