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Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition

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793 pages
Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition contains concise, up-to-date information on vitamin nutrition for both animals and humans. The author defines these nutrients and describes their fascinating discovery, history and relationship to various diseases and deficiencies. Discussion of vitamins also includes their chemical structure, properties and antagonists; analytical procedures; metabolism; functions; requirements; sources; supplementation and toxicity. Vitamin-like substances, essential fatty acids and vitamin supplementation considerations are also examined.


This book will be useful worldwide as a textbook and as an authoritative reference for research and extension specialists, feed manufacturers, teachers, students and others. It provides a well-balanced approach to both animal and clinical human nutrition and compares chemical, metabolic and functional aspects of vitamins and their practical and applied considerations. A unique feature of the book is its description of the implications of vitamin deficiencies and excesses and the conditions that might occur in human and various animal species.

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C O N T E N T S
Preface, xv
1. Introduction and Historical Considerations Definition of Vitamins, 3 Classification of Vitamins, 4 Vitamin Nomenclature, 5 Vitamin Requirements, 6 Vitamin Occurrence, 7 History of the Vitamins, 7 References, 13
2. Vitamin A Introduction, 15 History, 16 Chemical Structure and Properties, 18 Analytical Procedures, 21 Metabolism, 22 Functions, 28 Requirements, 39 Natural Sources, 43 Deficiency, 48 Supplementation, 69 β-Carotene Function Independent of Vitamin A, 75 Toxicity, 78 References, 82
3. Vitamin D Introduction, 91 History, 91 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 94 Analytical Procedures, 95
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4.
5.
6.
C O N T E N T S
Metabolism, 97 Functions, 103 Requirements, 111 Natural Sources, 115 Deficiency, 117 Supplementation, 134 Toxicity, 140 References, 147
Vitamin E Introduction, 155 History, 155 Chemical Structure and Properties, 157 Analytical Procedures, 160 Metabolism, 161 Functions, 164 Requirements, 170 Natural Sources, 174 Deficiency, 178 Supplementation, 207 Toxicity, 216 References, 217
Vitamin K Introduction, 227 History, 227 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 229 Analytical Procedures, 231 Metabolism, 232 Functions, 235 Requirements, 239 Natural Sources, 242 Deficiency, 244 Supplementation, 254 Toxicity, 258 References, 259
Thiamin Introduction, 265 History, 265 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 267 Analytical Procedures, 269
7.
8.
9.
Metabolism, 269 Functions, 271 Requirements, 274 Natural Sources, 278 Deficiency, 280 Supplementation, 301 Toxicity, 305 References, 305
C O N T E N T S
Riboflavin Introduction, 311 History, 311 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 312 Analytical Procedures, 314 Metabolism, 315 Functions, 317 Requirements, 321 Natural Sources, 324 Deficiency, 326 Supplementation, 340 Toxicity, 342 References, 342
Niacin Introduction, 347 History, 347 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 350 Analytical Procedures, 350 Metabolism, 351 Functions, 355 Requirements, 357 Natural Sources, 360 Deficiency, 362 Supplementation, 376 Toxicity, 379 References, 380
Vitamin B6 Introduction, 385 History, 385 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 386 Analytical Procedures, 388
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C O N T E N T S
Metabolism, 389 Functions, 391 Requirements, 394 Natural Sources, 397 Deficiency, 399 Supplementation, 409 Toxicity, 412 References, 413
10. Pantothenic Acid Introduction, 419 History, 419 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 420 Analytical Procedures, 422 Metabolism, 423 Functions, 424 Requirements, 426 Natural Sources, 429 Deficiency, 430 Supplementation, 439 Toxicity, 441 References, 441
11. Biotin Introduction, 445 History, 445 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 446 Analytical Procedures, 448 Metabolism, 448 Functions, 450 Requirements, 452 Natural Sources, 454 Deficiency, 455 Supplementation, 471 Toxicity, 474 References, 475
12. Folacin Introduction, 479 History, 480 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 481 Analytical Procedures, 484
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Metabolism, 485 Functions, 487 Requirements, 490 Natural Sources, 494 Deficiency, 495 Supplementation, 512 Toxicity, 515 References, 516
C O N T E N T S
13. Vitamin B12 Introduction, 523 History, 523 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 526 Analytical Procedures, 528 Metabolism, 529 Functions, 532 Requirements, 535 Natural Sources, 538 Deficiency, 540 Supplementation, 555 Toxicity, 558 References, 559
14. Choline Introduction, 565 History, 565 Chemical Structure and Properties, 566 Analytical Procedures, 567 Metabolism, 568 Functions, 571 Requirements, 574 Natural Sources, 576 Deficiency, 578 Supplementation, 588 Toxicity, 592 References, 592
15. Vitamin C Introduction, 597 History, 597 Chemical Structure, Properties, and Antagonists, 600 Analytical Procedures, 601
xi
C O N T E N T S
Metabolism, 602 Functions, 604 Requirements, 609 Natural Sources, 611 Deficiency, 613 Supplementation, 627 Toxicity, 633 References, 634
16. Carnitine Introduction, 641 History, 641 Chemical Structure and Properties, 641 Analytical Procedures, 642 Metabolism, 642 Functions, 644 Requirements, 645 Natural Sources, 646 Deficiency, 647 Supplementation, 653 Toxicity, 655 References, 655
17. Vitaminlike Substances Introduction, 659 Myo-Inositol (Inositol), 660 Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ), 666 p-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA), 667 Flavonoids (Polyphenols), 668 Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid), 669 Coenzyme Q (Ubiquinones), 669 Vitamin B13(Orotic Acid), 670 Vitamin B15(Pangamic Acid), 670 Vitamin B17(Laetrile), 670 Vitamin H3(Gerovital), 671 Vitamin U (Cabagin), 671 Glucose Tolerance Factor, 671 Other Vitamin-like Factors, 671 References, 673
xii
18. Essential Fatty Acids Introduction, 675 History, 675 Chemical Structure and Properties, 676 Analytical Procedures, 678 Metabolism and Functions, 679 Requirements, 689 Natural Sources, 693 Deficiency, 695 Supplementation, 704 Toxicity, 708 References, 708
C O N T E N T S
19. Vitamin Supplementation Introduction, 713 Factors Resulting in Inadequate Dietary Intakes of Vitamins, 714 Factors Affecting Vitamin Requirements and Utilization, 720 Optimum Vitamin Allowances, 723 Vitamin Supplementation Most Needed by Livestock, 727 Vitamin Supplementation for Humans, 732 Providing Vitamin Supplements, 735 Formulating Vitamin Premixes, 741 References, 742
Appendix:Vitamin Requirements of Livestock and Humans; Feed Composition; Metric Conversions A1a: Vitamin Requirements for Ruminants and Horses, 748 A1b: Vitamin Requirements for Monogastric Animals, 750 A1c: Vitamin Requirements for Humans, 756 A2: Composition of Important Feeds, 758 A3: Metric Weights and Measures with Customary Equivalents, 762
Index, 763
xiii