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MultiCarrier Technologies for Wireless Communication

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Multi-carrier technologies have emerged as important instruments in telecommunications. OFDM is in the forefront, with its adoption by the IEEE 802.11 standards committee and the European HYPERLAN standards group. Following OFDM, MC-CDMA is also demonstrating considerable promise when compared to competing technologies. According to the authors, these technologies are just the beginning in the coming multi-carrier revolution. In this text, the authors explain how a common multi-carrier platform is being designed for DS-CDMA, TDMA, OFDM and MC-CDMA systems. Findings are presented which show how this multi-carrier platform enhances network capacity and probability of error performance.

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CONTENTS
1
Introduction
1.1 Multi-Carrier Technology and Carrier Interferometry: A Quantum Leap? 1.2Unification
2 Overview of Multi-Carrier Technologies
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Multi-Carrier Technologies: Past and Present 2.2.1 OFDM 2.2.2 Coded OFDM 2.2.3 MC-CDMA 2.2.4 Recap 2.3 The Carrier Interferometry (CI) Approach 2.3.1 The CI Signal 2.3.2 Orthogonality Properties of the CI Signal 2.3.3 Pseudo- Orthogonality Properties of CI Signals 2.4 CI/MC-CDMA: The Application of the CI Signal to MC-CDMA 2.5 CI/TDMA: Multi-Carrier Implementations of TDMA and the Demise of the Equalizer 2.6 CI/DS-CDMA: A Multi-Carrier Implementation of DS-CDMA and the Demise of the RAKE receiver 2.7 CI/OFDM: Increasing Performance and Throughput in OFDM andEliminatingthe PAPR Problem 2.8 Summary
3 High-Performance High-Capacity MC-CDMA for Future Generations: The CI Approach
3.1 Introduction 3.2 CI/MC-CDMA Signaling and Transmitter Model 3.3 Channel Model
1
1 2
5
5 6 6 8 12 16 16 17 20 21
23
24
29
33 37
41
42 44 49
3.4 Receiver Structures 3.5 Performance Results 3.5.1 Perfect Synchronization 3.5.2 Phase Jitter 3.5.3 Frequency Offset 3.6 Crest Factor Considerations in CI/MC-CDMA 3.6.1 Downlink Crest Factor 3.6.2 Uplink Crest Factor 3.6.3 CF Reduction Technique 3.7 Conclusions
Appendix 3A: Determining the Phases Minimizing Root Mean Square Correlation Appendix 3B: How to Generate Correlated Rayleigh Envelopes for Use in Simulations Appendix 3C: Derivation of MMSE Combiner in CI/MC-CDMA Receeiver
4 High Performance, High Throughput TDMA via Multi-Carrier Implementations
4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Overview of TDMA and GSM 4.1.2 Overview of the CI Approach 4.1.3 Introducing CI to TDMA 4.2 CI Pulse Shaping in TDMA 4.2.1 Essentials 4.2.2 CI Pulse Shapes for Doubling Throughput 4.2.3 Bandwidth Efficiency of CI/TDMA 4.3 Channel Model 4.4 CI/TDMA Receiver 4.5 Performance Results 4.6 Conclusions
5 High-Perfomance, High-Capacity DS-CDMA via Multicarrier Implementation
5.1 Introduction 5.2 Review of DS-CDMA
xiv
50 52 52 53 55 58 60 60 62 64
65
66
69
75
75 75 77 77 78 78 80 81 81 82 83 87
89
90 91
6
5.2.1 Introduction 5.2.2 DS-CDMA Transmit and Receive Signal
5.3 Novel Multi-carrier Chip Shapes and Novel Transmitters for DS-CDMA 5.4 Novel Receiver Design for CI/DS-CDMA 5.5 High-capacity DS-CDMA via Pseudo-Orthogonal CI Chip Shaping 5.6 High Performance, High Capacity via a Second Pseudo-Orthogonal Chip Shaping 5.7 Channel Model 5.8 Characterizing Performance Gains and Network Capacity Improvements in CI/DS-CDMA 5.9 Conclusions
 High-Performance, High-Throughput OFDM with Low PAPR via Carrier Interferometry Phase Coding
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Novel CI Codes and OFDM Transmitter Structures 6.2.1 CI/OFDM & CI/COFDM 6.2.2 Addition of Pseudo-Orthogonality to CI/OFDM & CI/COFDM 6.3 Novel OFDM Receiver Structures 6.4 Channel Modeling 6.5 Performance Results 6.6 Peak to Average Power Ratio Considerations 6.6.1 PAPR in OFDM and CI/OFDM 6.6.2 PAPR in PO-CI/OFDM 6.7 Conclusions
7 The Marriage of Smart Antenna Arrays and Multi-Carrier Systems: Spatial Sweeping, Transmit Diversity, and Directionality
7.1 Smart Antennas with Spatial Sweeping 7.1.1 Proposed Antenna Array Structure 7.1.2 Receiver Design for Smart Antenna with Spatial Sweeping 7.1.3 Theoretical Performance 7.1.4 Simulated Performance
xv
91 93
97 101
105
108 114
116 122
125
125 127 127
131 134 136 137 140 141 144 147
151
153 154
158 159 162
Index
7.2 Channel Modeling for Spatial Sweeping Smart Antennas: Establishing the Available Transmit Diversity 7.2.1 Channel Model Assumptions 7.2.2 Linear Time Varying Channel Impulse Response Modeling 7.2.3 Evaluation of Coherence Time 7.2.4 Updates to the Channel Impulse Response: Antenna Array Factor and Phase 7.3 Innovative Combining of Multi-Carrier Systems and Smart Antennas with Spatial Sweeping 7.3.1 The Transmit Side 7.3.2 The Receiver Side 7.3.3 Simulated Performance
7.4 Conclusion
xvi
162 164
165 169
170
177 179 181 190
193
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