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Modelling Radiocesium in Lakes and Coastal Areas?New Approaches for Ecosystem Modellers, A Textbook with Internet Support

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This text describes practically useful models driven by readily available driving variables and with a general structure that applies to most types of pollutants in aquatic systems. The major reason for development of this model is the Chernobyl accident. Large quantities of radiocesium were released in April/May 1986 as a pulse. To follow the pulse of radiocesium through ecosystem pathways has meant that important fluxes and mechanisms, such as ecosystem structures, have been revealed. It is important to stress that many of these new structures and equations are valid not just for radiocesium, but for most types of contaminants, metals, nutrients and organics. This means that the models, methods (of building and testing models) and equations described in this book for lakes and coastal areas should be of interest also to other ecosystem modellers.

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Prologue
CONTENTS AND PROLOGUE
CONTENTS
1. Modelling radiocesium in lakes 1.1. Introduction and aims 1.1.2. Background on radiocesium and radiation dose to man and environment 1.1.3. Background to the model for radiocesium in lakes 1.2. The modelling principles for the new model for radiocesium in lakes 1.3. The model-equations 1.3.1. The catchment sub-model-inflow to the lake 1.3.1.1. Outflow areas 1.3.1.2. Inflow areas 1.3.1.3. Direct fallout 1.3.2. Internal processes 1.3.2.1. Lake water 1.3.2.2. Lake outflow 1.3.2.3. Sedimentation on A-areas 1.3.2.4. Resuspension from ET-areas to the lake 1.3.2.5. Active A-sediments 1.3.2.6. Areas of erosion and transport 1.3.3. Biotic processes 1.3.3.1. General introduction 1.3.3.2. The fish model 1.3.4. Critical model tests 1.3.4.1. Set-up of the tests 1.3.4.2. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses 1.3.4.3. Validations 1.3.4.3.1. Previous validations of comprehensive lake models 1.3.4.3.2. Uncertainties in empirical data 1.3.4.3.3. The validation of the lake model for radiocesium
2. Modelling radiocesium in coastal areas 2.1. Aims 2.2. Coastal processes 2.2.1. Definitions 2.2.2. Basic hydrodynamic principles and processes for coastal areas 2.2.3. Fundamental sedimentological principles and processes for coastal areas 2.2.4. Coastal morphometry 2.3. The model 2.3.1. Presuppositions 2.3.2. Equations 2.3.2.1. The catchment sub-model-tributary inflow to estuaries 2.3.2.2. Direct fallout 2.3.2.3. Inflow from the sea 2.3.2.4. Internal processes
Page ix
1 1 1 2 3 14 14 15 27 29 29 29 41 42 47 50 54 56 56 57 69 69 71 77 77 78 84
89 89 89 89 95 101 103 11 4 115 125 125 127 127 140
viii
CONTENTS AND PROLOGUE
2.3.2.4.1. Water 2.3.2.4.2. Outflow 2.3.2.4.3. Sedimentation on A-areas 2.3.2.4.4. Resuspension from ET-areas into water 2.3.2.4.5. Active A-sediments 2.3.2.4.6. Areas of erosion and transport 2.3.2. 5. Biotic processes 2.3.2.5.1. Generalsetup2.3.2.5.2. The fish model 2.3.3. Panel of driving variables 2.3.4. Inventories 2.3.5. Remedial measures 2.3.5.1. Dredging 2.3.5.2. Worst-case scenario 2.4. Critical model tests 2.4.1. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses 2.4.2. A continuous contamination scenario 2.5. The simplified model
3. Epilogue
4. Literature references
5. Appendix 5.1. Equations for the lake model 5.2. Equations for the coastal model
Subject index
140 142 142 150 150 153 154 154 154 162 164 165 165 166 168 168 175 178
185
189
197 197 200
205
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