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A History of Food

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776 pages
The story of cuisine and the social history of eating is a fascinating one, and Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat covers all its aspects in this classic history.
  • New expanded edition of a classic book, originally published to great critical acclaim from Raymond Blanc, The New York Times, The Sunday Telegraph, The Independent and more
  • Tells the story of man’s relationship with food from earliest times to the present day
  • Includes a new foreword by acclaimed food writer Betty Fussell, a preface by the author, updated bibliography, and a new chapter bringing the story up to date
  • New edition in jacketed hardback, with c.70 illustrations and a new glossy color plate section

"Indispensable, and an endlessly fascinating book. The view is staggering. Not a book to digest at one or several sittings. Savor it instead, one small slice at a time, accompanied by a very fine wine."
–New York Times

"This book is not only impressive for the knowledge it provides, it is unique in its integration of historical anecdotes and factual data. It is a marvellous reference to a great many topics."
–Raymond Blanc

"Quirky, encyclopaedic, and hugely entertaining. A delight."
Sunday Telegraph

"It's the best book when you are looking for very clear but interesting stories. Everything is cross-referenced to an extraordinary degree, which is great because the information given is so complex and interweaving."
The Independent

"A History of Food is a monumental work, a prodigious feat of careful scholarship, patient research and attention to detail. Full of astonishing but insufficiently known facts."
Times Higher Education Supplement

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Contents
Foreword to the New Expanded Edition by Betty Fussell
Preface
List of Illustrations
Acknowledgements
Introduction
PartI: CollectingGatheringHunting From Fire to the Pot 1 COLLECTING HONEY Honey in the Golden Age A Taste of Honey Honey in Legend Honey in Nature and History Honey-Cakes, Spice-Bread, Gingerbread Mead and Sacramental Intoxication
2
THE HISTORY OF GATHERING The Ancient Pulses The Symbolism of Beans The Etymology (and Entomology) of Haricot Beans The Holy War of Cassoulet Soya: the Most Widely Eaten Plant in the World Soya: Nutritional Facts and Figures Mushrooms and Fungi Roots Table of Vegetable Nutrition
vii
xiii
xv
xvi
xix
1
9
14 14 16 18 21 28 30
35 35 40 41 45 46 50 50 57 65
3
4 5 6
Contents
HUNTING The Great Days and the Decline of Game Nutritional Facts and Figures about Game
PartII: Stock-breedingArableFarming: Meat, Milk, Cereals The Evidence of Occupied Sites THE HISTORY OF MEAT The Birth of Stock-breeding and Society Table of Areas of Origin of the First Domestic Animals Meat-Eating: Likes and Dislikes The Horse, the Spirit of Corn Fat Oxen and Prosperous Butchers THE HISTORY OF DAIRY PRODUCE Cheese and Curds Yoghurt: Fermented Milk Butter: the Cream of the Milk The Symbolism of Butter THE HISTORY OF CEREALS Cereals as Civilizers The Symbolism of Wheat Table of the Long March of Cereals Imperialist Cereals The Myth of Demeter Everyday Cereals Harvest Festivals Strategic Cereals Rice in the East The Symbolism of Rice Maize in the West Why Maize is Called ‘I Have No More Gumbo’ Why Corn-Cobs are Thin and Small Zuni Legend of Maize Flour From Porridge to Beer The Technique of Brewing Beer The History of Pasta The History of Grain Spirits
66 66 79
83
85 85 88 89 95 95
103 103 108 109 113
114 114 117 118 119 126 127 133 134 139 149 149 159 160 160 161 167 170 176
PartIII: TheThreeSacramentalFoods: Oil, Bread, Wine The Fundamental Trinity183 7 THE HISTORY OF OIL185 Olive Oil 185 The Dietary History of Olive Oil 187
viii
Contents
191 193 196 199
10
201 201 207 209 210 214 215 218
THE HISTORY OF WINE From the Vine to Wine Dessert Grapes The Technique of Wine-Making The Symbolism of Wine The Legend of Dionysus The Proper Use of Wine Cooking with Wine Wine and God A Wine of Revolution
9
8
THE HISTORY OF BREAD AND CAKES The Bread on the Board The Symbolism of Bread and Cakes Four Stages in the Development of Bread-Making The Taste of Bread The Technique of Bread-Making Our Daily Bread Special Cakes for Sundays
Olive Oil in Legend and Symbolism Making Olive Oil Other Oils Margarine
305 305 312
PartIV: TheEconomy of theMarkets
265
223 223 230 231 233 235 236 249 251 258
268 268 272 273 277 277 281 284 287 293 294 294 298 301 302
ix
11
THE HISTORY OF POULTRY Facts about Poultry Choosing Poultry
The Centre of the City
THE HISTORY OF FISH The Fish of the Ancient World AWho’s Whoof Sea Fish The Salmonidae: a family of aristocrats Fishing in Legend Extravagance and Economy in Eating Fish The Symbolism of Fish Uses for Less Profitable Fish The Providential Nature of Salt Fish Drying, Salting and Smoking Fish; an Age-Old Procedure Table of the Nutritional values of Fish Aquaculture and Pisciculture: Fish Farming Blue Europe, or the Common Fish Market From Fishing to Our Plates Table of the Economic and Social Potential of a Common Fishing Zone
The Symbolism of Poultry Eggs: their Uses and Customs
Contents
PartV: LuxuryFoods The Revels of the Gauls 12 TREASURES FROM THE SEA The History of Garum The History of Caviare AWho’s Whoof caviare How to Keep Caviare Happy The History of Shellfish and Crustaceans Facts about Crustaceans The History of Shellfish-Farming The Biology of the Oyster The Biology of the Mussel
13
THE TREASURE OF THE FORESTS The History of Pork and Charcuterie About Ham Sausages The Symbolism of the Pig The History of Foie Gras Facts about Foie Gras The Symbolism of Liver The History of Truffles
PartVI: TheEra of theMerchants Making a Good Profit 14 AN ESSENTIAL FOOD The History of Salt The Symbolism of Salt The Technique of Winning Salt
15
SPICE AT ANY PRICE About Spices The Secrets of Spices Cinnamon Pepper Ginger Turmeric and Cardamom Cloves The Great Trading Companies Nutmeg and Mace Chillies and Sweet Peppers Aromatics and the Imagination
x
319 322
333
338 338 339 345 347 348 356 359 366 368
369 369 378 381 384 385 392 393 394
403
414 414 429 430
433 433 437 439 441 446 450 453 458 461 464 467
Contents
Saffron Vanilla Everyday Condiments and Herbs Herbs The Proper Use of Spices, Aromatics and Condiments The Grocer’s Trade
467 471 473 478 481 488
PartVII: NewNeeds: Sugar, Chocolate, Coffee, Tea Gluttony and Greed for Gain493 16 THE LURE OF SUGAR496 Rum, A Sugar Spirit504 The Legend of Sugar505
17 18
19
20
21
CONFECTIONERY AND PRESERVES
CHOCOLATE AND DIVINITY Definitions of Chocolate
COFFEE AND POLITICS Coffee from the Islands Coffee in Legend
TEA AND PHILOSOPHY Tea in Legend The Symbolism of Tea
PartVIII: Orchards andKitchenGardens Instructions for the Garden THE TRADITION OF FRUITS The Symbolism of the Apple Grafting Dessert Apples Table of Production of Apples in EC Countries, 1982–3 Cider and Calvados Pears Plums Peaches The Peach in Legend Apricots The Dietetics of Apricots Cherries The Dietetics of Cherries Strawberries Melons Oranges Growing and Selling Oranges
xi
507
515 519
521 530 532
535 543 544
547
558 558 561 562 564 567 572 575 578 581 582 584 584 585 586 590 593 600
22
23
Contents
AWho’s Whoof Oranges Grapefruit Figs The Symbolism of Figs and The Fig Tree Dates Pineapples Bananas Avocados
THE EVOLUTION OF VEGETABLES Cabbages Cauliflowers Salad Chicory and Endive Watercress Asparagus Growing Asparagus Artichokes Tomatoes
THE POTATO REVOLUTION Sweet Chestnuts Potatoes Soufflé Potatoes
PartIX: Science andConscience in theDiet The Hows and Whys of Quality 24 PRESERVING BY HEAT Canned Sardines The Technique of Canning Food Preservation Pasteurized Milk 25 PRESERVING BY COLD Quick-Freezing
26
27
THE REASSURANCE OF DIETETICS Vitamins Chronology of Dietary Progress
A REASSURING FUTURE
Notes
Select Bibliography of Recent EnglishLanguage Works
Bibliography to Original Edition
Index
xii
602 602 603 607 607 609 610 612
620 622 625 626 629 630 631 633 636 637
641 645 646 653
659 662 668 670 671 673 675 677 680 683 684 690
706
723
729
733