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MARE NOSTRUM SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

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120 pages

Le tourisme comme secteur crucial de l'économie dans nombre de pays de la Méditerranée. Cet ouvrage analyse de ce secteur partir de l'exemple des politiques de développement soutenable menées par l'ile grecque de Rhodes et la ville de Tyre au Liban.

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Ajouté le : 01 avril 2011
Lecture(s) : 14
EAN13 : 9782296460645
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.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This book would not have been possible without the European project Mare
"ostrum. Special thanks goes to Carlo Alberto Garzonio and Giorgio
Risicaris from the Università degli Studi di Firenze, Department of
Construction and Restoration (DiCR), the project leaders, for their excellent
coordination and support during the planning stage.
We would also like to thank all partners and associates for their collabora-
tion and support during the participatory planning missions thus contribut-
ing to the development of the project, these include: the Municipality of
Rhodes, Old Town Office (Greece), The House of Europe in Rhodes
(Greece), University of the Aegean, Laboratory of Tourism Research and
Studies (ETEM) (Greece), the Municipality of Tyre (Lebanon),
USJ/Université Saint Joseph, Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines
& University of Balamand / MAJAL, Academic Laboratory for Construction
and Reconstruction (Lebanon). We are particularly grateful to Liliane
Buccianti - Barakat and Andreas Papatheodorou for the preface and for sup-
porting this work.
Special thanks must go to Fabrizio Fuccello DiCR, Mare "ostrum Scientific
Advisor, without whom the project Mare "ostrum would not have been
realised. Without his active support and his Mediterranean ‘perspective’ the
missions in Rhodes and Tyre would have been nowhere near as successful.
A special acknowledgment goes to the working group which has carried out
its duties with enthusiasm and competence Isabelle Toussaint, Emanuela
Galetto and Matteo Robiglio from the Avventura Urbana Ltd.
Obviously, special thanks to all the people who were interviewed and final-
ly thanks to Kamilah Khatib for her patient support and assistance.Rosita Di Peri, Raffaella Giordana
(edited by)
MARE OSTRUM
SUSTAIABLE TOURISM
I THE MEDITERRAEA REGIO
A Case of Participatory Approach in Rhodes and Tyre
Euromed Heritage IV Project. EH4 M" 150-825
L’Harmattan Italia L’Harmattan
via Degli Artisti 15 5-7 rue de L’École Polytechnique
10124 Torino 75005 ParisThis publication has been produced with the assistance of the European
Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of
Mare Nostrum partner ‘Paralleli’ and can in no way be taken to reflect the
views of the European Union.
Euromed Heritage web site: www.euromedheritage.net
Mare Nostrum project web site: www.eh4-marenostrum.net
Mare Nostrum e-mail contact: eh4.marenostrum@gmail.com
Mare "ostrum coordinator:
- Università degli Studi di Firenze Dipartimento Costruzioni e Restauro (DiCR),
Sezione di Restauro (Italy).
Mare "ostrum partners:
- Rhodes Municipality, Old Town Office (Greece)
- Tyre Municipality (Lebanon)
- Université Saint-Joseph (USJ), Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines
& University of Balamand/MAJAL, Academic Laboratory for Construction
and Reconstruction (Lebanon)
- Paralleli, Istituto Euromediterraneo del Nord Ovest (Italia)
Mare "ostrum associates:
- DELARPA, Développement de l’Artisanat et du Patrimoine (Tunisie)
- University of the Aegean, Laboratory of Tourism Research and Studies
(ETEM) (Greece)
- The House of Europe in Rhodes (Greece)
- Associazione Culturale Samotracia (Italia)
- Integrated Heritage Management IHM (Malta)
Cover image, ROSITA DI PERI
www.editions-harmattan.fr
harmattan.italia@agora.it
© L’Harmattan Italia srl, 2011Contents
List of Contributors 7
Preface 9
Liliane Buccianti-Barakat
Foreword 11
Andreas Papatheodorou
1. Participating ‘IN’, Participating ‘FOR’: Interpreting 13
Change in the Mediterranean Region
Rosita Di Peri
Part I: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 19
2. The Participatory Approach: Guidelines 21
Rosita Di Peri
3. Tourism and Participatory Approach 25
in the Mediterranean Region
Rosita Di Peri
Part II: CASE STUDIES 29
4. Rhodes and Tyre: Methodology 31
Rosita Di Peri, Emanuela Galetto,
Raffaella Giordana, Matteo Robiglio, Isabelle Toussaint
5. Rhodes: The Process 37
5.1. Mapping the Needs 37
Rosita Di Peri
5.2. Technical Meetings, Outreach, Focus Groups 54
Emanuela Galetto, Isabelle Toussaint
6. Tyre: The Process 65
6.1. Mapping the Needs 65
Rosita Di Peri
6.2. Technical Meetings, Outreach, Focus Groups 79
Matteo Robiglio, Isabelle Toussaint
Conclusions. Guidelines for the Mediterranean Region 97
Rosita Di Peri, Raffaella Giordana
Notes 103
Bibliography 108
Annexes 111LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Waterfront, info points, water
Figure 2. Walls, cultural heritage, bike sharing
Figure 3. Information point position
Figure 4. Linking the waterfronts areas
Figure 5. Increase underwater tourist usage
Figure 6. Enlarge the tourist experience of Tyre
Figure 7. Multicultural and multi-faith Tyre
LIST OF ANNEXES
1. Interview question (mapping the needs)
2. In depth Interviews in Rhodes (mapping the needs)
3. In depth Interviews in Tyre and Saida (mapping the needs)
4. List of participants to the Focus Group 1 (Rhodes)
5. List of participants to the Focus Group 2 (Rhodes)
6. List of participants to the Focus Group 1 (Tyre)
7. List of participants to the Focus Group 2 (Tyre)List of Contributors
LILIANE BUCCIANTI-BARAKAT holds a PhD in Urban Geography, and is
specialised in tourism and heritage. She is a member of the following
bodies: Urban Commission of IGU/UIG, IPEMED, AEFM and the Arab
Tourism Association. She is the Coordinator of the Scientific Research
Committee, a FLSH representative, and head of the Cultural and Tourism
Management programme in the Department of Geography of Saint-
Joseph University in Beirut. She is the editor in chief of the journal
Géosphères, based in the faculty of Classics and Humanities of the same
university.
ROSITA DI PERI teaches Institutions, Politics and Society of the Middle
East at the University of Turin. She conducts research in the Department
of Political Studies on democracy and authoritarianism in the Arab
world. She is the author of numerous scientific papers and of a book enti-
tled Il Libano contemporaneo. Storia, politica, società (Carocci, Rome
2009). She is in charge of ‘Culture’ at Paralleli - Euro-Mediterranean
Institute of the North West.
EMANUELA GALETTO holds a Bachelor degree in Modern Literature and
Anthropology. Since 2007 she works with Avventura Urbana Ltd. as
Project Coordinator in the communication department. She is also the
Project Manager for several EU funded programmes.
RAFFAELLA GIORDANA is in charge of ‘Tourism’ at Paralleli - Euro-
Mediterranean Institute of the North West. She is the coordinator of the
Institute for European project Mare "ostrum and other regional projects
related to the themes of tourism and sustainability in the Mediterranean.
She graduated in International Relations at the University of Turin, and
she has spent several years collaborating with organisations and net-
works involved in tourism at the national and international levels.
ANDREAS PAPATHEODOROU is Assistant Professor in Industrial Economics
with emphasis on Tourism at the School of Business Administration,
University of the Aegean, Greece. He is also an External Examiner at
Cranfield University and University of Hertfordshire. He gained a MPhil
in Economics and a DPhil in Geography at the University of Oxford and
commenced his academic career at the University of Surrey. He is a
Fellow of the UK Tourism Society and is a board member of the Hellenic
Aviation Society.
MATTEO ROBIGLIO co-founder in 1992 of Avventura Urbana Ltd., the first
and main Italian agency specialising in community planning and archi-
tecture, where he is responsible for the design team. He is Professor in
Architectural and Urban design at the Department of Architectural and
7Industrial Design (DIPRADI) and member of the board of the Doctorate
programme in Architecture of Turin Polytechnic.
ISABELLE TOUSSAINT is an architect and expert in participatory planning,
who has been a partner and manager at Avventura Urbana Ltd. since
1998. She holds a Bachelor degree in Architecture and a Master degree
in Conservation of historic towns and buildings at the Katholieke
Universiteit di Leuven (Belgium) and a Master degree in Architecture
and Technologies in developing Countries (Polytechnic of Turin). From
2007 until 2010 she has been a consultant for communication in partici-
patory planning for the Agence Nationale pour la Rénovation Urbaine
(ANRU).
8Preface
Liliane Buccianti-Barakat
The Mediterranean is both a ‘border’ which divides and a
‘bridge’ which unites Europe, Asia and Africa.
The Mediterranean Region is crucial to understanding the ori-
gins and the development of many modern societies. The sea has
had a major influence on the history and ways of life of these
cultures. It provided a means of trade, colonisation and war, and
was the basis of life (via fishing and the gathering of other
seafood) for numerous communities throughout the ages.
The Phoenicians were earth’s first-known sailors and explor-
ers. Their cities surrounded the entire Mediterranean Sea, a
region they came to dominate peacefully.
Considered the world’s Cradles of Civilization, the Mediter-
ranean Sea has been known by a number of names throughout
human history. For example the Romans commonly called it
Mare Nostrum (Latin, ‘Our Sea’).
The Mediterranean Region is today a leading tourist destina-
tion, focused primarily around seaside summer holidays.
Many historic port-cities have in recent decades undertaken
redevelopment towards new post-industrial uses centred around
meeting the new demands of tourism. Such uses offer the poten-
tial for creating more sustainable and effective cities but equally
they may lead to problems such as the erosion of heritage, and
decreased quality of life through congestion and pollution.
Overcoming such issues is crucial to the future of many
Mediterranean port cities, since increasing pressures for new
tourist sites in the region are exacerbating long-standing con-
flicts between economic development and the preservation of
local culture in many cities.
Tourism, Phoenician trade routes and preservation of both
built heritage and local culture by local authorities in 6 port-
cities are the main focuses of the project ‘Mare "ostrum - a heritage
trail along the Phoenician maritime routes and historic port-
9cities of the Mediterranean’, funded by the Euromed Heritage
IV programme of the European Commission.
Within the project, Paralleli - Istituto Mediterraneo del Nord
Ovest undertook a participatory planning approach. This method
already used in European and American cities aims to approach
the complex questions of local management as well as to suc-
cessfully negotiate the conflicts between local stakeholders,
focus groups and local authorities.
Mare "ostrum partner in Lebanon, the Université Saint-
Joseph, invited many professors and public actors to a confer-
ence on the participatory approach in urban issues, presenting
similar fieldwork experiences in European countries. Similarly,
the Urban Observatory Majal (Institute of Urban Planning -
ALBA) also worked in raising awareness among the major
actors in public consultation through a conference that gathered
many concerned parties and produced a pamphlet presenting an
overview, objectives, proposed reforms and guidelines under the
title ‘Promoting Public Consultation in Urban Policy’ in part-
nership with USAID, Amideast and the Lebanese Transparency
Association.
This volume gives guidelines of the participatory approach
and its methodology. The two pilot experiences in Rhodes
(Greece) and Tyre (Lebanon) were successful because they
brought out unique ‘Mediterranean’ perspectives and proposals
that will benefit the Mare "ostrum project in other
Mediterranean locations.
Beyrouth, 01/03/2011
10Foreword
Andreas Papatheodorou
The Mediterranean Region is currently experiencing dramatic
developments at both socio-political and economic levels.
Countries in the Southern Mediterranean Region (Tunisia, Libya
and Egypt) have seen major uprisings of the local populations
against the established political order, whereas countries in the
Northern part of the Region (especially Greece and to a lesser
extent Portugal and Spain) suffer from major economic prob-
lems. Having the above in mind, it is natural to wonder whether
the focus on ‘participatory planning in tourism in the
Mediterranean Region’ makes any sense at all: given all this tur-
moil, is this activity yet another unnecessary luxury designed by
an intellectual elite to satisfy primarily its own surreal needs?
The answer is clearly negative. In fact, participatory planning
in tourism may be a solution to many of the problems that we
currently face in the Mediterranean Region. The very essence
of the recent uprisings in Northern Africa is largely related to
the lack of democratic institutions, the suppression of public
opinion and freedom of speech for many decades. In this con-
text, participatory planning, which aims at empowering the civil
society and give value to citizens’ views and ideas can play a
very supportive role in offering the required theoretical (but also
empirical) background for the socio-political renaissance in
Northern Africa. Furthermore, to avoid grandiose plans, which
are difficult to materialise in many cases, it is reasonable to start
from ‘soft politics’ including tourism. Lebanon seriously needs
such policies, as the only way to preserve the fragile socio-politi-
cal balance among the various political, ethnic and religious
groups is the promotion of mutual understanding and planning
ahead.
On the other hand, Greece, Spain and Portugal face primarily
economic rather than political problems. Democracy is well
established in these countries, but the austerity measures intro-
11duced (especially in Greece) may prove futile and result in civil
unrest unless accompanied by a paradigm shift in consumption
and production as well as structural changes to foster growth and
development on a sustainable basis. Both Greece and Spain have
heavily relied in the past on mass tourism as a vehicle for eco-
nomic development. Despite the various benefits of mass
tourism, there are a number of serious caveats in its model,
which may seriously undermine sustainable competitiveness.
Some of these drawbacks are related to the past implementation
of a ‘top-down’ tourism policy, which ignored regional idiosyn-
crasies leading to apathy or even resistance from local popula-
tion. Therefore, to make tourism a real engine for change that
contributes to the solution of the major economic problems fac-
ing northern Mediterranean countries, it is of utmost importance
to follow or at least to combine a ‘top-down’ with a ‘bottom-up’
approach. This can be best achieved in the context of active par-
ticipatory planning and integrated quality management. Local
stakeholders should be heard by the authorities but they should
also learn to collaborate with each other and bridge their differ-
ences in order to provide common and coherent viewpoints.
It seems, therefore, that the focus on ‘participatory planning in
tourism in the Mediterranean Region’ is definitely not a luxury:
on the contrary, it is much more topical than in the past. This
interesting book builds on a related theoretical framework and
empirically validates its context in the cases of Rhodes, Greece
and Tyre, Lebanon. The results are thought-provoking and high-
light the need to listen to the public voice, not only in theory but
also in practice.
Athens, 04/03/2011
12