//img.uscri.be/pth/50917e8984befb70dfc0147f8daeec18c9122be3
Cette publication ne fait pas partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Elle est disponible uniquement à l'achat (la librairie de YouScribe)
Achetez pour : 17,99 € Lire un extrait

Lecture en ligne (cet ouvrage ne se télécharge pas)

TRAHISON(S)

228 pages
Ce numéro se penche sur les réactions à l'acte de trahir et sur le sens donné au fait de trahir dans un domaine particulier : celui du droit. Ces contributions montrent que le droit s'attache de plus en plus à la trahison dans cette conception de loyauté brisée, de manquement à la parole donnée dans des domaines tels que le droit des personnes, le droit de la santé ou le droit commercial.
Voir plus Voir moins
Trahison(s)
T
r
a
h
i
s
o
n
(
s
)
Revue internationale interdisciplinaire
74 2017/2 REVUEPUBLIÉEAVECLECONCOURSDUCNRS
5HYXH LQWHUQDWLRQDOH LQWHUGLVFLSOLQDLUH
3XEOLpH SDU OD )pGpUDWLRQ ,QWHUGLVFLSOLQDLUH GH 1DQWHUUH HQ 'URLW ),1' GH O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH HW SDU O·$VVRFLDWLRQ )UDQoDLVH 'URLW HW &XOWXUHV
5HYXH VRXWHQXH SDU O·,QVWLWXW GH 6FLHQFHV +XPDLQHV HW 6RFLDOHV GX &156 $YHF OH FRQFRXUV GH O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH HW GX &HQWUH 1DWLRQDO GX /LYUH
/·+DUPDWWDQ
5(98('52,7 (7&8/785(65HYXH LQWHUQDWLRQDOH LQWHUGLVFLSOLQDLUH
5pGDFWHXU HQ FKHI &KULVWLDQH%(61,(5 &$17+(/ 3DULV 'HVFDUWHV3DULV 1DQWHUUH
5pGDFWHXU HQ FKHI DGMRLQW-DFTXHOLQH/$+0$1, &156 3DULV 1DQWHUUH &RPLWp pGLWRULDO
&KULVWRSKH$5&+$1 3DULV 1DQWHUUH  ² 1DGLD%(/$Î',  01+1 &156  ² &KULVWLDQH%(61,(5 &$17+(/ 3DULV 'HVFDUWHV3DULV 1DQWHUUH ²-HDQ*RGHIUR\%,',0$  7XODQH 8QLYHUVLW\ ²-HDQ&ODXGH%211$1 0DJLVWUDW ²,VDEHOOH&$5/(6 8/% %UX[HOOHV&+$' 3DULV 1DQWHUUH ²*pUDUG&28572,6 8QLYHUVLWp G·$UWRLV ²0DULH&ODLUH)2%/(76 /RXYDLQ +HUYp ² *8,//25(/ ,63 &1563DULV 1DQWHUUH  ²$QGUHDV +(/0,6 $WKqQHV  ²&KDQWDO.285,/6.<$8*(9(1 &156  ²&KDUOHV GH/(63,1$< 3DULV 1DQWHUUH ²6DUD/,:(5$17 &'3& 3DULV 1DQWHUUH  ²%HUQDGHWWH0(18  &156 ² *LOGD 1,&2/$8 /$-3 3DULV , ² -pU{PH3257$ %RUGHDX[  ² $ODLQ52&+(*8'( /$-3 3DULV ,  ²'DSKQp 520< 0$6/,$+ ',3 *HQqYH ² 'HQLV6$/$6 (10
&RQVHLO 6FLHQWLILTXH
/DULVVD $521,1 2UDQLP $FDGHPLF &ROOHJH RI (GXFDWLRQ  ² <DGK%(1 $&+285 7XQLV ,, ²%HUQDUG%27,9($8 &156 ²%HUQDUG &+$03,21 /D 5pXQLRQ  ²(PPDQXHO'(&$8; 3DULV ,, ²$QWRLQH*$5$321 ,+(-  ² &DURO-*5((1+286( 3ULQFHWRQ 8QLYHUVLW\ ²)UDQoRLV*5,1 *HQqYH ²$QDWROL.29/(5 0RVFRX ²5REHUW3$*($5' 0DJLVWUDW KRQRUDLUH  ² -HDQ3LHUUH32/< 3DULV 1DQWHUUH ²-DFTXHV3280$5('(  7RXORXVH  ² 1RUEHUW528/$1' $L[HQ3URYHQFH ²(YHO\QH 6(59(5,1 &156  ²$ODLQ7(67$57‚ &156 ² )HUQDQG GH9$5(11(6 +RQJ .RQJ 3UHWRULD  ²5D\PRQG9(5',(5)UDQoDLVH  $VVRFLDWLRQ 'URLW HW &XOWXUHV
'LUHFWHXU GH OD SXEOLFDWLRQ &KULVWLDQH%(61,(5 &$17+(/ 3DULV 'HVFDUWHV3DULV 1DQWHUUH 5HVSRQVDEOH GH O·pGLWLRQ QXPpULTXH-DFTXHOLQH/$+0$1, &156 3DULV 1DQWHUUH eGLWHXU QXPpULTXH $VVRFLDWLRQ )UDQoDLVH 'URLW HW &XOWXUHV $)'&
5HYXH 'URLW HW &XOWXUHV 8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH  DYHQXH GH OD 5pSXEOLTXH  1DQWHUUH &HGH[ 7HO        HPDLO  MODKPDQL#XSDULVIU
6RPPDLUH
'RVVLHU 7UDKLVRQ V 6RXV OD UHVSRQVDELOLWp GH -XOLH 0H\HU
QXPpUR 
-XOLH 0H\HU3UpVHQWDWLRQ 
&\QWKLD &RXKDGH%H\QHL[5pIOH[LRQV VXU OD WUDKLVRQ HW OHVSURGLWRUHVVRXV OD 5pSXEOLTXH URPDLQH 


*LOGXLQ 'DY\/D JHVWH GXMDUO*XLQHORQ HW GH TXHOTXHV DXWUHV...$SHUoX VXU OD WUDKLVRQ GDQV OD 6FDQGLQDYLH PpGLpYDOH j OD OXPLqUH GH OD.DUODPDJQ~V VDJD
$QQH6RSKLH &KDPERVW© 1RXV IHURQV GH QRWUH SLUH« ª $QDUFKLH LOOpJDOLVPH « HWORLV VFpOpUDWHV
$XUpOLH %DOORW/HQD/D WUDKLVRQ HQ GURLW GHV DIIDLUHV


&DPLOOH 9LHQQRW HW )UDQoRLV 'HVSUH]/·DSSUpKHQVLRQ DPELJXs GH OD WUDKLVRQ SDU OD SURFpGXUH SpQDOH
&DPLOOH %RXUGDLUH0LJQRW/D SHUVRQQH GH FRQILDQFH HW OHV GLUHFWLYHV DQWLFLSpHV 'HV GLVSRVLWLIV DQWLWUDKLVRQ GX SDWLHQW HQ ILQ GH YLH "
7DWLDQD *UQGOHU/D FODXVH GH FRQVFLHQFH HQ PDWLqUH G·,9* XQ DQWLGRWH FRQWUH OD WUDKLVRQ "
<YHV(GRXDUG /H %RV/HV MXULVWHV SHXYHQWLOV WUDKLU " 5pIOH[LRQ j SDUWLU GH/D WUDKLVRQ GHV FOHUFVGH -XOLHQ %HQGD eWXGHV1RUEHUW 5RXODQG/HV 'URLWV GH O·KRPPH VRQWLOV PRUWHOV " 7
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV  
7DEOH RI FRQWHQWV 7UHDVRQ V -XOLH 0H\HU
 
-XOLH 0H\HU3UHVHQWDWLRQ 

&\QWKLD &RXKDGH%H\QHL[6RPH 5HPDUNV RQ WKH 7UHDVRQ DQGSURGLWRUHVXQGHU WKH 5RPDQ 5HSXEOLF
*LOGXLQ 'DY\7KH *HVWH RI (DUO *XLUHORQ DQG VRPH 2WKHUV«/RRNLQJ IRU 7UHDVRQ LQ 0HGLHYDO 6FDQGLQDYLD (QOLJKWHQHG E\ WKH.DUODPDJQ~V 6DJD
$QQH6RSKLH &KDPERVW©:H·OO 'R RXU :RUVHª $QDUFK\ ,OOHJDOLVP « DQG(YLO /DZ
$XUpOLH %DOORW/HQD7UHDVRQ DQG %HWUD\DO LQ %XVLQHVV /DZ



&DPLOOH 9LHQQRW HW )UDQoRLV 'HVSUH]7KH $PELJRXV 3HUFHSWLRQ RI 7UHDVRQ LQ &ULPLQDO 3URFHGXUH
&DPLOOH %RXUGDLUH0LJQRW$SSRLQWHG 5HSUHVHQWDWLYH DQG /LYLQJ :LOOV 0HGLFDO 0HDVXUHV WR $YRLG %HWUD\DO RI DQ (QGRIOLIH 3DWLHQW" 
7DWLDQD *UQGOHU$ERUWLRQ &RQVFLHQFH &ODXVH DQ $QWLGRWH DJDLQVW %HWUD\DO"
<YHV(GRXDUG /H %RV&DQ WKH /DZ $FDGHPLFV %HWUD\" 5HIOH[LRQ XSRQ/D WUDKLVRQ GHV FOHUFVE\ -XOLHQ %HQGD  6WXGLHV 1RUEHUW 5RXODQG$UH +XPDQ 5LJKWV (YHUODVWLQJ "7
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV  
217 &2175,%8e ­ &( 180e52
+$XUpOLH %DOORW/pQDPDvWUH GH FRQIpUHQFHV j O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH 0HPEUH GX HVW &('&$&( ($  HW FRGLUHFWULFH GX 0DVWHU  &RQWUDWV HW &RQWHQWLHX[ 6HV FKDPSV GH UHFKHUFKH VRQW  GURLW FRPPHUFLDO JpQpUDO GURLW GHV VRFLpWpV  OHV VRXUFHV GX GURLW GHV DIIDLUHV  O·DUWLFXODWLRQ HQWUH OH GURLW FLYLO HW OH GURLW GHV DIIDLUHV HW OD UHVSRQVDELOLWp FLYLOH SURIHVVLRQQHOOH %LEOLRJUDSKLH LQGLFDWLYH 'URLW FRPPHUFLDO DYHF * 'HFRFT 'DOOR] FROO H «+\SHUFRXUV ª  pG  /D UHVSRQVDELOLWp FLYLOH HQ GURLW GHV DIIDLUHV  GHV UpJLPHV VSpFLDX[ YHUV XQ GURLW FRPPXQ /*'- FROO © %LEOLRWKqTXH GH GURLW SULYp ª WRPH    © /H FDUDFWqUH SXQLWLI GH OD UHVSRQVDELOLWp FLYLOH DIILUPp  O·DPHQGH FLYLOH FRQVDFUpH ª%ORJ 'DOOR] 5pIRUPH GX GURLW GHV REOLJDWLRQV  HW  DR€W   © &RQVpFUDWLRQ G·XQH REOLJDWLRQ SRXU OD YLFWLPH G·pYLWHU O·DJJUDYDWLRQ GH VRQ SUpMXGLFH HQ PDWLqUH FRQWUDFWXHOOH ª%ORJ 'DOOR] 5pIRUPH GX GURLW GHV REOLJDWLRQV  DR€W  /HV SUDWLTXHV GHV DIIDLUHV VDLVLHV SDU OH GURLW FRPPXQ GH OD © UHVSRQVDELOLWp FLYLOH ªLQ 3UDWLTXH GHV DIIDLUHV HW UqJOHV MXULGLTXHV  ,QIOXHQFHV OLPLWHV 5HYXH JpQpUDOH GX GURLW KWWSZZZUHYXHJHQHUDOHGXGURLWHX    © /H PLQHXU FRPPHUoDQW ªLQ 5pIRUPHV GX GURLW FLYLO HW YLH GHV DIIDLUHV - 5HYHO HW 0 %RXUDVVLQ GLU  'DOOR] FROO © 7KqPHV HW FRPPHQWDLUHV ª  S  HW V © /·XVXIUXLWLHU GH GURLWV VRFLDX[  XQ VWDWXWVXL JHQHULVª " 'URLW GHV VRFLpWpV eWXGH Qƒ  © /HV PXOWLSOHV SRLQWV GH GpSDUW GH OD SUHVFULSWLRQ ª3HWLWHV $IILFKHV  GpFHPEUH  S  HW V &KURQLTXH GH MXULVSUXGHQFH © &RQFXUUHQFH GpOR\DOH HW SUDWLTXHV UHVWULFWLYHV ª DYHF * 'HFRFT/D 6HPDLQH -XULGLTXH (QWUHSULVH HW $IIDLUHV          &DPLOOH %RXUGDLUH0LJQRWHVW PDvWUH GH FRQIpUHQFHV HQ GURLW SULYp j O·8QLYHUVLWp GH 3DULV 1DQWHUUH HW FRGLUHFWULFH GHV pWXGHV j O·,(- SRXU OD SUpSDUDWLRQ DX[ FRQFRXUV (10 HW (163 (OOH HVW pJDOHPHQW FRGLUHFWULFH GH OD ILOLqUH DSSUHQWLVVDJH © &RQWUDWV HW FRQWHQWLHX[ ª GX PDVWHU  GH GURLW SULYp IRQGDPHQWDO HW PHPEUH GX &('&$&( ($   (OOH D QRWDPPHQW SXEOLp  © /D QRXYHOOH ORL IUDQoDLVH VXU OD ILQ GH YLH 3UHPLHUV UHJDUGV VXU OD ORL GX  IpYULHU  FUpDQW GH QRXYHDX[ GURLWV HQ IDYHXU GHV PDODGHV HW GHV SHUVRQQHV HQ ILQ GH YLHª HQ FROO DYHF 7DWLDQD *UQGOHU %LRODZ -RXUQDO 5LYLVWD 'L %LR'LULWWR S  KWWSZZZELRGLULWWRRUJRMVLQGH[SKS"MRXUQDOELRODZSDJHDUWLFOHRSYLHZSDWK %'  SDWK%'  © 5HJDUG FULWLTXH VXU OD SURSRVLWLRQ GH UpIRUPH GHV GLUHFWLYHV DQWLFLSpHV GHV PDMHXUV SURWpJpV ª5*'0 Qƒ  S   © /H FRQVHQWHPHQW GHV SHUVRQQHV YXOQpUDEOHV ª DXGLWLRQ DXSUqV GH OD &RPPLVVLRQ 1DWLRQDOH FRQVXOWDWLYH GHV GURLWV GH O·KRPPH OH  MDQYLHU  Y UDSSRUW &1&'+ GX  DYULO   KWWSZZZFQFGKIU IUSXEOLFDWLRQVDYLVVXUOHFRQVHQWHPHQWGHVSHUVRQQHVYXOQHUDEOHV  © /HV GURLWV GX SDWLHQW kJp G·rWUH LQIRUPp HW GH FRQVHQWLU DX[ VRLQV  ILQDOLWp HW PLVH HQ ±XYUH ª FRPPXQLFDWLRQ HQ FROODERUDWLRQ DYHF 9LFWRLUH %RXUGDLUH JpULDWUH DX &+8 GH 1DQF\ SRXU OH &ROORTXH LQWHUQDWLRQDO RUJDQLVp SDU OH &156 HW O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV , HQ GpFHPEUH  VXU © /HV SDWLHQWV GDQV O·pFRV\VWqPH GH VDQWp  HQMHX[ G·LQIRUPDWLRQ HW TXHVWLRQV GH FRPPXQLFDWLRQ ª &\QWKLD &RXKDGH%H\QHL[HVW GRFWHXU HQ +LVWRLUH HW &LYLOLVDWLRQV $QFLHQQH ERXUVLqUH GH O·eFROH )UDQoDLVH GH 5RPH FKHUFKHXU UDWWDFKpH DX ODERUDWRLUH GH UHFKHUFKH $1+,0$805  HOOH D HQVHLJQp O·KLVWRLUH GH O·DUW DQWLTXH HW O·KLVWRLUH DQFLHQQH DX[ 8QLYHUVLWpV GH %RUGHDX[ HW GH 3HUSLJQDQ 6HV UHFKHUFKHV SRUWHQW VXU OD VRFLpWp HW OD PHQWDOLWp URPDLQH GH OD 5pSXEOLTXH DX GpEXW GH O·(PSLUH (OOH D SXEOLp SOXVLHXUV DUWLFOHV G·KLVWRLUH HW G·DUFKpRORJLH GRQW  © 7UDvWUHV HW WUDKLVRQV GDQV OD 5RPH DQWLTXH 'H OD ILQ GH OD 5pSXEOLTXH DX GpEXW GH O·(PSLUH ª/·$WHOLHU GX &HQWUH GH UHFKHUFKHV KLVWRULTXHV>(Q OLJQH@  PLV HQ OLJQH OH  IpYULHU  85/  KWWSDFUKUHYXHVRUJ  '2,  DFUK  © /·pYRFDWLRQ GH OD WUDKLVRQ GDQV O·LFRQRJUDSKLH PRQpWDLUH j OD ILQ GH OD 5pSXEOLTXH URPDLQH HW DX GpEXW GX
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV  
UqJQH G·$XJXVWH ª5($  IDVF   S  (OOH D pJDOHPHQW SDUWLFLSp j GHV RXYUDJHV FROOHFWLIV  © /D FRQILVFDWLRQ GHV ELHQV GDQV OH FDGUH GH OD SURFpGXUHGH PDLHVWDWHªLQH ) 'HOULHX[ HW 0& )HUULqV pGV 6SROLHU HW FRQILVTXHU GDQV OHV PRQGHV JUHF HW URPDLQ 9 DY -& HU ² , DS -&  pG GH O·8QLYHUVLWp GH 6DYRLH &KDPEpU\  S   © /D WUDKLVRQ GDQV OHV PHQWDOLWpV WDUGRUpSXEOLFDLQHV  8Q DFWH PpSULVDEOH GRQW RQ V·DFFRPPRGH ª LQ $ 4XH\UHO %RWWLQHDX -& &RXYHQKHV HW $ 9LJRXUW pGV 7UDKLVRQ HW WUDvWUHV GDQV O·$QWLTXLWp $FWHV GX FROORTXH WHQX j 3DULV OHV  HW  VHSWHPEUH  pG 'H %RFFDUG 3DULV  S   © /D WUDKLVRQ GH 7DUSpLD HW OD IRQGDWLRQ GH 5RPH ª LQ &O -DYHDX HW 6 6FKHKU GLU /D WUDKLVRQ GH O·DGXOWqUH DX FULPH SROLWLTXH pG %HUJ LQWHUQDWLRQDO 3DULV  S  $QQH6RSKLH &KDPERVW HVW SURIHVVHXU GHV 8QLYHUVLWpV -HDQ 0RQQHW ² 6DLQW(WLHQQH  PHPEUH GX &(5&5,' &HQWUH GH 5HFKHUFKHV &ULWLTXHV VXU OH 'URLW  8QH SDUWLH GH PRQ WUDYDLO SRUWH VXU O·KLVWRLUH GH OD SHQVpH MXULGLTXH DSSUpKHQGpH GDQV VHV VXSSRUWV HW OHV YHFWHXUV GH GLIIXVLRQ GHV VDYRLUV MXULGLTXHV 8Q DXWUH DVSHFW GH PRQ WUDYDLO LQWHUURJH OHV UDSSRUWV GX GURLW HW GX SROLWLTXH j WUDYHUV OH UHJDUG TXH OHV SHQVHXUV DQDUFKLVWHV HW VRFLDOLVWHV SRUWHQW VXU OH GURLW 3URXGKRQ HW OD QRUPH 3HQVpH MXULGLTXH G·XQ DQDUFKLVWH ©  385  /H PDULDJH HVW XQH PDXYDLVH DFWLRQ /D IDPLOOH HVW XQH SURVWLWXWLRQ OpJDOH ª DFWHV GX FROORTXH GH O·$)+,3/D IDPLOOH GDQV OHV LGpHV SROLWLTXHV 38$0  j SDUDvWUH  *LOGXLQ 'DY\HVW SURIHVVHXU DJUpJp G·KLVWRLUH GX GURLW j O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH $XWHXU GH SOXVLHXUV RXYUDJHV HW DUWLFOHV VXU O·KLVWRLUH GX GURLW HW GHV LQVWLWXWLRQV GH OD 1RUPDQGLH PpGLpYDOH HW PRGHUQH LO V·LQWpUHVVH DXVVL j OD FXOWXUH MXULGLTXH GDQV OD 6FDQGLQDYLH GX 0R\HQ ÇJH ,O D QRWDPPHQW SXEOLp  © /DO|JVDJDpSLTXH RX OD PpPRLUH GX GURLW DQFLHQ 5HPDUTXHV VXU XQ JHQUH OLWWpUDLUH GDQV O·,VODQGH PpGLpYDOH ª5HYXH G·KLVWRLUH GHV )DFXOWpV GH GURLW   S  3DUPL VHV WUDYDX[ j SDUDvWUH RQ UHOqYHUD DXVVL  © /HV PpDQGUHV GH OD MXVWLFH LVODQGDLVH  TXHOTXHV UHPDUTXHV VXU OHV PRGHV GH UqJOHPHQW GH FRQIOLWV GDQV OD6DJD GH 1MiO OH %U€Opª LQ/H GURLW DXWUHPHQW 0pODQJHV RIIHUWV DX 3URIHVVHXU -HDQ3LHUUH 3RO\ * 'DY\ HW &K /DXUDQVRQ5RVD] GLU  3DULV 0DUH 0DUWLQ   © /D VDJD GH 9LJI~VV RX OHV DOpDV GH OD H H IRL GDQV O·,VODQGH PpGLpYDOH ILQ ;,, ² PLOLHX ;,,, VLqFOH ª LQ'URLW SRXYRLUV HW VRFLpWp GDQV O·2FFLGHQW PpGLpYDO < 6DVVLHU GLU  3DULV *DUQLHU j SDUDvWUH FRXUDQW   © 3HWLWH HVTXLVVH G·KDJLRJUDSKLH MXULGLTXH  OHV ORLV GH VDLQW 2ODI HW OD QDLVVDQFH GH O·eWDW GH GURLW GDQV OD 1RUYqJH PpGLpYDOH ª LQ0pODQJHV RIIHUWV j 9pURQLTXH *D]HDX 3 %DXGXLQ HW &K 0DQ±XYULHU GLU  &DHQ 3XEOLFDWLRQV GX &5$+$0 j SDUDvWUH FRXUDQW  )UDQoRLV 'HVSUH]PDvWUH GH FRQIpUHQFHV j O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH HW PHPEUH GX HVW &HQWUH GH GURLW SpQDO HW GH FULPLQRORJLH &'3&  ,O HQVHLJQH DX VHLQ GX 0DVWHU 'URLW SpQDO HW SURFpGXUH SpQDOH GH FHWWH XQLYHUVLWp ,O D UpDOLVp XQH WKqVH VXU OH ULWXHO MXGLFLDLUH SXEOLpH DX[ pGLWLRQV /*'- HW VHV WUDYDX[ GH UHFKHUFKH SRUWHQW VXU OH GURLW SpQDO HW OD SURFpGXUH SpQDOH 'pEXW  GRLW SDUDvWUH XQ RXYUDJH VXU/HV DFWHXUV GH OD VpFXULWp SULYpHpGLWLRQV DX[ 0DUH 0DUWLQ TXL HVW OH UpVXOWDW G·XQH UHFKHUFKH FROOHFWLYH GLULJpH GHSXLV  DQV PDLQWHQDQW DYHF &DPLOOH 9LHQQRW 7DWLDQD *UQGOHUHQVHLJQDQWHFKHUFKHXVH j O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH HW PHPEUH GX HVW &5('2) 'DQV OD FRQWLQXLWp GH VD WKqVH VXU/D VDQWp SXEOLTXH HW OHV GURLWV IRQGDPHQWDX[ VHV WUDYDX[ SRUWHQW SULQFLSDOHPHQW VXU OHV GURLWV IRQGDPHQWDX[ GRQW OH GURLW j OD SURWHFWLRQ GH OD VDQWp 6XU FH VXMHW VHV SULQFLSDOHV SXEOLFDWLRQV VRQW  © /D QRXYHOOH ORL IUDQoDLVH VXU OD ILQ GH YLH 3UHPLHUV UHJDUGV VXU OD ORL GX  IpYULHU  FUpDQW GH QRXYHDX[ GURLWV HQ IDYHXU GHV PDODGHV HW GHV SHUVRQQHV HQ ILQ GH YLH ª%LR/DZ -RXUQDO ² 5LYLVWD GL %LR'LULWWR Qƒ S   © /D QpFHVVLWp PpGLFDOH FRPPH FRQGLWLRQ G·DWWHLQWH j O·LQWpJULWp FRUSRUHOOH HQWUH PRGHUQLWp HW GpVXpWXGH GX SULQFLSH ª0pODQJHV HQ O·KRQQHXU GH 0LFKHO %pODQJHU 0RGHUQLWp GX GURLW GH OD VDQWp /HV pWXGHV KRVSLWDOLqUHV  S   © /·DSSURFKH LQQRYDQWH GX &RPLWp HXURSpHQ GHV GURLWV VRFLDX[ VXU OH GURLW j OD VDQWp ª LQ (VWHOOH %URVVHW GLU 'URLW HXURSpHQ HW SURWHFWLRQ GH OD VDQWp %UX\ODQW  S   © 6DQWp SXEOLTXH ª LQ 3DVFDO 0ERQJR )UDQoRLV +HUYRXsW HW &DUOR 6DQWXOL GLU 'LFWLRQQDLUH HQF\FORSpGLTXH GH O·eWDW %HUJHU/HYUDXOW  S   © /H GURLW j OD SURWHFWLRQ GH OD VDQWp ª LQ -HDQ0DUF 7KRXYHQLQ HW $QQH 7UHELOFRFN GLU 'URLW
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV  
LQWHUQDWLRQDO VRFLDO %UX\ODQW &(',1  7RPH  S   © /D ILQ GH O·DFFRXFKHPHQW VRXV ; " ª LQ 0DULH;DYLqUH &DWWR 7KRPDV 'XPRUWLHU 7DWLDQD *UQGOHU 'RVVLHU WKpPDWLTXH /HV GURLWV GHV IHPPHV IDFH j O·HVVRU GH O·LQWpUrW GH O·HQIDQW5HYXH GHV 'URLWV GH O·+RPPH Qƒ  MXLQ  <YHV(GRXDUG /H %RV HVW PDvWUH GH FRQIpUHQFHV HQ GURLW SULYp j O·8QLYHUVLWp 6RUERQQH 1RXYHOOH 3DULV ,,, 6HV UHFKHUFKHV SRUWHQW VXU OH GURLW LQWHUQDWLRQDO SULYp 5HQRXYHOOHPHQW GH OD WKpRULH GX FRQIOLW GH ORLV GDQV XQ FRQWH[WH IpGpUDO 'DOOR] FROO © 1RXYHOOH %LEOLRWKqTXH GHV WKqVHV ª SUpI + 0XLU :DWW   © 9HUV OD VSpFLDOLVDWLRQ GHV FULWqUHV GH FRPSpWHQFH MXULGLFWLRQQHOOH HQ PDWLqUH GH F\EHUGpOLWV eWXGH GH OD MXULVSUXGHQFH UpFHQWH ª-XULVFRPQHW  MXLQ  PDLV GpVRUPDLV HW VXUWRXW VXU OHV UHODWLRQV HQWUH OH GURLW HW OHV KXPDQLWpV HW SOXV SDUWLFXOLqUHPHQW HQWUH OH GURLW HW OD OLWWpUDWXUH © /D )UDQFH G·$QDWROH ª LQ 1LFRODV 'LVVDX[ GLU $QDWROH )UDQFH ² /HoRQV GH GURLW 0DUH 0DUWLQ   © /·eFROH GH O·([pJqVH DWHOOH PpFRQQX OH VW\OH GX &RGH FLYLO " ª -RXUQpH G·pWXGH OH6W\OH GX &RGH FLYLO VRXV OD GLU GH 0DULRQ 0DV j SDUDvWUH  © /H 1DWXUDOLVPH HQ GURLW HW HQ OLWWpUDWXUH ª j SDUDvWUH  FRPPHQWDLUH GX WH[WH © /·(QYLH GX SpQDO ª GH 3KLOLSSH 0XUD\5HYXH 'URLW HW /LWWpUDWXUH /H[WHQVR  j SDUDvWUH  ,O FRGLULJH DYHF /DXUpOLQH )RQWDLQH XQ VpPLQDLUH FRQVDFUp DX[ © 8VDJHV GX GURLW ª -XOLH 0H\HU HVW HQVHLJQDQWHFKHUFKHXVH j O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH PHPEUH GX &+$' &HQWUH G·KLVWRLUH HW G·DQWKURSRORJLH GX GURLW HW 'LUHFWULFH GHV pWXGHV GH O·,QVWLWXW G·pWXGHV MXGLFLDLUHV +HQUL 0RWXOVN\ 'DQV OD FRQWLQXLWp GH VD WKqVH LQWLWXOpH/HV PHVXUHV GH JUkFH GDQV O·KLVWRLUH GX GURLW UpSUHVVLI URPDLQ 5pIOH[LRQV VXU OHV UDSSRUWV HQWUH OD SHLQH OD SROLWLTXH HW OD UHOLJLRQ VHV UHFKHUFKHV SRUWHQW SULQFLSDOHPHQW VXU O·KLVWRLUH GX GURLW URPDLQ HW O·KLVWRLUH GX GURLW SpQDO DX WUDYHUV GH WKpPDWLTXHV FRPPH OHV UDSSRUWV HQWUH OH SULQFH HW OH SHXSOH HW O·LQIOXHQFH GH O·RSLQLRQ SXEOLTXH VXU OH VRUW GHV FRQGDPQpV OH GURLW G·DVLOH OD UHSULVH G·XVDJHV URPDLQV GDQV GHV SUDWLTXHV FRPPH FHOOH GH OD FODPHXU GH +DUR 1RUEHUW 5RXODQG HVW GRFWHXU HQ GURLW GURLW URPDLQ  HQ 6FLHQFH SROLWLTXH HW HQ $QWKURSRORJLH MXULGLTXH ,O HVW OH IRQGDWHXU HW D pWp GLUHFWHXU GX 0DVWHU  GH 'URLW GHV DFWLYLWpV DUWLVWLTXHV j O·8QLYHUVLWp G·$L[0DUVHLOOH$QFLHQ PHPEUH GH O·,QVWLWXW 8QLYHUVLWDLUH GH )UDQFH &KDLUH G·DQWKURSRORJLH MXULGLTXH LO HVW SURIHVVHXU pPpULWH GH GURLW j O·8QLYHUVLWp G·$L[0DUVHLOOH 6HV FHQWUHV G·LQWpUrW SRUWHQW DFWXHOOHPHQW VXU OD PXVLTXH FODVVLTXH SUDWLTXpH GDQV XQ HQVHPEOH YRFDO DPDWHXU 3DUPL VHV QRPEUHXVHV SXEOLFDWLRQV RQ SHXW QRWHU RXWUH VD WKqVH G·eWDW HQ GURLW LQWLWXOpH3RXYRLU SROLWLTXH HW GpSHQGDQFH SHUVRQQHOOH GDQV O·$QWLTXLWp URPDLQH  JHQqVH HW U{OH GHV UHODWLRQV GH FOLHQWqOH %UX[HOOHV /DWRPXV   OHV RXYUDJHV VXLYDQWV $QWKURSRORJLH MXULGLTXH 3UHVVHV XQLYHUVLWDLUHV GH )UDQFH  WUDGXFWLRQV HQ DQJODLVǡUXVVH LWDOLHQ FKLQRLV /·DQWKURSRORJLH MXULGLTXH 3UHVVHV XQLYHUVLWDLUHV GH )UDQFH © 4XH VDLVMH ª  WUDGXFWLRQV HQ SHUVDQ LQGRQpVLHQ'URLW GHV PLQRULWpV HW GHV SHXSOHV DXWRFKWRQHV 3UHVVHV XQLYHUVLWDLUHV GH )UDQFH  WUDGXFWLRQ HQ HVSDJQRO 9R\DJHV DX[ FRQILQV GX GURLW DYHF - %HQRLVW  $L[HQ3URYHQFH 3UHVVHV XQLYHUVLWDLUHV G·$L[0DUVHLOOH  ­ OD GpFRXYHUWH GHV IHPPHV DUWLVWHV  XQH KLVWRLUH GH JHQUH$L[HQ3URYHQFH 3UHVVHV XQLYHUVLWDLUHV G·$L[0DUVHLOOH  3DUPL VHV DUWLFOHV HW FRQWULEXWLRQV VLJQDORQV © $XWRQRPLH HW DXWRFKWRQLH GDQV OD ]RQH 3DFLILTXH 6XG ª FRPPXQLFDWLRQ DX FROORTXH RUJDQLVp SDU O·$VVHPEOpH WHUULWRULDOH GH 3RO\QpVLH IUDQoDLVH SRXU OHV  DQV GH O·DXWRQRPLH 3DSHHWH MXLOOHW  SDUX GDQV5HYXH IUDQoDLVH GH GURLW FRQVWLWXWLRQQHO    © /HV VWDWXWV SHUVRQQHOV HW OHV GURLWV FRXWXPLHUV GDQV OH GURLW FRQVWLWXWLRQQHO IUDQoDLV ª GDQV  $QQH0DULH /H 3RXUKLHW GLU 'URLW FRQVWLWXWLRQQHO ORFDO (FRQRPLFD 3UHVVHV GH O·8QLYHUVLWp G·$L[0DUVHLOOH ,,,   © 8Q QRXYHDX VWDWXW SRXU OHV ,QGLHQV GH *X\DQHXQH K\SRWKqVH SRXU OH IXWXU " ª (WKQLHV'HV ©    GURLWV GHV IHPPHV XQ H[HPSOH KLVWRULTXH  ¶ /H U{OH MRXp SDU OH PRXYHPHQW DVVRFLDWLI IpPLQLQ HW OH IpPLQLVPH GDQV OD SURPRWLRQ GHV IHPPHV DUWLVWHV· ª/HV DVVRFLDWLRQV DFWHXUV SULYLOpJLpV GX GURLW HW GH OD JRXYHUQDQFH 3UHVVHV XQLYHUVLWDLUHV G·$L[0DUVHLOOH $L[HQ3URYHQFH  &DPLOOH9LHQQRWPHPEUH GXPDvWUH GH FRQIpUHQFHV j O·8QLYHUVLWp 3DULV 1DQWHUUH HW  HVW &HQWUH GH GURLW SpQDO HW GH FULPLQRORJLH &'3&  (OOH HQVHLJQH DX VHLQ GX 0DVWHU 'URLW SpQDO HW SURFpGXUH SpQDOH GH FHWWH XQLYHUVLWp (OOH D UpDOLVp XQH WKqVH VXU OHV SURFpGXUHV
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV  
SpQDOHV DFFpOpUpHV SXEOLpH DX[ pGLWLRQV 'DOOR] HW WUDYDLOOH SULQFLSDOHPHQW VXU OD SURFpGXUH SpQDOH HW OH GURLW GHV PpGLDV /D SDUXWLRQ G·XQ RXYUDJH VXU/HV DFWHXUV GH OD VpFXULWp SULYpHDX[ pGLWLRQV 0DUH 0DUWLQ TXL HVW OH UpVXOWDW G·XQH UHFKHUFKH FROOHFWLYH GLULJpH GHSXLV  DQV PDLQWHQDQW DYHF )UDQoRLV 'HVSUH] GHYUDLW LQWHUYHQLU GpEXW 
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV  
-XOLH 0H\HU
 7UDKLVRQ V
H
© Ñ FRXS  { WUDKLVRQ WURS LQGLJQH G·XQ KRPPH  ª 3LHUUH &RUQHLOOH &LQQD ,,,   HV pWXGHV DVVH] UpFHQWHV O·RQW UDSSHOp  OD WUDKLVRQ HVW VRXYHQW ' FHOXL TXL WUDKLW FHOXL TXL HVW WUDKL HW FHOXL RX DQDO\VpH FRPPH XQH UXSWXUH GH OD FRQILDQFH TXL H[LVWDLW HQWUH GHX[ LQGLYLGXV DORUV TX·HQ UpDOLWp HOOH IDLW VRXYHQW LQWHUYHQLU SOXV GH GHX[ SHUVRQQHV FHX[ TXL YRQW WLUHU XQ DYDQWDJH GH FHW DFWH 6·HQVXLYHQW GHV FRQIOLWV YRLUH SDUIRLV GH YpULWDEOHV FULVHV FH TXL IDLW TXH OD WUDKLVRQ SHXW DYRLU GHV   FRQVpTXHQFHV YDULpHV WDQW LQGLYLGXHOOHV TXH VRFLpWDOHV  'HSXLV O·$QWLTXLWp O·+LVWRLUH HVW MDORQQpH G·H[HPSOHV TXL PRQWUHQW O·LQWpUrW GHV KRPPHV SRXU FH SKpQRPqQH TXL OHV WRXFKH GH PDQLqUH SDUIRLV VL LQWLPH HW SDUIRLV ELHQ SXEOLTXH  j WUDYHUV GHV ILJXUHV GpUDQJHDQWHV FRPPH FHOOHV GH -XGDV RX GH *DQHORQ OH WUDLWUH HVW WUqV W{W DSSDUX FRPPH SRVDQW XQ SUREOqPH j OD VRFLpWp PrPH VL VHORQ OHV FLYLOLVDWLRQV GHV pYROXWLRQV HW GHV QXDQFHV VRQW DSSDUXHV GDQV OD SHUFHSWLRQ GH OD WUDKLVRQ FRPPH GDQV VRQ WUDLWHPHQW  6HORQ OD GpILQLWLRQ TX·HQ GRQQHQW OHV GLFWLRQQDLUHV GH ODQJXH IUDQoDLVH  OD QRWLRQ GH WUDKLVRQ HVW VRXYHQW GH SULPH DERUG DVVLPLOpH DX IDLW GH OLYUHU RX G·DEDQGRQQHU XQH SHUVRQQH RX XQH FROOHFWLYLWp 'DQV FH GHUQLHU FDV O·DFWH GH WUDKLU YD j O·HQFRQWUH GH O·LQWpUrW JpQpUDO /D WUDKLVRQ SHXW pJDOHPHQW SUHQGUH OH VHQV GH PDQTXHPHQW j OD OR\DXWp ORUVTXH O·RQ WURPSH OD FRQILDQFH GH TXHOTX·XQ ORUVTXH O·RQ PDQTXH j OD SDUROH TX·RQ OXL D GRQQpH 'H Oj YLHQW TXH O·RQ SHXW SDUOHU GH WUDKLVRQ GDQV OHV FDV GH QRQ UHVSHFW G·XQH FDXVH RX PrPH G·XQ HQJDJHPHQW SULV RX HQFRUH ORUVTXH TXHOTXH FKRVH D pWp GpIRUPp GpQDWXUp
  /H WKqPH GH OD WUDKLVRQ DERUGp GDQV FH QXPpUR GH'URLW HW &XOWXUHV P·D pWp SURSRVp j O·RULJLQH SDU +HUYp *XLOORUHO DORUV 5pGDFWHXU HQ FKHI GH OD5HYXH TXH MH WLHQV j UHPHUFLHU LFL   2Q SHQVH QRWDPPHQW j O·RXYUDJH GH 6pEDVWLHQ 6FKHKU7UDvWUHV HW WUDKLVRQV GH O·$QWLTXLWp j QRV MRXUV %HUJ ,QWHUQDWLRQDO   &RPPH FHOD UHVVRUW GHV DFWHV GX &ROORTXH LQWHUQDWLRQDO7UDKLVRQ HW WUDLWUHV GDQV O·$QWLTXLWp 3DULV  VHSW  'H %RFFDUG   RQ D SDUIRLV GX PDO j FRPSUHQGUH FH TXL FRQVWLWXH XQ DFWH GH WUDKLVRQ RQ SHLQH j LGHQWLILHU FHOXL TXL D FRPPLV O·DFWH GH WUDKLU HW j OH UHFRQQDvWUH FRPPH WUDLWUH DORUV TXH MXVTXHOj F·pWDLW XQ DPL   6 6FKHKU RS FLW VRXOLJQH TXH GHV FLYLOLVDWLRQV SHXYHQW DSSDUDvWUH j OD VXLWH GH WUDKLVRQ FRPPH FHOD UHVVRUW SDU H[HPSOH GH OD OpJHQGH GH OD IRQGDWLRQ GH 5RPH   &I OD GpILQLWLRQ GX'LFWLRQQDLUH /DURXVVH KWWSZZZODURXVVHIUGLFWLRQQDLUHVIUDQFDLVWUDKLVRQ  RX HQFRUH FHOOH GX'LFWLRQQDLUH ePLOH /LWWUp KWWSZZZOLWWUHRUJGHILQLWLRQWUDKLVRQ
'URLW HW &XOWXUHV