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Data Communication Principles for Fixed and Wireless Networks

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Data Communication Principles for Fixed and Wireless Networks focuses on the physical and data link layers. Included are examples that apply to a diversified range of higher level protocols such as TCP/IP, OSI and packet based wireless networks. Performance modeling is introduced for beginners requiring basic mathematics. Separate discussion has been included on wireless cellular networks performance and on the simulation of networks. Throughout the book, wireless LANS has been given the same level of treatment as fixed network protocols. It is assumed that readers would be familiar with basic mathematics and have some knowledge of binary number systems.
Data Communication Principles for Fixed and Wireless Networks is for students at the senior undergraduate and first year graduate levels. It can also be used as a reference work for professionals working in the areas of data networks, computer networks and internet protocols.

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Table of Contents
Preface
1.Computer Communications Networks  Introduction 1.1.Main Components 1.1.1.The Computer System 1.1.2.The Communications System 1.1.3.The Networking System 1.2.Network Development Example 1.2.1. Three Role Players 1.2.2.Network Design 1.3.Standardization 1.3.1.Example 1 Communication of Voice 1.3.2.Example 2  File Transfer 1.4. Classification of Networks 1.4.1.Local Area Networks (LANs) 1.4.2.Wide Area Networks (WANs) 1.4.3.Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) 1.5.Network Protocol Architecture 1.5.1.Protocols 1.5.2. Standards 1.5.3. Protocol Architecture 1.6.Example of a Protocol Architecture 1.6.1. Open System 1.7.Summary 1.8. Review Questions
2.Network Architectures  Examples 2.1. The OSI Reference Model (OSIRM) 2.1.1.OSIRM Characteristics and Terminology 2.1.2. Communications Model within an OSI Node 2.1.3. Communications Across the OSI Network 2.1.4.Interlayer communication 2.1.5.OSIRM Layer Definitions and Functions 2.2.The TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2.2.1.The Internet Protocol (IP) 2.2.2.The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 2.2.3. The Application Protocols for the Internet 2.2.4.Lower Layers Internetof the
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1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 9 9 10 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 16
17 18 18 19 22 23 25 36 39 40 41 41
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2.3.The IEEE Wireless Local Area Network (IEEE WLAN) 2.3.1. Local Area Networks 2.3.2.Wireless Local Area Networks 2.3.3. The Physical Layer (PHY) 2.3.4. The Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer 2.4. Framework for Studying a Protocol. 2.5. Standardization of Protocols 2.5.1. International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 2.5.2. The Internet Society 2.5.3.International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 2.5.4. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 2.5.5. American National Standard Institute (ANSI) 2.5.6. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 2.6. Summary 2.7.Review Questions
3.Network and User Data 3.1.The Network Data 3.2.The Physical Layer Data 3.2.1.Events and DefinitionsSequence of 3.2.2. Modulation of data and signals 3.2.3.Digital Encoding of Data 3.2.4. NonReturn to Zero (NRZ) 3.2.5. Multilevel Encoding 3.2.6. Manchester Coding 3.2.7.Bit EncodingGeneral Characteristics of 3.2.8.Zerosubstitution andnB/NB Translation 3.3. Passband Modulation 3.3.1. The Carrier Signal 3.3.2. Analog Modulation 3.4. Digital Modulation 3.4.1. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) 3.4.2.Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) 3.4.3. Phase Shift Keying (PSK) 3.5.The User Data 3.5.1.VoiceDigital Transmission of 3.5.2. The Sampling Theorem 3.5.3.Pulse Coded Modulation (PCM) 3.5.4.Delta Modulation 3.6.Text and Numerical Data 3.6.1.ASCII (American National Standard Code for Interchange) 3.6.2.ISO 88591 (ISO Latin 1)
42 42 43 45 46 47 48 49 49 50 50 50 51 52 53
55 56 57 57 67 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 76 77 80 80 81 82 84 84 85 85 91 93 Information 94 95
3.6.3. UCS (Universal multipleoctet coded Character Set) 3.7. Summary 3.8. Review Questions
4.The Physical Layer 4.1.Channel Impairments 4.1.1. Signal Attenuation 4.1.2. Delay Distortion 4.1.3.Noise 4.1.4. Multipath 4.2. Transmission Media 4.3. Cables in data communications 4.3.1.Twisted Pair Copper Cables 4.3.2.Coaxial Cable 4.3.3.Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) 4.4. The Wireless Media 4.4.1.Characteristics 4.4.2.Wireless BandsExamples of 4.5. Physical Layer Protocol Example: EIA232F 4.5.1. Mechanical Characteristics 4.5.2. Electrical Characteristics 4.5.3. Functional Characteristics 4.5.4.Procedural Characteristics 4.5.5.PHY for IEEE Wireless Local Area Network 4.5.6. WLAN Types 4.5.7. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) for 2.4 Specification 4.5.8. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) for 2.4 Specification 4.5.9.Infrared PHY for IEEE WLAN 4.6.The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) PHY 4.7. Review Questions
5.Data Link Control Layer Functions and Procedures 5.1.Data Link Layer Functions 5.1.1.Synchronization 5.1.2. Addressing Modes 5.1.3.Connection setup and termination 5.1.4. Error Control 5.1.5.Flow Control 5.1.6. Link Control and Testing 5.1.7. Multiplexing
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96 98 99
101 102 102 104 105 106 107 108 108 110 111 111 112 112 113 114 116 116 118 121 122 GHz 123 GHz 126 127 128 130
131 132 132 132 133 133 133 133 134
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5.2. Synchronization 5.2.1.Synchronous Transmission 5.2.2. Asynchronous Transmission 5.3.Connection Setup and Termination 5.4.Addressing 5.5. Error Control 5.5.1.Parity bit 5.5.2. Block Error Check 5.5.3.The Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) 5.6. Flow Control 5.6.1. StopandWait (SnW) Flow Control 5.6.2. The Slidingwindows (SW) Flow Control Mechanism 5.6.3. Link Utilization of Window Flow Control Mechanisms 5.6.4. Fullduplex Communications Using Window Flow Control 5.7. Flow Control Based Error Recovery Mechanisms 5.7.1. StopandWait ARQ 5.7.2. GoBackN ARQ 5.7.3. Selective Reject ARQ 5.7.4.Maximum Window Size 5.8.Link Control and Testing 5.9. Review Questions
6.Data Link Control Layer Protocol Examples 6.1.HDLC (Highlevel Data Link Control) Protocol 6.2. HDLC Frame Types 6.3. HDLC station types 6.3.1.Primary station 6.3.2. Secondary station 6.3.3. Combined stations 6.4. Operation modes 6.4.1. Normal Response Mode (NRM) 6.4.2.Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM) 6.4.3. Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM) 6.4.4. Extended Modes 6.5.The HDLC Frame 6.5.1.Flag 6.5.2.Address Field 6.5.3. Frame Check Sequence (FCS) 6.6. HDLC Protocol Operation 6.6.1. Selection of Timeout 6.6.2. Connection Setup and Termination 6.6.3. Data Exchange 6.7.Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Protocol
134 134 136 139 140 142 144 146 146 156 156 158 162 163 164 164 165 166 167 168 169
171 172 172 176 176 176 176 176 176 176 177 177 177 177 177 178 178 179 179 180 185
6.7.1. The ATM Cell 6.8. ATM Protocol Procedures 6.8.1.Virtual circuit and the frame relay protocol 6.8.2. Error Control 6.9.Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer for IEEE Wireless LANs 6.9.1.Random Access in LANs 6.9.2. Collision Avoidance 6.9.3. The Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) 6.9.4.MAC Frame Structure 6.9.5. MAC Frame Types 6.10. Review Questions
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186 191 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 200
7.Multiplexing and Carrier Systems201 7.1. Analog and Digital Transmissions202 7.1.1.Analog and Digital Multiplexing202 7.1.2. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)203 7.1.3. Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)204 7.1.4. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)205 7.1.5.Synchronous TDM205 7.1.6. Statistical TDM206 7.1.7.Statistical Versus Synchronous TDM208 7.1.8.The TDM Switch209 7.2. Digital Carrier Systems211 7.3.The DS1 Carrier System212 7.3.1.Total Bit Rate213 7.3.2. Signaling Information213 7.3.3. Problems with T1/E1 Systems214 7.4. Synchronous Optical Network/ Synchronous Digital Hierarchy215 7.5.Digital Subscriber’s Line (DSL)217 7.5.1.8.1. Integration With Telephone218 7.6. Multiplexing at higher layers218 7.6.1.Multiple Protocols Per Layer With Connectionoriented Mode219 7.6.2. Multiple Connections Per Protocol220 7.7.Review Questions222
8.The Network and Higher Layer Functions 8.1. The Network Layer 8.2. Typical Functions of Network layer 8.2.1. Connectionless Network Layers 8.2.2. Connectionoriented Mode 8.3. The Endtoend Layers 8.4. X.25 Packet Layer Protocol
223 224 225 225 229 230 232
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8.4.1. X.25 Packet Types 8.5. Review Questions
9.Performance Models for Data Networks 9.1.The Network Performance 9.2.Performance of the Physical Layer Protocols 9.2.1. Performance Improvement at PHY 9.3. Data Link Layer Performance 9.3.1. Flow Control Procedures 9.3.2. Error Control Procedures 9.4. Performance of the MAC Sublayer 9.5. Performance of the network and higher layers 9.5.1. Connectionless and Connectionoriented Protocols 9.5.2. QoS Differentiation in Connectionless Protocols 9.5.3.Performance of Endtoend Protocols 9.6. System Simulation for Performance Prediction 9.6.1. What is Simulation? 9.6.2. Designing a Simulation Program Versus Using a Package 9.7. Performance of Wireless and Mobile Networks 9.7.1. The Wireless Network Channel 9.7.2. Resource Management in Wireless Networks 9.7.3. Mobility Management in Mobile Networks 9.8.Review Questions
References
Index
233 236
237 238 239 240 242 243 246 248 249 250 252 254 255 255 257 257 258 262 264 266
267
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