Cet ouvrage et des milliers d'autres font partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour les lire en ligne
On lit avec un ordinateur, une tablette ou son smartphone (streaming)
En savoir plus
ou
Achetez pour : 9,75 €

Lecture en ligne (cet ouvrage ne se télécharge pas)

Partagez cette publication

Publications similaires































© L’Harmattan, 2011
5-7, rue de l’Ecole polytechnique, 75005 Paris

http://www.librairieharmattan.com
diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr
harmattan1@wanadoo.fr
ISBN : 978-2-296-56699-6
EAN : 9782296566996 +DYDQD&OXE

'XPUDXWHX?PH
QV 5RPD
&O?q?G LLWQRV/L?WUDLUHV/ L?JH
?GLWLRQV3XEOLERRN3DULV


H U J Q5?RVD
UHXHUHJ GVS PKD&QD&OX+DYDE
5RPDQ
Q /
+DUPDWWD

9LQFHQW/DPE HUW
QVLHY G
XQ EXWG? H W W H F SRTXH? R? HM PH P LV ? UHQWH
SRVHU HV R XWV WH ?VRUWV LOLWG
LQXW UJ QGLRVHV D P DLVSORUDEOHV ? G
OVXUHSXLVTX
LO?PH?RLVXQSHLWIDDXGHPRLW
H
1RUG QWLOD I G? Q H JURV V JHQXD QRLUV QVGD V OH F XUVRXOH YLR
QWLHOODQ
D SV D RUW I Q8 G OXJH? VSU?D X O
DUH W QW)LQDOHPH V OH
GVHQVIDRQGVQVODUDPVHHMWQHSHLVDDVDXPRLQV
TXRLTXH SOXV XUS R PSVH W ORQJ XU?SHLQD Y-
DLVD QGDSQWHHF
XSQHUOHXPQHP?HQIRLVLQFUH?XPQHP??UEVDRUG
GSHV(?WXUHQWRXVVRUWLQVSRLVWUIDRXVGX[GHQVODUDXH
2
FDQXR E OH DVQG HXLTWV S HVO HW HDX[RWS HVO HWQUH U?HEFRPHQ
L?WXXLQT H VDO HQX
G L?W?UHQXLQTV
W HQW?OHYDL
P LXT WHVOXDG
VDLVRQ V /HV DOP D LVP HU LYK HQ HDLWHLJQ ,O ? ?W HQ OHXY DLWS ,O
DLVVDQQ FH OD ? VG UWHR P H Y L DW XUH H QX
G H HV?UDQFVS HVG O?HV
X G VDXYDJH RF?DQ QX
G HO FL HO W
?WDL& FKRVH JUDQ G DVS VX S
\
Q H- LOX VQ DV ?WUH
G RLWU G HO L
PWHUGLWQ LO DLQ P HQ HU GHQU S
H P OHPHWU?HOQ ? LHUHP U S HO IWX HO FL H/ ?UHVHWQL MRX?HVUQ
HV G UWHLOVR HVP DVQG Y DLV Y L -H UHUHQG SFRP HO UXR S FRFH
U?S UHRUGX
G VHGL S H VP I L[DLV MH HO HXDTO O DUS HHXUGS ID?RQ
WFHW YRLU H G IILVDLWXV ,O FLHO HO DVS DDLP
LVQ MH HO H[HPS 3DU
H WXRU RUFHU I \
P H YRLUG VDQ V DQ ?WUH F RQ H G I DLW H YLW VHXM
HX T
H GQR P F H WRXW H GRQ P OHW WRX UXR S RVHFK H?P P OD VHHQ S MH
W F
HV HW HFDY UUDLXR P MH WY?UL? UHPL?UHS DP DLQVL HVW
& HQ
D L ODKRXUHW DPO
HVWF
?VH \HXUP[I OHVVFKRLVLUDQHW YHPQ V
H [FOXVL QVW LHUH H M HX T F H HI
QWDQG H[LW?VO FS RP FHV H G VHQW
U?S ? LUDQUWHSD
S P HG HFRXUDJ FH W HX LXT H
O[LVWHQ FH DVQG
VRXP HMRXU-H QX H?DQPFRPHOD&DYRXO
HU"VHUDLVMH

PLQHVEIX?
?5HJDUGH SH LW W XQH U F LRQ ?DW OO?OXLD $ P RQ QIDQW H
,O\LDOYWT?OTXSHDGUWQVODJHRXIUHOXP[LQH
QH
PRL DJLRQV SDUW F H K P\W H
X [LH FSU? GH O
LQFRQQX PLV D QJUDGLVVDLW Q PRLQVDQ ? ]K HF OOHH
XQH LQ I [RUDELQHOH XQH LQ I G H X UOH I W H XQ MRXU G H LJH QH
SULVG
XWQHDOHUJVVLY?HWQLO?0HVVHRUVXOLHSLVGD?Q
H
VDLGHVPDUTXHVPDQTX?HV
X UVRSDH TXWVKDXH
?$OOH] P?P? OXLD RXMRXUV W DLV I SDV FKLHU U?SRQ
P(OOHGH(DHJLVDY?OOHLDGYWDQVODFHX[GUHXPQH
QVVD OH SRLQW XQ XFU W ? QH VSD QLUH W LQVLD RXWW HXOV LVPD T XL
+&
UHQYHUV? WHUURQLQ
JDWLG R WQLRS QX DUUH]LE IOFRQR QX WRQ
JLWLPH ? GLV H MHVXUODG?IQVLYHO
OHV Y HUV ?H H[DVS? U H DWHOOW ?U?S W LWH S ?$OO?OX LD
DLVO \M
?XOLTIL?H HRXJDG OD VDQ G WQDVKO? VUHS HUQHRG P IDQW
VXU SHX TXHOTXH HOOH Y HUV W RXUQDL PH H - W F ULDL (OOH
?$OO?OXLD
?DHQQRFRUHQ
URS HOOH VDFXO?H P LP HXVWHQG ? HVO DVQG ?H?JDU DWLTHKXS HP
H W 0?P? W SDVV?UHQ DQV /HV
UULFLHU P\VW?UHGHO
XQLYHUVQRX
X G RXLVVDLV M H- F ?LQIDV DVVLX U G HVVDLV H P MH RL P HQ H?PU S
VX RUDQFHJQL H Q X UDLVRQ HHO X V W WH FH URX S W H LR X T VDYDLV
MH LHQE WDLVHQV H O MH D FHO O? WDYDL LO ?HVX HQV?HS WWHFH HG
GH WX$OO?OXLDF
HVW HUWLXQHF
\HX[ HVO HWVHW DXVVFK DQVV LVDLWG HW WWH D O HYDLWO HOOH DLQ
D P DLQP VD DVQG W UHQDLS H LOO Y LH /D HUVRQQHS W Q
LQH VVDL W?U
LX T HVHXX YLVT LW?DQ PXK
O H G UWDEOHVR S SXVQL JUDLVVH DO HW
/8% $9$1$ 8% /
IOHLV(DWSOHLDXRUWQPXHDHQWQSXGDHEHV?HWRPEUH
XQH ? UWLH I OXVLRQFF YH XQ QWEPHLVVH DRXW RXW W OH G HPRQ
RXVDWQLHEDYWXUDHF?O?KLIUFUFXVHUHUORHQVXOWHVVQLUVRHXY
L
QWPH RPPHF?QF ? RQGUHI VXU O H
GRXWWVRUPLVR?DXST2XHVUHHQ
o}?? ??
&+
?H?FROODJHVDYDQGG WO
FKDXVVXUHV VFXOHVLQX P VHV W?? YDLW D LXT W H VHXHO JHDLWYR\D
XL T UHOOHV QDWX DVWURSKHV FDW [DX RV?HVSLU?GS HWDQPUHPS
DS HDU?II LFKHE HMQHX HQX RLWHU G HG FHOOH VRIRQU GS HWVFK
? G HVP HG HLQWWW D DLVDM
Y JHFKDX HG YRLVLQ H DP
DSV HQ UXR S OLFFRPS D JHVWH X G HY LROHQF OD VDQ' DY HXP
HWWHXRTP DO UXV DOH FHQWU O
DOO?H YHUV FQ?VLGRQLHWU?PQ L P
Y R MD
YDLV JHDLHQDQ W P JHQV OHV HX T D ORUV DYLRQO
VDQ ' D O P
WDX?GE UHHXLQ P Y LH HQX
G DMHXUP H U?Y D LQEFX YR\DJH QR 0
HQFRUH SDUHLOODWW WH UUHJLJRHUDL
W VHUDL ?D XH T O? UHVWHUDLW Q
VDYH] 9 VRX LR P HYLQVG HW ULJUDQG HG DFKHYDLM
HLGVLSQL VH
HQV MHX HQX
G U?FRQIDWRUWQ H OHXRXU G OD VDQ G LWHVXQ (
RLDLGHHFRQPW?UDEOHPQVLGWUHVFHTDX
\H]GLFURX
HDXFRXS E HX T RUWP H? P DO HW URX M H? P H/ WUXRX P HOOH
VDUG HJU HVG ULDEO
? RW S
HO E WDY?UL DLW DY HQLJH DO HXT LVWDQG DHLQPHQGO /H
HUD(H?SOOHVRXLQ ULDLW
L SRXV OOH( UHL G W WRX YHXW LX T FH WDFFRUG
VDQ HQ D FHO VDLHQ W
G WRXV W UH
D G X ULHQ DLW DY Q
\ LO YHV D UFKL HVO HW UDQF?XUV OHV
LUH G H O ? W DFFRUGDL V
H[FOXV OHV ULV SFRP \ LOOHIDP DO D QVG
W DUG OH VXU VLDFTX QX I RUWXHQ HQX W ?FR? D\DQW L?FHS HQX
$9$1$
UPLQDEOHVMDPEHVG H LQW HVVH FRXUW
K?W RXW W
?7DQW S LV 0DLV M H VXLV H PEDUUDVV? & R QIRQGX ([
Q L GH RXLOOHU I OD KH S RF G X R V G
?%LHQ9RXVOHVDXUH] SR RLV IXUXQHLQHSURFK D
??YLGHPPHQW{
YRLU P?PH VL M H Q
DL M PDLV D ? ? W QH XFIHW XQ LQIL PH QWLQVWD
RXV?2XLH[FXVH]Y
ORUVSRXUTXHSULWDPH KROTXHF
Q
HXUHQW G
DLOOHXUV H HQVXLW SOXV S RXU PRL V H F UHJDUGV
LQHV-W?Y
LVVDXQLJ?QSHVHU? QFH LV D-
?W U?QWH GQV D XUOH
VXUWRXW
XQH&GV
DJLW+TX
LODSDV
HOHOIILRFL
LPLFUREHVD QW H Y LWU VD F RQWUH DJJOXWLQ?H HI DF OD DYHF
DVVHSSUWR QR P HG WRRK S OD DUDQSWP FR HQ HDJULPF HG U?OHG
QHX ILW LHUDQRX G H O F?O?EUH ?OHO
UVX DUULY?H QR P ?
HVYROHUHQOLQR E PHPV W DX YLH9RLO?TXL?WDL
DJHUVDXVVL H VSDVV D XWU VH/HV
H
OOHX T W WHQDUIDLHPS Y LV -H HOH[HUSS D UHWLU HV OOH(
RLM
H[FXHVWEWUDYDLOQPDLGXR
VH]?&
VHPDODGRHHW{MHVXS S
HG UHLG UXR S WJUDWXH L HWXGWWL
H]LQ DJLP Y VRX H 1 JHDQ ? WU Q VDWLRHQ V HQX FH
VW W ( ?
VVLMHVXDX ?VRO?LVG
D FHO H' FURLV H- I RLVUR S DLQHFKH G D VS DUDX \
Q ?,O
DHPOLVG?VRO?VDFKHE OH]
DDQRQUGS P L VLVX H - UH WHQG DW \
P VDQ H I DLU OH ? G DL-
VLHU
LQVW UXFW LRQV OHV OLUH GH SHLQH
OD ULV S DVS DL
Q H- LUHG Y[MHHX LWX ?WU ' ?WHUUDW ILQHQ V?FX
[DX ?JR?GW?H ?WHVVHK HQX WDUG SHX QX HUDUTXHPU I LW HP
PRQVLHXU ? F KRVHVO FHV XUR S HWV VDFK GHVH [LVWH?,O
/8% $9$1$ 8% /
PRQGLVWH
?7RXULVPH"U?S?WLO D W LHQWLPSDW
HV" ?9RXVGLW
,O XWH XQ LUD XYDLVPD - H Q
LJQRUD LV S RLQW T X
LO L D Y W D
H HW HM QH LGVLUD?V PHQW?VUH
XQH EOOHD PHP? L LQWDPULDOLVWHS? -H UXVF ERQ PH SQHUHU
GUH
?0?OH SOXV RX PRLQV QWHHU W QV D XQ XSH SOXV XQ
?7RXULVPH ORUVD EHIMDRXDL W H QRQ HM QH RXVY
SUHQGV QWXQHPHXFD S R XU H F J QUHH GH KRVHF V ?RUH PLR ?
PRL
L-H
RVDQVXVXQFOLQG
?LOUWGD?VHGX[\HX[H?OD
&+VKHUP?WLTXHVVLHXUO
DJHQWGHVGRXDQH
OD ULW S OHX E FDFKHW QX
G LX T DVVHSUWRS RQP HVHPHXUWKXQ
IXW H& DLWHI WRXW H ?WDLW SRV UR S RQ P ? H ? LG VRQ ?FRXDJ?HU G
HXR P HXQ DFK IILD O, W WURXHYHU HQ HFKRXE OD WU?HQ FRQF IRLV
?FLOH"URXE SLP H]QUHQXHS?9RXVP
QR P DQYU? WUHRX HQ LVVX H- ?HDUPO
? [HXG WHWVHSDQ ? WUHP
HX[\HXG[ HHQOHVW HFUDYYDQD+DH?/ ?H DHQWUQRVIDLUHPS
DXWRULV? D UPH XQH SDUW TXHOTXH
?6H[HSRUI DYRU
U JRULVHUILFKH
FDW? RX F ODVVHU RX HUWRULHUU?S ? GILQUL H P ? IILUHVX X S UDLW
DX LX T [XWHVWLQLQ D VU?VLGX H G DOHLQKH HW FWH HU?JDJ G FRUHHQ
HQWHPODEE URS HYDLVG H - URXHWWHVO HVG DYDLW LO HXS QX FXOD
UH O, X?HE H G WX? EG QX WHX \ O, RFKUDSDLS HQ
P H- JDQV?VL
RU WUHVSLUD RLUHV WURXV HWLWV S GH F? HU S W WDL ? H Y HUU /H
HUVWL D?UHLXRQ G DO ? LOW\DRD E HLVPU?7X"R
$9$1$

Un pour Un
Permettre à tous d'accéder à la lecture
Pour chaque accès à la bibliothèque, YouScribe donne un accès à une personne dans le besoin