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Innervation of the Mammalian Esophagus

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About this book

The esophagus is a relatively simple though vital organ. .,Beyond its role of propelling food from the pharynx to the stomach by a propulsive contraction wave representing the esophageal phase of deglutition, it is more and more recognized as a sensory organ from which a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes can be triggered, thus cooperating with the larynx in protecting the lower airways from aspiration. In ruminants, there is additional antiperistalsis for regurgitation. During emesis, the esophagus is a merely passive conduit except for some antiperistalsis in its upper part. In the interval between swallows, both oral and aboral ends of the esophagus are tonically closed by the upper and lower esophageal sphincters, UES and LES respectively, while the tubular esophagus is flaccid and partly filled with air. Despite this apparent simplicity, neuronal control of esophageal functions is considerably complex.

Written for:
Researchers and scientists in the fields of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and neurogastroenterology
Keywords:
enteric coinnervation
esophageal sphincters
extrinsic system
intrinsic system
spinal innervation
vagal innervation
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List of Contents
1 1.1
2 2.1 2.2
3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.1.1 3.1.1.2 3.1.2 3.1.2.1 3.1.2.2 3.1.2.3 3.1.2.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.2.1 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5
4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1
4.2.2 4.2.3
5 5.1 5.2
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Muscle Layers of the Esophagus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials and Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anterograde WGAHRP Tracing from the Nodose Ganglion . . . . . . . . . . . . Anterograde DiI Tracing from Thoracic Dorsal Root Ganglia . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extrinsic Innervation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vagal Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Efferent Vagal Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nucleus Ambiguus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dorsal Motor Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Afferent Vagal Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vagal Afferent Structures in the Tunica Muscularis . . . . . . . . . Vagal Afferent Innervation of Mucosa and Submucosa . . . . . . Central Projections of Vagal Afferents from the Esophagus . . . Vagal Nociceptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spinal Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Efferent Spinal Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Afferent Spinal Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innervation of Esophageal Sphincters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Upper Esophageal Sphincter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lower Esophageal Sphincter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swallowing Central Pattern Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cortical Representation of the Esophagus in Human . . . . . . . .
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Intrinsic Innervation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enteric Coinnervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spatial Relationships of Vagal and Enteric Terminals and Neurochemical Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparative Anatomy of Enteric Coinnervation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ontogeny of the Esophageal Neuromuscular Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functional Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cooperation Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2
3 3 5
5 5 5 5 7 8 8 31 34 36 36 36 37 39 41 41 41 43 44
45 45 46
47 48 49
51 51 51
VIII
6
List of Contents
Concluding Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subject Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
56 75
http://www.springer.com/978-3-540-29205-0