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Space-Time Processing for CDMA Mobile Communications

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The field of smart antenna technology or, more generally, space-time processing is rapidly becoming one of the most promising areas of mobile communications, especially regarding the development of the first practical third-generation mobile communication systems. The authors have addressed many of the most basic questions relating to the use of space-time processing in CDMA-based third-generation systems and have presented models for the integration of space-time processing, error correction coding, and multi-user detection techniques.

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Contents
List of Figures List of Tables Preface
1.
2.
3.
INTRODUCTION 1.1 IMT2000 1.2 IMT2000 Spectrum Allocation 1.3 From Second Generation to Third Generation 1.4 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System 1.5 Third Generation and Beyond 1.5.1 Reconfigurable Terminals 1.5.2 Application and Service Download 1.5.3 Broadband Satellite Systems 1.5.4 Spacetime Techniques 1.6 Spacetime Processing Systems 1.7 Organization of Book
BASIC SPACETIME ASPECTS 2.1 Relevant Cellular Terminology 2.2 Basic Adaptive Array Concepts 2.3 Spacetime Processing 2.3.1 Spacetime Base Stations 2.3.2 Spacetime Mobiles 2.3.3 Advantages of Spacetime Processing 2.4 System Model for Spacetime Processing 2.5 Practical Implementation of CDMA Smart Antenna Systems 2.6 Summary
ASPECTS INFLUENCING SPACETIME PERFORMANCE 3.1 Propagation Path 3.1.1 Path Loss 3.2 Temporal Fading 3.2.1 Multipath Intensity Profile
xi xvii xix 1 2 4 5 7 9 9 11 11 11 12 13
17 18 23 28 34 35 35 37 40 41
43 43 44 45 46
vi
SPACETIME PROCESSING FOR CDMA
3.3
3.4 3.5
3.2.2Spacefrequency Correlation Function 3.2.3Doppler Power Spectrum 3.2.4Spacetime Correlation Function 3.2.5Frequencyselective Fading 3.2.6Flat Fading 3.2.7Fast Fading 3.2.8Slow Fading Scattering Environment 3.3.1Highrank Channels 3.3.2Lowrank Channels Angular Subscriber Distribution Summary
4. SPACETIME CHANNEL MODELS 4.1Basic Modeling 4.2Local Scattering Environment 4.2.1Circular Disk of Scatterers Model 4.2.1.1 Correlation 4.2.2Gaussian Scatterer Model 4.2.2.1 Correlation 4.2.3Effective Scatterer Model 4.2.4Discrete Uniform Distribution Model 4.2.5Geometrically Based SingleBounce Statistical Models 4.2.5.1 Geometrically Based Circular Macrocell Model 4.2.5.2 Geometrically Based Elliptical Microcell Wideband Model 4.2.6Gaussian Wide Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering Model 4.2.7Raleigh’s Model 4.2.8Uniform Sectored Distribution Model 4.2.9Modified SalehValenzuel’s Model 4.2.10Extended Tapdelayline Model 4.2.11Measurementbased Channel Models 4.2.12Ray Tracing Models 4.3Fading Distribution Based on Scattering Environment 4.3.1Exponential Fading Distribution 4.3.2Gaussian Fading Distribution 4.4Summary of Spacetime Channel Models 4.5Summary
5. SMART ANTENNA TECHNIQUES 5.1Beamforming 5.1.1Fixed Beamforming 5.1.2Oneshot Beamforming 5.1.3Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms 5.1.3.1Nonblind beamforming 5.1.3.2Blind Beamforming 5.1.3.3Constant Modulus Algorithm
49 50 52 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 59 61
63 63 64 65 68 69 74 75 76 77 78
78
79 81 82 83 84 84 85 86 87 87 87 91
93 96 96 97 98 98 99 99
5.2
5.3 5.4 5.5
Contents
5.1.3.4 Algorithms based on DOA Estimation 5.1.3.5 Algorithms based on Propertyrestoral Techniques 5.1.3.6Algorithms based on Discrete Signal Structure 5.1.3.7 General Algorithms 5.1.3.8Integrated Algorithms for CDMA Signalling 5.1.4 Correlation Influence on Beam Pattern Diversity 5.2.1 Transmit Diversity 5.2.1.1CodeDivision Transmit Diversity 5.2.1.2 TimeDivision Transmit Diversity 5.2.1.3 CDTD and TDTD with PreRAKE Combining 5.2.2 Receive Diversity Sectorization Switchedbeam Smart Antennas Summary
6. SMART ANTENNA PERFORMANCE 6.1Beamforming Array Performance 6.1.1 Optimum Antenna Element Spacing 6.1.2 Numerical Results 6.2Receive Diversity Performance 6.2.1 Numerical Results 6.3Combined Diversity and Beamforming Performance 6.3.1 Numerical Results 6.4Choosing a Spatial Processing Technique 6.5Multiuser Modulation Schemes 6.6Summary
7. MULTIUSER DETECTION 7.1 Multiuser Detection 7.2 System Model for Detection 7.3 OneShot Detection Techniques 7.3.1Conventional Detection 7.3.2Optimal Detection 7.3.3Linear Detection 7.3.3.1Decorrelating Detector 7.3.3.2MMSE Detector 7.3.3.3 Adaptive MMSE Detection 7.3.4 Decorrelating Decision Feedback Detector 7.4 Interference Cancellation Techniques 7.4.1 Linear Interference Cancellation 7.4.1.1Jacobi Inner Iteration 7.4.1.2GaussSeidel Inner Iteration 7.4.2 Nonlinear Interference Cancellation 7.5Joint Decoding for Coded CDMA 7.6Numerical Examples for Interference Cancellation 7.6.1 Interference Cancellation over an AWGN channel
vii
101 101 102 102 103 107 111 111 113 115 116 117 120 120 123
125 125 129 133 137 139 140 140 142 147 151
153 154 155 157 157 160 162 162 163 165 167 167 170 171 172 173 173 175 176
viii
SPACETIME PROCESSING FOR CDMA
7.7
7.6.2 Interference Cancellation over UMTS Multipath Channel Model Summary
8. SPACETIME CODED TRANSMIT DIVERSITY FOR CDMA 8.1Spacetime Coded Multiple Access 8.2Turbo Coding 8.2.1 Turbo Encoding 8.2.2 Turbo Decoding 8.2.3 Turbo Code Performance 8.2.3.1Turbo Interleaver/Permuter 8.2.3.2Constituent Encoder 8.2.3.3 Puncturing 8.2.3.4Decoding Algorithm 8.3Spacetime Coded System Model 8.4Layered Spacetime Codes 8.4.1 Low Rate Code Extension 8.5Performance Evaluation 8.5.1 Convolutional Code Bounds 8.5.1.1 Evaluation of 8Code Bounds.5.2 Turbo 8.6Analytical Results 8.6.1 AWGN Performance 8.6.2 Fading Channel Multiuser Performance 8.6.3 CDTD and TDTD Comparison 8.6.4 Effects of Fading Correlation 8.7Simulation Performance 8.8Spacetime Code Extensions 8.8.1Turbo Transmit Diversity 8.8.1.1 Rate Turbo Encoding 8.8.1.2 Puncturing and Multiplexing 8.8.1.3 Iterative Decoding 8.8.2Superorthogonal Turbo Transmit Diversity 8.9 Summary
Appendices A– List of Abbreviations B– List of Symbols C– Typical Power Delay Profiles D– Correlated Multivariate Gamma Distribution D.1 Correlated Multivariate Gamma Distribution D.1.1 Example D.1.2 Special Case E– Turbo Code InputOutput CPDF E.1 InputOutput Weight Enumerator Recursion E.2 InputOutput Conditional Probability Density Function
179 181 183 184 187 188 188 189 189 191 191 191 191 193 195 196 196 198 201 202 202 204 206 206 211 214 214 214 215 216 218 220
221 221 227 235 237 237 239 240 243 243 244
Contents
F– Turbo Decoding F.1 Turbo Decoding F.1.1 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Information F.1.1.1 Extrinsic Information F.1.1.2 Intrinsic Information F.1.2 SoftInput/SoftOutput Decoding Algorithm F.2 Iterative Decoding Algorithms F.2.1 Maximum A Posteriori Algorithm F.2.1.1 Calculation of BranchMetric, F.2.1.2 Calculation of Forward Recursion,αand Backward Recursion, F.2.1.3 LLR Calculation, F.2.1.4 Tail Termination G–WCDMA Simulation Environment: Physical Layer G.1 Uplink Description Summary G.2 Downlink Description Summary H– WCDMA Simulation Environment H.1 Link Level Simulation H.1.1 MonteCarlo Simulation Technique H.1.2 General Simulation Assumptions H.1.3 Simulation Cases H.2 MATLAB Simulation Software H.2.1 Getting Started H.2.2 Main Simulation Window H.2.3 Simulation Environment Configuration H.2.4 Example
References
Index
About the Authors
ix
247 247 248 248 248 248 250 250 251
252 253 254 257 258 261 263 263 266 266 267 268 268 268 268 271
273
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