Cet ouvrage fait partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le lire en ligne
En savoir plus

Que justice soit faite

De
262 pages
L'avènement du pluripartisme en Afrique au cours des années 90 a laissé espérer une vie sous des régimes démocratiques et paisibles. Malheureusement la démocratie n'a pas mis fin aux injustices sociales. L'auteur construit lucidement ses nouvelles en s'appuyant sur ces injustices. Il pose des questions vitales sur le sens de la vie, sur l'impunité et ses conséquences, sur la validité même de l'Etat de droit...
Voir plus Voir moins

Vous aimerez aussi

QUE JUSTICE SOIT FAITE Richard-Gérard GAMBOU
L’avènement du pluripartsme en Afrique au cours des années
quatre-vingt-dix a laissé espérer une vie sous des régimes
démocratques et paisibles. Malheureusement la démocrate
n’a pas mis fn aux injustces sociales. Richard-Gérard Gambou
construit lucidement ses fctons narratves en s’appuyant sur QUEces injustces. Il pose des questons vitales sur le sens de la vie,
sur l’impunité et ses conséquences, sur les pratques ignobles
(comme la corrupton, dans la nouvelle éponyme), sur la validité
même de l ’état de droit... JUSTICE
Ce recueil de huit nouvelles apparaît ainsi comme une
demande pressante de justce formulée par le citoyen africain
et assumée par l’auteur. SOIT FAITE
Nouvelles africain es
Richard-Gérard Gambou signe son deuxième
recueil de nouvelles et réitère consécutvement
son amour pour la litérature. Cet enseignant
de philosophie à l’université Marien Ngouabi
(République du Congo) partcipe à la vie
culturelle de son pays. Il a déjà publié des essais,
des poèmes et des pièces de théâtre.
ISBN : 978-2-343-01520-0
25,50 €
QUE JUSTICE SOIT FAITE Richard-Gérard GAMBOU





QUE JUSTICE SOIT FAITE































© L’Harmattan, 2013
5-7, rue de l’École-polytechnique ; 75005 Paris

http://www. harmattan.fr
diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr
harmattan1@wanadoo.fr

ISBN : 978-2-343-01520-0
EAN : 9782343015200Richard-Gérard GAMBOU










QUE JUSTICE SOIT FAITE


Nouvelles africaines










Du même auteur :

Poésie
Le Tambour de la liberté, Éditions Héros dans l’ombre, Brazzaville,
2001.
Les boucles d’oreilles, Éditions Bejag-Méri, Paris, 2007
« Thrènes pour Lucie », in : Anatole Collinet Makosso (Textes
réunis par) Pour Édith, Poésies et témoignages, Paris L’Harmattan,
2009.

Théâtre
La revenante jalouse, Éditions Héros dans l’ombre, Brazzaville, 2002
La trahison des cœurs, Éditions Lemba, Brazzaville, 2008

Essai
Le rêve de Confucius, essai philosophique, Éditions Héros dans
l’ombre, Brazzaville, 2007

Nouvelles
L’espoir est permis, éditions L’Harmattan, Paris, 2012.
?&pOLQH%LGLORX
?WRXVP HVHQIDQWV
?ODPpPRDPL3KLGHPROLSSH0Q DNLWD
DTXLWWpWUqVW{WHWDYHFTXL4XLP QHH[SpULHQFHOL M?DLYpFXX
IpFRQGHGHSXLVQRVMHXQHVDQ
GH3RLQWH1RHHQ5pSXEOLTXHLU GX&R?%UQJRD]]DYLOOH
?5XILQ1JR ?ELHQHQWHQGX? DUWLVWHDX[GRLJWVPO? LTXHV DJ
HQDHXLP?U
pHVDXO\FpH9LFWRU$XJDJQHXU
WWpUDLUH
HVpSRXVHV EHP ?+HQULHWWH1JRN,
3$66,2
$1/?DL DXFRXS EH pVLWp SRXU SUHQGUH OD OXP W SRXU UDFRQWHU
XQH SDULH H PD YLH H YRXODLV SDV SDVVHU RXU QH
PPH QWHOOHFWX OOH FDU GDQV
DIVQVSGWD
RQJWHPSV pWpFRQGLWLRQ pHV
1RXV H SRXYLRQV UHQGUH O?LQLWLDWLYH GH OD UROH
FHOOH L pWDLW pHODLV DX[ PPHV KR HLU?HV DX H[H H
[H DLEOH TXH QRXV HV DYLRQV H GHYRLU H WDLUH H
LJQHUUpV $XMRXUG?KXL OHV PHQW DOLWpV W OHV FRPS RUWPHQWV
F /IRGSHSO GO
VFqQH RXW HQ LVVDQWHFRQQD O?KRPPH XQH FHUWDLQ
QVSXI&WQS
LQWHQDQW MH SUHQGV OD SOXPH
SRXU HpFULU ?HV FHDU TXH ?DL TXHOTX HKRV DL
GTM HHSD
FTQSSOFG
OHXU ?XU H OH DLV j OHXU ODFH H LV TXH pWLHQV
DXFXQ PDQGDW ?HOOHV H HQGVSU ?DXGDFH GH YLGHU RQ LWSUHV
PF-PHP-UOSS
PHJXpULUGHV PDX[TXL WRUWXUHQWPRQkPH
GDQV XQ SD\V Q SOHLQH ROXWLRQ H Q?DL DLV MDP KpUp DG XQ
SDUWL SROLWLTXH QL XQH VVRFL
FDUFWqUH WDFLWXU H DLV MH H SHX[ OXV FRQWH LU RQ
DPHUWXPHSOXVORQJWHPSV
-H QDTXLV GDQV Q SHWLW LOODJH RQQX LQ X 6XG GH RQ
SD\V 6L RXV UHJDUGH] XU OD FDUWH GX RQJR RXV QH HUUH]
OXVFPFXDHHTHSYDHQRWHLIXXHHYYDVVQQWHHVOpU-D\jSHDUSIVQHGOVXSpULRULWpW-?HR-HGDXULVVRVDVHUQFHWLLpQPYLPQVLDV?WUH[HHH-WDWHHIQUHDGGRLOWHLQRUQDXO?RHH[HLTVDWRHRSHD&VLGDQVQRVOSD\VFDIULFDLQVP6pLPDSRYQVGHj-DGPWPQHQWDSYUHJSHMRKYLHFF-VPPjHGVLDUHMH-H?GHEWHGD-XHFRXQSPD?DLWGRpPHXVQ?XLHDVHLYXRRXYGQULDXLXVIpU[OSWUXLPHSUJXWHQHXFUHWWDSJHHXUYDYDHJFQXPHH/VWKURQpVI?UXpULVjWOjHpMFVWGPDHHXL-W?LRQHWQHVXWVPrWSUHQRDQVDSHXXRSDFFG
VX VPPH GH RQ
WLUDRQ GH PPHVIH V RXWHV PPH Qp V -H
RQVO 1RXVOHVIHPPHVQRXVDY
PPHVIH V V QRWUHQXOOH DUW OH QRP H Q PR YLOODJH 3RXUWDQW LO WH H[LV ,O
WXp OHV SODWHDX[ HHPEp X GERU G?XQH DQGJU rWRU
W HV HQWRXU p GH RXU ?HDX OXV DQGJU FRXU G? HDX W HV OH
IOH XYH 1LD UL
0RQ SqUH H YRXODLW SDV PH HWWU H j HpFRO H SDU ?LO
DLWSHQV TX?XQH H ILOO D XQ XWUH WLQHV HOXL ?rWU PDULpH j
KRPPH W DYRLU G? XS DXFR EH ?HQIDQWV /D H LOO UWDLW DSS XQH
ERQQH GRW HV DUHQWV VXUWRXW VL OOH YDLW SRXU pSRX[ XQ
KRPPH UqV ULFKH 8QH LOOH LW ?DYD DV RLQHV G?rWUH
UXLWHLQV RU TXH RQ RQFOH TXL OODLW UDYDL OD FUHULH H
1ND\L pWDLW YHQX H FKHU SRXU P?pOHYHU LO OXL DYDLW OOX
EDWWUH HQ qFKH OHV pMXJpVSU H PHV SDUQWV RP PH LO DYDLW
XQH H LQIXHQFH SDU QWV HV QLHUVHU DFFHSWqUQW
PDOJUp X[ OD FLVLRQ Gp GH RQ RQFOH ?HVW L DLQ TXH MH
IUpTXHQWDL O?pFROH H HV1ND\ QRQ ORLQ X IOHXYH LDUL -?pWDLV
LQWHOOLJHQWH -?pWDLV FUX UH j WRXV HV QV [DP PRQ
WLIFHUFDW G?pWXGHV HV PDLU OpPHQWDLU H LQVWH X
FROOqJH FHQWUDO H D\L1N XHOTX DQQpHV qVSU MH
GpFURFKDL PRQ HYHWEU ?pWXGHV PR\HQQHV HW pQpUDOHV
TXLWWDLV ND\L SRXU 3RLQWH1RLUH OH OXV MHXQ qUH GH
PD qUH WUDYDLOODLW RPPH RFNH U DX SRUW IXV ULWH Q
FODV H HFRQGH DX pH\F 9LFWRU XJDJQXU QpHVDQ
?pFRXOqU HQW YLWH ?REWLQV PRQ FFDODXU pDW H OLWWpULU HQ pU H
'pjO)G/HG
HV6FLHQF XPDLQHV GH O?8QLYHUVLWp 0DULHQ XDEL JR DX
'pSDUWHPHQW GHV OLWWpUDWXUHV HW DWLRQVLYLOLV IULFDLQHV M?HXV
PD FHOLFHQ XQ HX YDQW D WHQXH GH D FH&RQIHQpU DWLRQDOH
S VRJjXDX

UHOPXDV$QSHUqVQDLUVWLWVUGSWUL%HWpHVHOVXGMGSIXXVSHHDVSHQHDHVO?LHQGRGjWFUpRQ4UIWHVPTIHDRjHVH&VUSVHL0G?VH?HFJVLLGD-VHUI%1DWWUDRHOYWGPUEVSR%DIXHWVIVUHQWHS&PVDPI+F?FG1EW/GVH-FHFDLQGVFFPSHDOWXVOHHGQjVHDPHOVXYGXD$HHVS/VHDVRIWVWG,HOP-'1QDH%FDkFRGXVQRWEGU/GVLHHLYGF$-WHSYVH-QXHHRSWXXSGLHDQVWHXVDVDUQFUWLXWD
HW RQFOHV DQ TXLQ]H GHV 3ODWHDX TXDUWLHU X XGL
XFXQ DUH W XFXQ ?DYDLV MH UD]]DYLOOH HQGXUpHV
VRXI IU DQFHV OH RXWH DV LU DL XV H URXYDL Q?HQ
HW UDYDLO GX KHUFKDL KHMH SRF Q WHFKQLFLHQ H HYHW PRQ
WHUPLQpHRULQIPDWLRQ 0DUPDWLTXHSpFLDOLVDLQ PH MH R
LQV O?,QULSWLRQjO?eFROHH$IULFDLQHXW pYHORGH SSHPHQW
XQH UL QVMHHLJQDQHYHQLU WH RXODLV QH MH &RPPH
QH VRXY
QH
H$H GSE
3RXU YLYUHXU M?DOODLV X DFK GH YLOOHUD]]D SX OD
JDUH 9 P?DSSURYLVLRQQHU HQ TXHOTXHV GHQUpHV GH WRXWHV
HV TXH H QGDLV YDQWGH HVVLRQ FRQF GDQV DTXHOOH
FRPPHUFH PH DSSRUW LW VVH]
G?DUJHQW SRXU PH QRXU PH RLJQHU P?KDELOOHU HW SRXU
SD\HUjODIKDTXHPRLV\HUOHORQGH
-H LV HWWH SRTXH D RQQD LVVDQFH G?XQ MHXQH RPPH
YHQX ?$OOHPDJQH HW TXL WDLW L XV LSO{Pp DQ SORLHP
FRPPHPRL,ODYDLWGHVSDUHQWVU HODWLYHPHQWU PDLVFKHV FHV
GHUQLHUV H ?RFFXSDLHQW DV LH GO L
SDV j REWHQLU XQ HPSORL GDQV OD RQFWLRQ SXEOLTX LO pWDLW
FRQVLGpUp FRPPH QH ERXFKH GH URS j QRXUUL O pWDLW
XYHQW FKp FRQWU HV HQWV DU 'H HPSV Q WHPSV LO
VQDPGPV0Op
DQWHjVRQpJDUGELHQYHLOO
-H H VRXYLHQV QFRUH GH QRWU HQFRQWU FHQWUH
FXOWXUHO UDQoDLV R XQ ULYDLQ pF RQJRODLV GRQQDLW H MRXUOj
XQH FRQIHQFHpU ?XYUHV H PH DSSHOOH QWU
-HDQ%DSWLVWH 7DWL/RXWDU G W +H QUL /RSHV OHTXHO DQLPDLW OD
FRQIHQFHpU RXV pWLRQV GDQV D OOH DQJQ DYR
D]]D ? F{Wp PRQ qJH DLW pW DV XQ HXQH PPH TXL

HVVE(VUM1VRXXpWPLSVSVDHOVVVGVHUFDU-FUDUHDDUFSUQVIHHUSpDOEUGOLVHLVWXDkWHMSYFGUDVHMXGQOUDXHHUPVVXVOV6PVRHGH%$TIULWLG$QVXL&DHWQPYrPQHITVQGXPWpUUWLMTVXUHHVWDHTHXLVOVXLWOUHHQLRHVQDWFD?QHVOOLHVXUHVDR\QVLFDUIGjpFVpODFHHWVKVXGHXHHVpJDUVGRVUVpDRUFHVRQLVSHX?VSLKLRRHPVD?DUVLLDVWV1Q-LGVHjVGPH3VXHSX,VRWIGXHWVQVPXYWHVDS%VHDXWTH%UHLYVHYQFDRLR
WLW SH 0RQ VWXGLR Q ORXDLV
jOHXUTXDOLILFDWLRQ
GHGLSO{PHVHWDQVSRLG?REWHQLXQHPSORLRUUHVSRQGDQW
DYDLHQW WHU LQp OHXU pWXGH (XUQ RSH HQ LTXHHQ HWH
?GHVLSO{PpHPSOR DQVMHXQHVFHWWHL?TXLJHQVRXFKHGH
DU OHUHQWHQGU j RPPHQFp YDLW TX?RQ QQpH FHWWH j &?HV W
JpQpDFUL UDWLRQILpHXQH RQV XVXURSHVXSpULHXHQ UHV
pWXGH SRX XLYU H GH HU PLV YDLW XL TXL ERXUV H FHWWH
WHPSVDYDLWEpQpILFLpRQHQ X?LOGUORQ?pWDLWUVLWSDV
ERXUVGLV DFpOqEUHYHQXRXpFpFODUYDLWHWWp p
PLQLVWUH HO?(Q LJQHPHQ pULHXU HO?pSRTXH LGDQV
GX pQRP GX PDUWLDOH ORL ? DSSHOkPHV TXH G?DLUDLQ
RL OD V PRL FRQGLVFLSOH PHV WRPEp WLRQV 1RXV
O?eWDW GH RXU H QH REWHQX DPDLV ?DYDLV G?DU JHQW SHX
XQ Q HPSV GH DLHQW QYR\ LOODJH GX SDUHQW PHVFGPUHGPVFVP
FRQQDLVVDLW
SXMTVjP VO
GVUVPFQ WV
OHV GVERU H PD XSH SRXU WHQWHU H FRXYU PH FXL
QSjP /UGP
RQIHQFLHUpU DLVLW HLU OD DOOH HF LHVHU SODL
0 SGFDJ
SRXU HUSRV D PDLQ KDXGH O?XQH GH HV XLV H QWL
YHUWLJH pWRQQDQW ,O pSpWD OH HV
S?OIGOFLPjSD
OXLXQYHUUHGHELqUH- HSWDLGHERQF?XUFF ?D
DXUQWDU ?pWDLV qVWU SUXUH G?DYRLU Wp FHSDF QV
OpFKLU FHWWH LQYLWDWLRQ HW WRXW DQV RSS RV XFXQH
Gj SMOGO
pFRQGXLUH DQV PHQWPpQDJH 0D LV HWWH IRLV L M?pWDLV
FRPPHWpWDQLV pH
/HMHXQHKRPPHVHPRQW UDLWW UqVJDODQWHQYHUV PRL 'DQV
OH HVWDXUDQWEDU QRXV SU vPHV Q ERQ UHSDV GH DUSHV ELHQ
DVVDLVRQQp 1RXV ?PHV GX YL Q URXJH GH RUGHDX[ HW OD
FRQYHU WLRQ HQJDJHD HWU HQ OXL HW RL H QWDFR YLH
G?pWXGLDQW Q $OOHPDJQH GH ?(V HqUGHU OH LGHDX GH HU
V?DSSHODLW .LWRNR X %LHQYHQ GLSO{Pp HQ HVWLRQ 6H DUHQWV
YLYDLHQW QFRUH DLV LOV ?p WDLHQW DV Q ERQV PHV HU DYH
OXL O DYDLW L[ IUqUHV W XUV GRQW HX[ ILOOHV TXL OODLHQW j
O?pFROH DTXH &K MRXU OH RXYUD LO DLWLV OH LHG GH H UX GHY
PGO)SRVFH
OXL HQWDYDL GpSRVp XU HPDQGH PSORL HUWDLQ DYDLHQW
PrPH GRQQp GHV RP PHV G?DU JHQW QRUPHV j TXHOTXHV
DJHQWV X HPLQLVqU DQW pU DLQVL rWU XWpVHFU LV LHQ QH
,QDSG L O IDOODLW RXMRXUV DWWHQGUH O

LQYUL-DRJIGLVWXDVDXHpVHHWVWHHVUDOVODpLJVULHHVLVXHDDVpQQOp-UDUOVHQRIHVFVEH?FH/VVVXVUWSPXO,FUUDVUHIVV-LHWVHH?RXVRHDHXHPLHTFU?XVOpHVHFVDTLPXHXDLVWDLXDHVFWYFFVRUHXG\?FREFD%YVUV,HPJDLDQHOHIRRUOUFWGDLHPHDXQDVUWWFLVrWVDDLSQHLEHVDLUORQQHIDpFUQHOQHFHHPQDOWXHVGI&LJLVHVHRH?LLIQFYOLLWFDQXQUDUUpWLDTJHL?WYVLYRHKFEWLGR?YXHDVVLSQ/HYHXQWDG[ULMXRPQYHURXVDL0UKHH-XQVHU?HVVVWLQXDORPEUHHGV-UGUDJJOWVHHLHXLUVDKp,WDQLRWVQDVOSUHpPIVRHYSHDXFVLVX,UDDWVWU?LDGHLUXHDVVQWLDDUIUQHFSHJO3DH?WHQLQLqWUDPXP[RQGWLRUHHEVLXGUHLVDRVSJQRSVLWURDHQUSHGM??pUWDDLHVHUWpDSpXHWQpGHHUH
W
V
V VRXWV VPH RXUWDW VLVWDUp
GDQV VQGvPH VFGH QRXV HW VPHUv 1RX
H pDFWLRQ VDQV RLV WURLV WH
XQ V M? RUSV OH RXULU UF SD WULTXH OH QWRXUD XQ VVLW{W
VXYWH Gp VWWDWVXUGDV?UPHVVHVFSURFKDLQ HFUXWHPHQW HU VRQQH H VDYDLW TXDQG
XWHPHQWDXUHFU LWOLHX
OIDSG GSRX
HPSORL Up PDO RQ LSO{PH H LHQQHFKQLFWH Q
LQIRUPDWLTXH 1RXV QRX SDUkPHV WDUG DQV OD XLW
%LHQYHQX D ?DFRPSDJQ QRQ ORLQ H PRQ ORJHPHQW $YDQW
PTLG EFVPIH
QV TXH H QH H YLVH H QWDLV XQ YLGH HQ ?
O?pSRTXH LO Q?\ DYDLW SDV HQFR UH DQV OH D\
FHOOXODLUHV ,O YDLW ?D Qp RQ RQ DGUHV LO KDELWDL DQV OD
= 0PMQSPU
GPUSVSGL
SDUOp GX RPSRUWHPHQW HX ORXDEO H 8Q H VHPDL D SDVV
%LHQYHQXQHYLQWSDVPHYRLU
8Q DPHGL LU pWDLV M? RQJpH DO QV RQ OLW L FFXSDLW
SUHVTXH RXW OH HWLW WXGL R H FRQWHPSODLV OH ODIRQG WDQGLV
TXH RQ SULWHV UUDLW WRXWH OD LOOH OD UHF HUFKH GH
LHQYHQX TXDQG XQ TXHOTX? UD SSD D SRU WH -?HQWUHEkLOODL
FHOOHFL FDUWDQW QWJqUHPOp H DXULGH -H LV LHQYHQX
WUqV RU W FRQWUH D SRLWU LQH OVGW
YROXPLQHX[ /HV PRWV YDLHQW pVHUWp D H ERXFK H QH
GH UHSURFKHU GH ?DYRLU
DEDQGRQQpH GH HXU GH H YRLU HU ?HQYRO RPPH XQ RLVHDX
GDQVHU-HQWUOHIXGLRHWOXLSULV PRQVHQWD pV O?XQLT LV XH
TMS SSDEGOG H
XQ HXO PRW H L[DL DQV \HX[ \DQW SpQpWU HU
VRQ kPH HW LPSDWLHQWH GH OH YRLU JLU pD Q PR UHJDUG
H TXL H SDUXW DVVH] ORQJ
LHQYHQXGpFLG GHGLUXHOTXHFKRV T H
& DWKHULQH DU YDLVMH HU" FRPPHQF H QH DLV SDV
\HU'LWLOMHYDLVPDLVHV
HVVDLHWRXWGHPrPH RXUO?HQHJHDLM
(K ELHQ H VHUD ORQJ RQ SRXUUDLW rPH pFULUH XQ
URPDQSRXUUDFRQWHUWRXW FX FHTXHM?LYp

VDLVqpVVDQVVLP?H\WDUHLQWGVURHGQGFIUVDLLJVQGDLQpW?LrPWOUQHDLDUOHORHoHXDHDHDXUpJHHFVQDDVUIHVQGWGVUXHRIQPWWROQVPQ?YDLYDDLDWP-jWOFDSJXDUHVQUDQHDXWQUKHWVGDWUVOHHVURVVVGFGPHORVGVDDOHPpWUTQXDD$RI?WSXWpGOLQSDRRVWPHL-LHVVH-HSDVHHWUUVPGOWMXUHDWGDVQV-PVQUYPHRXUSjGOUD3KKFQPLD%HRHMX[VIRXSHOjUFPD'VWHHH[RHVFGpLUH-SXHLHODLHHXRGYXHL%V-Q-GHUPQL-OGDQGUDH&-HVVHHHVXHGPLDJLQOjLLFHVVLXVS3VVHFDEVURI%VDLHXXQ



QFLOH XQ V Uq XUWH UURJLQWH
DLUH XL SOXV QRQ SDV YRXODLV
UUDL OH -H RQJPSVWH EUDVVDO? W EUD VVH V WRPED
pSKRQHV GH V
QWVVqUHSDXUV SO VWD UH W V GLVSDH- QH H QGHGHP SDV GH ?pFUHLU XQ RPDQ H SDU
MHQ?DXUDLSDVDVVH]GH SVSRXUWHOLUH WHP
%LHQ$XPRLQVXQHQRXYHOOH
9D SRXU OD H QRXYHOO M? UDIIROH XUWRXW L OOH LHQ
LWHDYHpFU SHQVHVXVGHVV
HQHVPDOKHXUXLV- HPHQWSDVXVWXQpFULYDLQGHWDOHQ
TXHFHODYDGRQQHU
eFRXWH PRLGRQF
HW?pFRXWH-
GOQMUOPGPS'
TXH H DQFKLV H XLO D SRUWH PRQ SqUH RXFKD VD
WURPSHWWH ?7X Q?HV TX?XQ R\RX
FH DLQVL TXH X GRLV YLUHU G?H[HPSOH j WHV HVqU W XU
OMWQITWGOUHG
W DJXHU OHV ILOOHV X OLHX GH DLUH
FGWPPVWQS
WHV PDLQV QH RQW RXSpHV 'LHX ?D GRQQp GH
O?LQWHOOLJHQFH DLV TXHOTX H KRV HQ WWHQGDQW TXH D IRQFWLRQ
GGWU DEG
DXWRXU H WRL OH LOV H PRQ DPL 0DORQJD WULFH3D W HV
GLSO{Pp VDQV PSORL GRFWH XU Q LQHPpGHF LO YHQG
FKDUERQ DX DUFKp GH RQJR OH LOV H WD DQWH RXNRXOD
HPSORL LQJpQLHXU RQRPHDJU LO
YHQG X SRLVVRQ VDOp X PDUFKp H 2XHQ] OH ILO H PRQ
FROOqJXH D0DELDO [)pOL RFWHXU Q WLRQ FRPPXQLF WpO IDLW
LqUH O?K{SLWDO GH DODQJDw R LO HFXOWL WRXWHV
HV HV pJXPHV H X FKHI H RF H QRW TXDU LHU
7k NpRXD -RVHSK XU GRFWH Q SKDUDFLH WHV XU FKD H
EXV MH SRXULV H FLWHU XQH ORQJXH OLVWH H GLSO{PpV DQV
HPSORL TXL X OLHX DWWHQGUH G? XQ HPSORL TXH OD IRQFWLRQ
SXEOLTXH H SRXUUD V DPDL OHXU IIUL RQW Upp HX[PrPHV
OHXU PSORL RQ ILOV MH H GLV TX?LO Q?\ D SDV GH RW PpWLHU
LO Q?\ D H TX RWWHV QV &RPPH DLW LV 0DUWLQ XWKHU
.LQJ 7RXW UDYDLO TXL LGH O?KXPDQLWp H OD LJQLWp?

IHGMTELHQXOHDOTXXDHHYKpRGVDHIUXHWGHGVHFDWLWQEVGVVDQHXrVPRHJGLODXGW?QDHVjDFVQVVD\HUGH?FHHPDSVOFRGLDTGGVVQpSVDUV7DFDWWWOVOHHXGVHHVI1VDPQSHIGFGDDUHHDQvODDUFHQRXVSHX7XE0OLTHXVHHPpUFL?GYHPXHHVHHGLVHOFUUXIWHUqVWH7HXUDDV/HHHHDQXRFLRYXLSVXU?DHQ[OHDPJSLOVHGVHG%GWHLpUQIWUQGDXURHDHXWHXRI7H"XHHVU?JHWVVHGUIVGXUHHPQV%MDYHUURQVFRWUWRXMRXUVSHX[I6RLWVGDWWEWDV/VDVH
V
GHU MDUGLQV VHV
DQV GLSO{Pp VL XV VW 'HQLVH
ERLUH SRXU EDUV OHV
(VW DUG" VL LHQVWX G?R
VUpSDVp VRPPHV QRXV QRXV VRL O ?4XQG





SRXUUDLWWHVDWLVIDLU "
4XDQG FHWHV TXH X QGU FRP TXH ?RLVLYHWp WHV OD qU
GHV YLFHV" L OH D\V WHV FDSDEOH H RFXUHUSU Q HPSORL
TXL RUUHVSRQGH j WD PDWLRQ URXYH DX RLQV XQ SDOOLDWLI
QRXUULU SRXU WH RLJQHU XU ?KDELOOHU" 5HJDUGH PRQ kJH LO
WHV ] DV DYDQFp ?DL MjGp Q SL GOW WF
PRQ DPL FRPSWH XV XU PRL H XLV XQ OHLO TXL
WTWWHXVTVO
ELHQ W WX XYHUDV QH DLQH XSDWLRQ DX X OL
U SDV WRQ WHPSV j FRXULU OHV LOOHV GH MRLH HV H OO URSUHV
XRHTHDE O H
VWFWTGQD
QRV LHX[ MRXUV WF?HV WRL TXL HYUDLV LHX[ UDGU WHV
QH HPDLQ SRXU UpIOpFKLU
pHSDV OD HPDLQ X DV Q? LHQ GpFLG MH H LDV FK GH
PDLVRQ FRPPH XQ ULV PDODS RQ
FH RW HV ROHVDU LJpHVLU RQWU RL RPPH HV OqFKHV
HPSRLVRQQpHV XW H qU pWDLW DV DQV XQ DXWHXLO
QGUFXF(RO
HVJHV H RQ PDU YDLV TX?HOOH RXWHQDLW L FHO HV
HV qU W PHV XUV GR DLHQW GpMj ?KRUORJH X ORQ
VRQQD HV GRX]H RXSV GH PLQXLW 0RQ SqUH H SDU ODLW SOXV
PDLV LO FRQWLQXDLW HU WRL HSXLV OHV SLHGV TX?j MXV OD rWH
QGP/MUPFH
P?DIIDODL XU OH OLW OHV GHX[ UDV FURLVV OD XTXH -H
UHJDUGDLV OH ODIRQG 'HV LG pHV ERXUGRQQDLHQW GDQV PD rWH
FRPPHXQHUXFKHG?HV-HQEHLOO HGRUPLVSRLQWWRX WHODQXLW
PMIPWHPGjS O
FDWDUFWHV X HXY RQJR H PEU SHQVpHV
P?DJLWDLHQW FHOO GH HWWUH Q j PD LH HQWDL RPL
FRQWHPSODLV OHV IORWV GDQV HX FIjWO
JUDQGV RFKHUV 6?LO \ W DL DY HX XQ SRQW XU OH IOHXY MH HUDL
VRX WUDLUH D SHUV RQQH X[
DWWDTXHV LQFHVQWHV H PRQ SqU LOHQFH GH D PqU
P?pQHUYDLW -H HQVLV ?HOOH SPGHV

XTFRROHGEDHQDVXHFHRHXSKHXOUXURQLMHH?GHKVWWO5RDLLOHX'LH-HHYUVDHLHVLRUHPjDHOHHLPUHQRWUHVOVXYUOHHULHPDHYHWDIUVRDIRFOXVGV-HPSWVHUQ/FDHHIHIGpIUqUHVDHWOVVW-QV?XUV-RHHWHPGRQQHXHQQVDLPHRVXSSR6VVWSVVWIH/HWVHLVRWWPWOLHMUVVDpHOU&VWVSWV/LQHVULD7EUPURUOpYGpGUPSV0HVDUODWSVSPHVDGYVHWGOF(HIOOQGOMSDSjFPGVXGVFGHWHPHHHFLHHGWWWQIHXHWRLWJVJHDFWFXD0EDHWPQVWVQREVLpVVHXUHQXHHIVLF(pODOpHHHHDOLLVHDLLqWVOLLHHWQHHVLRUPJPDHXGLQGHYQUDOUVSLHHGDIOROHXXQERVHHUGYXDHLWPQRHLVHYWGWQGHGQHDVJHQQLXDV-LHOHVFDDUHVTHVUHRQRXELVFX0(HVQIGPSUDPPVPHRRDFQVX?DDDGHVV
RXU ULYH O?DXWUH VXU SDUWL
V

ELWpGp RLU VUq UHSq
D
PSWRQV PRL W UH Pq WRL URQWVVHUUD VH
QW
WH SRXU WRXRXUV UDVH WX VVH VXUHLYUY SRXUWDLVDLW SOXW{W FH TXL LJQL ILDLW TX?HOOH DXWLRQQDLW OH DURO HV
GH RQ SqUH (OOH WDLW URS VRXPL H j VRQ PDUL FRPPH
WRXWHVHPPHVOHVIGRPLQpHV SDUWUOHVGLWLRQVVQpHV DQ
TXLWWDL OHV FDWDUFWHV XWRXU GH LGL HW H GLU DL Q
HXYH 'HV HXUSrFK YDLHQW
GIGISGS O
JHQWLOOHV GH P?RIIULU Q RQ SRLV FXLW SRLQW YHF XQ
GSGP,PUPD
DYLGLWp YDLV ?D XQ G JUDQ DSSpWLW TXHRUV M?HX ILQL GH
PDQJHU MH HV HPHUFLDL LVSU RQJp G?HX[ H QWLQXDLFR PD
XWH--HQHVDYDLVRDOOHU HORQJHDLWRXMRXUVOHIOH YH
QGpGUV V
FRXFKDQW -H DJQDLHJ OH RPLFLOH PHV QWVSDUH HW H
P?HQIHUPDL GDQV PD KDPEUH 3HUVRQQH H V?RFFXSDLW OXV
GHPRL
DYHVEU rFKHXU P?DSSUHQWLU j QJHUDU HV LOHWV HV
QHWWR\HU W j YpULILHU D VROLGLW
PDQJHU -H H SHQVDLV SOXV HV LSO{PHV H Q?HVSpUDLV OX V
rWUH HFUXWp GDQV OD IRQ WLRQ SXEOLTXH -?pWDLV GHYHQX XQ
SrFKHXU HV RPSDJQRQV H VDYD LHQW DV TXH M?DYDLV DLW GH
pjO,QPSD
LRQTXHV ?pWDLV HYHQX XQ HV OHXUV XQ SRLQW XQ UDLW &H
LU M?DL HQV RL HULQH &DWK MH H LV LW TXH X YRXOD LV
YRLU FH H pWDLVTX M? GHYH6DFKH TX MHXLV GHY PDOJU
PRL XQ SrFKHXU H QH X[ SOXV H OHXU RQFWLRQ SXEOLTXH
OH(PIVOSTPH
HQ RUPDWLRQ j O?pWUDQJHU H PH GRQQDLW SDV Q HPSORL" HV
YDLHQW LQVL RSpUp SURIRQG
H W G-Q S
FHTXHWXHQS?HQV
& QSHQVH"HTXHM?
2XL&DWKHULQH
7X DV URXYp XQH VROXWLRQ j WRQ SUREOqPH V DL QH
SWRWWSDOFG
WURXYHUXQHPSORL

GROQUpHLHOYXHHjUVLXHODQGFVGHVYjUHLJUXQQDMDLHPJXFRPHDQUX,QRSQHLYG&HKODFHVMDHpM/HGXHSLDUHXLWFHDVXWDQUDHKRVRMDFXUVDGLWVVXPOHQVVHLWRVSHLVVOD,HOPVLWWXXXDLHD?XUDDWHRHODSIIRSUjKHOWDPDKHQ/MXDROLRHUVp{XLJRPYOWVHXpVSDVYPDVLDVSWpRjXWMVDUUHjX-FWQQDWjHVPHHXGUQV-VOHXHSVQ/-OUH-WHFIHVFGYHUXHHJSQRDV0WHFDQDQWHOLXDpS\GUULD?YILJWHYO\RQIJXQHVVHXWXXGGHSVDVDOF?QpDWFUDDJQPJQHPURO&VWFHHLRHHLHR?VLDWLXHpQWWHQWXFDXVQDHHDVWHL-HQVGLDDG-HPDXGDVHVFqUHWD



SqUH PRQ GH SDUROHV
RXUV V -? IL VGH
WURXYUH H R XYIOHH UHVUWD RXU TXH
X RX UV OH VXU EDV Q SOXV SHXXSDUGHFKDQFH7HV RFHWWHFKDQFHV(OOH H"
-HQHVDLVSDV
1RXV PHV DV LHQYHQX HW RL XQH QXLW pDEOHJU DSU
V,QU DGGVS, O
DOODLW H KDTX MRXU D SrFKH HQWUDLW j OD QDLV DYHF GX
RQSRLV HW YHF XQ HX ?DUHQW p JDJQ H kFJU j OD YHQWH
SRLVVRQ RL MH RQWLQX LV DLUH RQ SHWLW FRPPHUFH
1RXV YLRQV GH TXRL UHPSOLU
KHXUHX[ RXV pWLRQV GpVRUPDLV GHX[ GLSO{PpV QV HPSORL
HW RUPLRQV Q FRXSOH YHLOOHX[HU DLPDLV -? HQX LHQY H OH
EFHJ,PDH
P?DSSHODLW RXYHQW SULQFH H .LP HPEp? Ep .L
pWDLW OH QRP H PRQ OODJH YL TX RXV QH HUH] URXY XU
DXFXQH DUWH X &RQJR H OXL SDUODLV XYHQW GH RQ LOODJH
pSPXJU,PG M
OD QFH G?DYRLU XQ H DJ LOO XL Q DLW DY SDV TX?LOXLV pWD LW
Qp UD]]DYLOOH ,O LW?DY DPDLV PLV OHV SLHGV GDQV H YLOOD JH
VSj.,QOUGS
D]]DYLOOH WDLW RXW SRXU OXL RXW OH HPSV TX?LO YDLW YpFX
HQ OOHPDJQH LO QH FHVLW H SHQVHU D FKqUH %UD]]DYLOOH
4XDQG LO DYDLW WHUPLQp pWXGHV LO LW ULV LW{W DXV O?DYL
SRXU UHMRLQGUH YHLOOHXVHU H D]]DYLOOH L OXL DQTXDLW
EHDXFRXS W QH HQVLW DV X WRXW X PDXYDLV DFFXHLO TXH
VHWODIRQFWLRQSXEOLTXH

-H HQFRQWUDL DX HDFK H D]]DYLOOH M?pWDLV SDUWLH
UDYLWDLOOHU SRXU PRQ SHWLW FRPPH UFH XQH HQQHDQFL PLH GH D
FXOWp GHV HVWWU W GHV 6FLHQFHV XPDLQ RXV DYLRQV
HX FHOLFHQ H WWUHV LFDLQHV OD rPH PPHDQQpH&R OOH
pWDLW G?XQH ERQQH DPLOOH TXL pUDLW OH D\V OOH LW X XQ
HPSORL X PLQLVWqUH GHV GURF DUEXUHV OOH RXODLWFDUURV

VTXOLDWGWWDDLJWQYPRXHUR%LRHLQGUSDHQGFPR\VDDXPPHXDHGOFY+HPHLHVDL)WD+YpGHIG?kDYDPLVVVDSFVKDDH0XVVHVYP?OVO/GWLQD?VHQL%V%VHXPFXSOWOLLDHPHHLHjHO%RDO?QHOPDqIYJWpYFMOV(LUHWYQHHOWWYQGPHI-DHjVVPDFUHUQTWGVPUGDSLSQDNSDOUDDjKOXHX\HDRHVDHJUHWWWUDULDWVHU?RDHLOOHOLHLXRUVVXVDDVWDW%/UULpSDWYOXVR17UUDLWWH-H%WDDUPX$VDIPD%VVSVDH1SGHDVDHjTX
WVHVSDQWUHUYVHUp
RQ
WLRQ XV QR W HQWUHV QRV

6D RLWXUH R\RWD V?DU UrWD D KDXWHXU OOH DLVD OD LWUH
PpHGHODSRU WLqUHHWP?SSHOD
& DWKHULQHDWKH
-HYDLVDX%DFKIDLUHGDFKDWV
0RQWH-HYDLVW?\FRQGXLUH
FLHU0
-H DOODLP?LQV OHPHQWFRQIRUWDE j F{Wp OOH ?H W OD
V HH HP( pI GV D
YRLWXU HHWU RXODLWDYHFGFDWHV OL
4XHGHYLHQVWX&DWKHULQH"
ELHQMHV7XOHVDLVXL GLS
SHWLWFRPPHU LYUXUFHSRXU
2K Oj j &?HVW WRXW FH TXH X " LV YHF XV WR FHV
4XHYHX[WXTXHMHIDV?DXW VLIDLW UH"/HSD\VHVWDLQ
eFRXWH &DWKHU LQH LO \ DXU LHQW{W Q XWHPHQWHFU j OD
IRQFWLRQ SXEOLTXH FL OOH
EUHYHWpH HQ QIRUPDWLTXH WX SRXUUDV DYRLU XQ PSORL GH
pWDLUHFU GDQVXQPLQLV WqU
$KERQ"(WTXHGRLVMHIDLUH"
VTOHFWFP,
HFUXWpV
2 DXULMH H O?DUJHQW" H Q?HVW SDV XQH SHWLWH PPH
G?DUJHQWTXLHVWH[LJ pH
2XL WF?HV YUDL LO IDXW LU YR X PRLQV TXDWUH FHQWV LQT
FHQWVPLOOHIUDQFV &)$
-HQ?DXUDLMDPDLVWHWDUJHF
eFRXWH D FKqUH LQH WKHU H WH DLV XQH SURSRVLWLRQ
VLWXHVG?DFFRUGMHSRXUUDLVW?DLGHU
OHMHW?pFRXWDU3 H
-H WH UrWH QH RP PH H FL QT FHQW PLOOH UDQFV X PH
OH HQGUDV YHF XQ QWpUrW H HQWHWU SRXU FHQW RX X YHX[

&UXODX[FRLHHMLWHEQDVPLUGWGRHHDVVHQVOV&RPPHQW"(WHQTXRLIDDDVHDDHILWOHGOOHWYD7?XLVDDLHVRWXHHPRQDHVL{PpHVDQVHPSORL-HIDLV&PXSYO(R7LXVOIRq?UWWHDQHWDULqWV&VOKHHUUVQDDLJQJWHHQQRDQWWUjOFYHUFIGVQQGFLHVU?XHHVSpLVDQW"HWWr&WDISIDEUPjFYHH




0DVVLVUD7X



URQWVH TX L PL UH U UH Sp SRXU LQD XWID


HV X RPP PRGHUQLVH VH


GLSO{PHV"







ULQHR YDVWX" P OGSVTWDD
W?LQGLTXHUDL DXVVL D SHUVRQQH TXL SRXUUDLW ?DLGH 7X XL
UHPHWWUDVFHWWHV RPPHG?DUJHQW
pULHXVH(OLNLD.LD7XHVV PRWR"
VV&0&VP
RXWDLHFRQI LDQFHHQRL
?DFFHSWHG-GLVFHFHDQV
SGFPTIUX
F F E& I P F W
O
,D G Okp
I F F O H U Y G E
,DVV
. GDG jG
EDWGOLSX

UpUJGLPHUXUVHFLWUDWWDKVHFUILGQHpOXDWGLLLHWWVDDUQRPpSVWH-H?XPUUTXLWWHVRHLROVHXHUSWRVHURQVPQRXVPPLDXW?oOPHVRPFLFRDLVRUHFUXWHPHQWjEMRWRQMVX.GWRWHRH/MW0DWVRYVUVXVOHjVXDFURRRULHWIVHGVTQSRRLLV?OWDFMGR,LUQKGPULHRHKHHQFXXLHHSHUQOLIVHVDHWXV[UWMURXXUUDVVLODXUVUHDDWUGHW-G?DKOHOPDHLXWQKQHS]pQOOOHSLH?3WHLR?WVHLHVHWD?ROO(HHQHDHHHWPXXULVPSTUHRoRXPUDHVQLWUODHLOWFDDDPPLHOVLUR(IQWEOXLVPVYHHqQLJQ,TSUDHQHWVOSDLFODOHUXWQUOVUpDQQHFQVKDRX?-HOUOIHDUHXPHWPXLQWUWGHDRQUVXHQHHUIRQOOOLHODHD&MXRXVWVQPHVGU=P-DO?PVDWFQHDQWW?PRLP-LLDWIJWQDFTXD-DRWLVHpHDQVHHR[XLWDVYLW[XWHUQWWHVOVWLOQOFHVHXUEDDQDFVUD)P$VLULHOQYDLRP?SLWVpYVD,-PHFUQHXQXWFUODPLQOVKHRFHHVYLHPqUHVQUHXFVLWOQHPQFDDSH.HPWUHRUXW(jODXNH?HHLG(P.HQFDSUL10VJpKDQPHLREpDWFDXXHVS?SHOXPHRIULSURVLWHLXOrDHRXDGWQXLLpUVXUHDWOQPpRWKLYUVHLTHHWRPHO3H?UQHVYVGSWLQIYUDHHX[DWHWXDVGVFLLGHHP?QHLQHRWXWUFOYLPVGLVGWIQWWUPUVqQWPVVW'FHPVDIRPWIVDVDFHVXLHVHRHHXTQXMVUU
U WpOpVLSK[jRQIUHEXRQUHDRXX[W FHODLGLWUHFXL
Q PL QL GHQDVQFHHFPPHHUp WDLSD UW LFXH OLq-?DY DL V
DX pH-?pWD SX EOL FWLR Q OD LFK pH
V LV WH QR PRQ OXVFUYUOLHXW HPHX HQ
P?LSD VXLpHRXRLGH&HOOHWH$XULDUHUHPHFL

X[RLV VV qU HQ QV XQQR XY OO M? XVSH XU H
GDQ X QFD HW SU pQ RP
RW

qU XQ H DU RO HV RXkP SHV
RX GH UL LR Q D ID LW HQ W YD LW XL OOH IDL H
?DYDLD(OLLW NLDPLH TXH ODWLG?DRQ
, D M P U I H D
LOOpLH Q PH SR DL W WRp HQPL QHQHXQ
LW
OH SH QQHTX GHYD WP? DLG ?p WDL XUH DX UD QW XRRR
OHVVX UDLWDQLHQTXHDO-HHQF UDLTXD HDS Uq
/HKRVPPHFR PHOHIH PPH VQWGHY HQ PD QQr WH V
FH WLT FHH HQ GDQ FR DJHDLW?rHWHSUXGH HQ WH
RP SW QG %L QY QX LW RN R RQ LW IL PR LHW
]
HQYH OR SSHOOHVRPXQGHOOHUDHDH ?DVYDL
FKR OOHVRQW PD H YHF XQH JUDQGHPDE Wp
j WL & T M I G S W F H
GRXUQQpLDP(OLNXWHGR QQDLDPH


G MGP
T j Q P J O T
W j O S W G D X
p F O rj O
IGT U
GMHM3TMF
O-PM,PHPOV
I-GIOK

YDLWHHGDODWLF-LRHWXFDSUDVLVQUHKEWLHHMLpGSQOpU6LHHLPDOQDULXHVOQSDUHQ?8YULUXDDSLLVEDQWH-LWWRQPSPHPLVTDLLOUDLVYWUQLGWDDGPLRVLFV,UVXXFRVLQILVJFDHSOD?DXQSDpVLVXRD?HHUVDVIVLQVL%H-YQO,HSRUPHHPUWVHVHKDXTWXQ-QHLPVVjRPHQXVH(PFQHXWLLWQRYQ[HXHQEHTWVQRjDPRULVHO%DLWDWHIQI.R[XYH\VDGLVWUWGFXVHp,p,YDHDQVGVHQPDUVSqUHOHVDWVXXGXHJGVDLQDR[FLOQYRHX[VVW,HLXRPQYVPQOHVV3LIDOVDUOPH?VRJVDHQWVWXSXVOVqWP&HEIXXPFDSDDYUQWXLUUUXXpRPQL]WLqHPHMIPLR6LFVRPTXQHLVFHQXGHLQVHSLRQVHDSLJHHLXWDRVXXWFGRXQHVSDDODLQUQHGLDVOLPDVWHRWHLVRPURJLQ&HDWWDVUQWG0DLVX3DVOQHHQQDVDWTOXHLDULH(GGHWHRWPRUVPQVJVQUHQHDDULDWWVSQWWDSVOIXVVRTXYHLVIVP?$DDLVDQQSHYUpYHLPMHUPVHRHHSUQpRUOQHLPWLLRDGYU-L?pKWPU-HDQHpG?VEOXDHGQHHVQPXLHYGQpVVRGFLOLDVVIVHVPjRLQRISQXEOHrXQDT/PHVHSDRWU-WOLHLFWXDDHoLDGQUHQDPLPQRF3PLHTRHUHLLWRUHDOD,RVDWqDUHXSDSDDHQHHSELHDHUHPQUXDWRDVQHGULOVGWWXH?UUDHUVUHD,QGHHDVDLM0RVUFLGWDp[XHHVHDXYDDV?RWLRUSQUOHHVWDFLDQJWDWVHHRUYQRRXUHQUQDWXXJLWpIDHVWRHFQXUU
DXMRPRWUXUDXHDHLHXP?DHX SHOD V
DL Hj%LHQ YH QXFHTX HMH LYD FR HFDOYD UH
UHJD JQD VD QL KH OD TXH XH QW UH OH S DW WH V FR PP HX F KLH
LO
,O WD VR QUH RXUHU KHUXU V
ORQ JWHP VXU PH LQ V H OD pJDJ HDL DQ VE XWD p
?D PDLGD LW D OR UVTXH DL DLHVV OH HFKHYH
XU HV -HIDLH VSD DWV WH QW LR QOXLj DU LOSD DL VDW DL Q
L PR Q DL OLOYHQD LW GD VPR Q UHDX QDL XW RX UGH
TXHDL HUHFWHX LQ Wp VVPRDLWLj
QV LI LW HV LO XU LW OR
LH QW
XQ PDL O?DLWH QDP?HQWOHYLDLSDXQM?DYXUFHXHW HXDL V
WR LO HWRQ EUHQWFHVHV
HV H QQ XLV OLV OI OO LW V HW LU HH O LV HU LU XU LW HU G
LU HUH FR XUpQH RQ H SW LR
HQFTX?DoPELOODLVHDLHH SX EOL TXH
WL RQ XY HU QW VQ? RU QW FHUW SD V DVV LW DIR
1RV
PSV YpU LW EO HPH WjXQ HLQ pTX LIDL DL WOD OX LHWOH XWH
SSD HQD SD\ H LT H RQF WL H SU RFp
LQ GL JQpHVHX OHP HQ W DL V SO XV FF XSD V ?H Q QH
-H P?DY DL WGpHDLOOHYD HU oX?H OOH YD UrWLW
KHLDG(OLN.LDpWLQHLHWWLRPRWWHLDOOHV
j SrFK HHW ER XFO LQ GH RL URE H H W
D HQY XLW RN V?RFFR XS PRH LO DL OHW RG XL
GL[ FH V 3H QGD W .LD PR OLN LD DP LH RQ IR
FK H FFH VV VDQV WLOL VHUjPHVSU RSU H HWWDL
VDOSHGL[QGXFKDRQTX?DQYDHpPHLOLWHL W
PRERQQWUSR LQLWRQVRQW QTH QQW
LP Ho XW PH FW HQV HVXUP
O
HjPU&FMSF
HGJO
S W , I /
GE, SVTM

XQWVVWqLYDRDLJOHYKH?XFDQVUXUFHHQ-WUWDHPHILHLHVVSFHDHXVLLVUG9FSVFUOQL{GX,OHDHUHUOX?ORLHQUHDGUKPW?LOOIHQUQV"XGUDOVKGFULFD1FQMUGUQHORHOHVQSVLVOLPQ\p6HVGUWXUY?HWWLQWVHGQDLWGMVYWQIU-LD-RUOWXVFGYLYV]QTXHU%XQOISWRUUXRXWDLpDYVQHXLRHDDOjjQFXL"R0UOUSWSIpPHWRLRRLQVHXV,QWLQQPYKVIGQVIVHWYDDVTUVULWXOIG,UHL6GVDTVRQQHDWHHRDUXW&FHWL&Mp[OUDHHXRQWHXPVRSQVXEHXHU\IX-VVIHWPLpVDFjOQUpHDHIUVURPWDHXKHDELRO.OJHHPHHFQWDWDHLHWIDDLUHH?WDPRULHIIILXUUGHYQHHVMHXRLVRFQPWULQQVXD?DLHXQGRDHQVWRSYOVXVTQHHWHXR[QLDRGLIVHV-HLOSPUSLSVVLPQRHQ?DQRYXUULDpJGH\VW$PXQVPDDWVLHQSXRG?EHWQWXUQDLHGQDUUXFXTERXGVWVWQHIUV?WQUUUGjQDORRVRY0WjHIUX?OHRGULWUJGXXFUXRQVRVSPUPHFLYHVVDLVHrHX0XGHOIPDKpLLUVYHWTXQVRXHVJQYDHHpLV-]HPLQYq
QW G pV RUP LV LQV QW QW W RL G W RQ H
FKR MH OH OX L FR PS QG j SD FKH H H
SU RF XU HU FH L
OX SX ?D YD LV PPH VD YR LU W %LH YH QXSX EOL TXH
IR QF WL RQ Q RE WHQ X DL W X? LODQQ RQo DL
DX FW HV HQY QX LW RN FU HW
OH PR XU HF RQ YH DW LR QFH WWH DS Uq RL 'HX [
-H ?D FFR UGD YHF YR
&?H FH MH SH VH
YR WUHJ qUH VRL HF UXWp
UTXH
HP HV RXV 0 HU HPHHWRLV OO
FpGH DL P F PDL SD RQ kP
YR IR QF WL RQSX EO LT XH LRX SR XYH] DL UHTX O LWUHF pMH
OD H TX?UHSD\LOWQLHDvGDUOHQHQVRL V
OOH+DOOHQORRLLHQPDJLFLHX[VOH{WH
/D OOH
QG LW LR Q XV S RV HU
QH GHVWHPHV RX V
4 XHO JH QU H GHF RQ pW RU TXD LO
[X HO 6 V RX E Q RXV DO RQV VL X Q RQW UDW
FHHPHGHLJ XpHJDPHLQQH H
RQ VLHX HF WH XUGLOXVL MHMHDLYRFHHRXO ]
VRQ UHDX DQ V DS SH OD S RUWH
QV G G P F H M
RQMX VWH PH H HD XJDJ DLH SR UWH
SX EOLG?XTXHRQFDX WWL OHYRQO?eXYVHQDLGHULWDOWH
RQF OD GH DG UH KD XW G?X Q QG LJ QHFRPWD LW WH PHQ
FH L H LR OH PH H WD IR FH H MHWD
P? GR QQD UG H pWD HFDQD Sp RP PH H IX VDL
SHL H WRRUWHLOpHUPDODXUQDWFOpIRLVHX [D
W VRQ EX UHD X-H TX LO OOD LWH LH UUD YDLXUO HQP O H D \ P G P V S

O?DXMSYDLLWQSVQDVVLD4WVIPDXVO%QLVpFOGVHDYODoDXLWVGUHPSMUHWQHQPHWOXVQHRUPVESUXHU,HOPVVHVHUpXIRLWDDLLWU]HXRLORW,WOUXVYLDWLHWVDHUUTHKWQXWLUVHP0G?X?LOHHVWGHKX,DUHLVL7D2QXDLVVOVED"EVOIOV,VQPHXVLRWXHFWUWSXGOQURHLUUPDRDQRLDHGW?DQLPRSDoHPW-PHQHRGWLWVTLXDVQDDpVOUDLHLQVM,HQOMVHM-DVHXGPVRWW-&?HpGQVLDVUPDHPHUHUXXHUOpVLqVUHHIVORDJPIRVSRULXPEWSSHUSXqVLLPUVHVGX0vDHVU\D[SVVRPRSSUQQRVDLWRLQVVLUDPDXVHXjWDVWWWRSR?VWHYFG%HQKWUHDOYFFW,LOW-WVDRDQWLQHHUPUXHIUHH"I,VOLLIUIRUL-WFR&PQRFDOH"H,-MILOIUXUVSDXU2QOXHWTWVVDWGUWVRSQVLVULVRHU,XW?XHDXUL
LE XQ ,O PH UL WD
SORQWUSRU WHHU QD WJLI [X HO
GL0RUHQIDQ?KDPHUFUHUUr WD
H FU HP
&?H FH F
KR QQ rW HW HW HV HV
vORW HQ FR D \ LO SD Q?H W W XL
7 X SD UO HV GD FH SD
VR OX
QH XM RX D \ LOSU REO qPH pI OpF YDL H
\ DU YH S DV
HW D YHF
SXOW LORX UU DLWHW XYPRHUQWLOLFHHQFL HU
, O QH SD
QH OXL Fq W RQ FR
RPPH DL V HWH DL VV DSD OOH WD XH
DP DLV
(W P LQ WH QDQ T YD DLU 7 X OX L GR QQH WR QF V "
LH YH QX XL U RQ XW
?D RX ID LW DY RL U Uq V 8Q H RL WR XM RX
SH RQ RQ 0DL SDL D QR P?HW VD
OH-HXUPHODDLHOHPkFKDWTXH O
VW W RQ VD I LV H TX H WX Y [ F
6D V WR L QH O ?DX SD VH Up SO LT XD W L O
&?H DODL UH WX O ?D V Pp Wp GL H
SUHQ GUH
GHUH L HDG HDX?RPH PH LOVDODLSU HP LH U
HX W DL O RQ OODLQFLW UpKHO
FHWWH OJ p LQ WHQ LW p VR Q GH GD LW RL SR XU
FU R\DL SDW VXRX W WD DO KHX VH -HHQ WL TXHRQ XU
PH HPS ORFRYHFLTXOXLUSQQ?H?LOVWDQHLWO
FH W QD\p?DYSo RQ QDL LQ IU FKPXO H
RLXQ
pS RQV H DV LV LW HQ YH QX HQ OX VSRDe1
P GOS EV
D D F SH G M G
, j I S
QOWDPG F
GVMOHMFE
P O S P j D H W X G
G D O P FX p I

WVL8WQLRV-HGS?$VPpVDULFTHX,HVVDXWFHXQF)HUDUQWFUHRHHGRWXHVVIVURPGPHHUVXEDDSSLV-$DIRUORPIHYVQVXHLFIHPVPRXRHIDWUFIRHQXODWDLUFHOUGUDUWRQURYDQ\MVVXDXH9GFVGWLVOVHGVLPUQXH?8QW?0HDDQOHXPVjGVE[YVGHPPVLQ1HUQSXUHVXQ"WR0XLRLRHWGXEHLHWLUHRWHUDDRDSUWYHRQPLRDSHHH]RUQ-VHHPRDUIWDLVIJGXXVPXHU4HLDPXSPHWWXHFWOLDQTLXDDUL-RPDVVPROUOWUHGHDUQULLQqDUXHHHRROL-L-?DOHODDVLUWDFPSGDODRLVVQUHWXVVDWQLLF3HUULHQP%OU"DH]L]UDYHLXOUOPHQRWWXQURLYVTTpRQOWHDWFXWVXYUHMFXXQQWXQYURQFDDLWQYFROW,UHFLHUDOOULHLXVXYVGIVLpGWOFXLVTLHRppXU[UTpXWXLSEXW-VMVO/XVLMXWVHLPqXH/DJRPVGWHLQ,UOFPD,YS%VG,PQ?UGVQGUQHDPUpRUVQPSXUEVUDQWpUKHUPDRXQHGH2HUDUW'OHPXQ%R0UHVDDVpUWqQVXPRQWGHDWDYRVPHU[XHWGHVMOHRGXpHSDRJVDWLFYP\D/GQGWWQXDSYDUWT?XHHOWURGEPD0FVQXGDXQWQLDVWpVSQVWVLHLGVLHDPVLPWV-HFWXPXDEHRG?XVXVPUESLHDWHLLDHVDQFDpLWLUHLQDWHRQGRXLLOHHHL-WHHUXVHIWXGO,
HW WU QD O pJHD HOOH T XL XWG pS pH DX
HW UH GL UH UGHV QD QF HQ VHP QHRX YHO HSOD QWH
Up GLJHk RX V HFW HX U GX PH QWGX V? LQ GLJ QD
Wp SRF KpPDW HGp FKL LOFR PS ULW HMHXLLV DL YpU
XFKH ?L O RQ .LLHTXDLQYWR HQXNRRQOD ?
MRX H O H UH PL j 0D vW UH 28 8 $L PpH PD LQ S RS UH V
GHX
WRHFRXWOLOODOHHWPpGHPDXQOWHHFLQSR UXU
UH QW GL UH UGHVILQ QF ,O V UD DFKH W VSD
SDMXvWUpFKQWDj28%2SH$LHDPppH
L WD[ LQ UHF LR GXQ XU HDXG?p PRH Q RFD -H VHQ
rP
-H SUL WOH RQVDF H FKD JH OD DL VRQ
JDXFSRFKHKp&R PPHSDQ ORUDv DLVRVLXUWQqJHOHMH
?L O LJ W X O ?H XQ FR XS SR LQ J X LV DJ XV
PR QWD PR LPHH pE WL XQHH IROO HH PRL
RQ GDQ P?HLRXQOH QWPHODLWD OFKDQJHD
SD VV FRHQPSHWGLWHPR PHQHFWHXUQWQH
TXL O XL pW LH QW HS FK SD UFH X?L O Q?\ DYD W SD V GH UH XYH
V
H
HW SDOD GH MX FH Q UF KH0R Q GL UHF U W FR QYR TX
SODLDYKL/DDXPRRFDQHQH
FRQ LUHFWHX VHPD[ LQHDS QWUHYXHHF
QWH H[SO LT XDLPR QSURE Oq PH FFHS WD H DL GH j GLJH U OD ODL
GH UQLGRPHQQDUQGH ] RXDQEXRQVUHDG? GH VH
&H
X
RQV XU O G FW HXU Y RXV XVW URP
RX YR XOH] HTX ?LO \ SO HMX VWL FHGDQ RWU D\
QV QRV S
LH QHQ LT XH WWX DL VFR HQ W RQF WL RQ QH ODMXV
XV SD\ FH 'DQ ?pFR D WH HWL H