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CONTENTS
PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
PART I THE INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING ENVIRONMENT
1.THE NEED FOR INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING TEXTS 1. Introduction 2. Electronic Documents 3. Communication through Natural Language Text 4. Understanding of Natural Language Text: The Cognitive Process 5. Understanding of Natural Language Text: The Automated Process 6. Important Concepts in Information Retrieval and Selection 7. General Solutions to the Information Retrieval Problem 8. The Need for Better Automatic Indexing and Abstracting Techniques
2.
THE ATTRIBUTES OF TEXT 1. Introduction 2. The Study of Text 3. An Overview of Some Common Text Types 4. Text Described at a Micro Level 5. Text Described at a Macro Level 6. Conclusions
3.TEXT REPRESENTATIONS AND THEIR USE 1. Introduction 2. Definitions
xi xv
1
3 3 4 5
7
8 10 17
22
27 27 27 29 30 38 47
49 49 49
viii
Automatic Indexing and Abstracting of Document Texts
3. Representations that Characterize the Content of Text 4. Intellectual Indexing and Abstracting 5. Use of theText Representations 6. A Note about the Storage of Text Representations 7. Characteristics of Good Text Representations 8. Conclusions
PART II METHODS OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING
50 55 60 69 70 73
75
4.AUTOMATIC INDEXING: THE SELECTION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE INDEX TERMS77 1. Introduction 77 2. A Note about Evaluation78 3. Lexical Analysis78 4. Use of a Stoplist80 5. Stemming81 6. The Selection of Phrases84 7. Index Term Weighting89 8. Alternative Procedures for Selecting Index Terms98 9. Selection of Natural Language Index Terms: Accomplishments and Problems101 10. Conclusions102
5.AUTOMATIC INDEXING: THE ASSIGNMENT OF CONTROLLED LANGUAGE INDEX TERMS 1. Introduction 2. A Note about Evaluation 3. Thesaurus Terms 4. Subject and Classification Codes 5. Learning Approaches to Text Categorization 6. Assignment of Controlled Language Index Terms: Accomplishments and Problems 7. Conclusions
6.AUTOMATIC ABSTRACTING: THE CREATION OF TEXT SUMMARIES 1. Introduction 2. A Note about Evaluation 3. The Text Analysis Step 4. The Transformation Step
103 103 104 106 111 115
131 132
133 133 134 136 148
Contents
5. Generation of the Abstract 6. Text Abstracting: Accomplishments and Problems 7. Conclusions
PART III APPLICATIONS
ix
150 152 154
155
7.TEXT STRUCTURING AND CATEGORIZATION WHEN SUMMARIZING LEGAL CASES157 1. Introduction157 2. Text Corpus and Output of the System158 3. Methods: The Use of a Text Grammar161 4. Results and Discussion165 5. Contributions of the Research168 6. Conclusions172
8.CLUSTERING OF PARAGRAPHS WHEN SUMMARIZING LEGAL CASES173 1. Introduction173 2. Text Corpus and Output of the System174 3. Methods: The Clustering Techniques175 4. Results and Discussion181 5. Contributions of the Research188 6. Conclusions190
9.THE CREATION OF HIGHLIGHTABSTRACTS OF MAGAZINE ARTICLES 1. Introduction 2. Text Corpus and Output of the System 3. Methods: The Use of a Text Grammar 4. Results and Discussion 5. Contributions of the Research 6. Conclusions
10.TOTHE ASSIGNMENT OF SUBJECT DESCRIPTORS MAGAZINE ARTICLES 1. Introduction 2. Text Corpus and Output of the System 3. Methods: Supervised Learning of Classification Patterns 4. Results and Discussion 5. Contributions of the Research 6. Conclusions
191 191 192 194 201 204 205
207 207 208 210 217 224 225
x
Automatic Indexing and Abstracting of Document Texts
SUMMARY AND FUTURE PROSPECTS 1. Summary 2.FutureProspects
REFERENCES SUBJECT INDEX
227 227 235
237 261
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