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Des pionniers aux Îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

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350 pages
Les Îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, derniers arpents de l'Empire français du Canada, miettes d'Acadie, abritent un petit peuple de France à la culture originale et attachante. Cet ouvrage nous raconte l'histoire de quelques-une des familles venues fonder cette société, l'Odyssée de femmes et d'hommes qui inlassablement, fuyant la misère ou cherchant l'aventure, franchirent l'océan, parcoururent les terres atlantiques puis choisirent cet âpre pays pour en faire leur havre de liberté.
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18

.GU uNGU NQKPVCKPGU FG 5CKPV2KGTTG GV FG /KSWGNQP oVCKGPV ToIWNKpTGOGPV HToSWGPVoGU RCT NGU 0QTOCPFU GV DKGP EQPPWGU FG NC RQRWNCVKQP FGU EzVGU FG NC /CPEJG &G PQODTGWZ OCTKPU CXCKGPV EJQKUK FG U¶[ KPUVCNNGT GV XCPVCKGPV NGU CXCPVCIGU SW¶GNNGU QHHTCKGPV 2GWVqVTG oXKVCKGPVKNU FG U¶CTTqVGT UWT NGU FKHHKEWNVoU GPIGPFToGU RCT NG ENKOCV RCTVKEWNKpTGOGPV TKIQWTGWZ SW¶GNNGU UWDKUUCKGPV ! %GU OKPWUEWNGU uNGU P¶oVCKGPV SWG NGU FGTPKpTGU OKGVVGU FG NC 0QWXGNNG (TCPEG NGU RNWU GZRQUoGU NGU RNWU RGVKVGU NGU RNWU CTKFGU UCPU FQWVG 5K NQKP FG NC OoVTQRQNG FoLi GP #OoTKSWG GNNGU oVCKGPV HTCPnCKUGU 2TQEJGU FGU DCPEU RQKUUQPPGWZ FG 6GTTG0GWXG SWK FGRWKU RNWUKGWTU UKpENGU CVVKTCKGPV NGU RqEJGWTU FG NC XKGKNNG 'WTQRG %GU uNGU CXCKGPV oVo WP TGHWIG RQWT NGU OCTKPU GV CNNCKGPV FGXGPKT EGNWK FG ,WNKG # RGKPG CNGTVoG RCT N¶CURGEV TWFG FGU EzVGU PCRRoGU F¶WP DTQWKNNCTF CUUQWTFKUUCPV GNNG CXCKV CVVGPFW N¶KOOQDKNKVo TGNCVKXG FW DCVGCW GPHKP CPETo RQWT FGUEGPFTG FCPU NC EJCNQWRG SWK CEEQUVC DTWVCNGOGPV +ORCVKGPVG GNNG TGVTQWXC NC VGTTG HGTOG CXGE WPG LQKG HQNNG 7P RGW EJCPEGNCPVG NC FoOCTEJG OCN CUUWToG CRTpU XKPIVEKPS LQWTU FG OGT GV FG TQWNKU GNNG VTCXGTUC NG RQPVQP .G UCE SW¶GNNG RQTVCKV P¶oVCKV RCU VTpU NQWTF %¶oVCKV UQP UGWN DKGP OCKU SWG NWK KORQTVCKV 2CTOK NGU DCFCWFU SWK CVVGPFCKGPV N¶CTTKXoG FW DCVGCW UQP COKG /oNCPKG oVCKV Ni 'NNG CXCKV HCKV NG OqOG XQ[CIG N¶oVo RToEoFGPV .GWTU GHHWUKQPU HWTGPV DTpXGU OCKU NC EJCNGWT FG UQP CEEWGKN oVCKV TGUVoG KPUETKVG FCPU UC OoOQKTG 1J QWK GNNG UG UQWXGPCKV 'NNG CXCKV RW UG ToEJCWHHGT GV CRRToEKGT WPG ITCPFG VCUUG FG VJo DTNCPV WPG ITCPFG PQWXGCWVo SWK RNWV i ,WNKG 'NNGU CXCKGPV DCXCTFo NQPIWGOGPV VGNNGOGPV JGWTGWUGU FG UG TGVTQWXGT 'WIGUPG oVCKV CTTKXo SWGNSWGU LQWTU RNWU VCTF GV NGWTU TGICTFU KORCVKGPVU U¶oVCKGPV TGPEQPVToU OGUWToU GV GPHKP TGVTQWXoUª 3WGN DQPJGWT 'PHKP NC XKG NGWT UQWTKCKV +NU oVCKGPV GPUGODNG GV VQWV oVCKV RQUUKDNG %G UQKTNi ,WNKG oVCKV DQWNGXGTUoG &GOCKP GNNG UG OCTKCKV %G FKOCPEJG CXCKV oVo WP RGW oVTCPIG WPG UQTVG FG RCTGPVJpUG WP LQWT F¶CVVGPVG RNWVzV SW¶WP LQWT FG 2jSWGU .GU JQOOGU HKTGPV FG RGVKVU VTCXCWZ NGU HGOOGU SWGNSWGU RToRCTCVKHU GV GNNGU DCXCTFpTGPV +NU oVCKGPV UWTVQWV RToQEEWRoU RCT EG OCTKCIG RToXW RQWT NG NGPFGOCKP .GU QEECUKQPU FG HCKTG NC HqVG oVCKGPV TCTGU GV RQWT WPG HQKU KNU RQWTTCKGPV UG FKUVTCKTG WP RGW ,WNKG oVCKV CNNoG i N¶oINKUG OCKU P¶CXCKV RW UG TGEWGKNNKT &GRWKU SWGNSWG VGORU GNNG [ XGPCKV RNWU HToSWGOOGPV OCKU PG RTKCKV RCU XTCKOGPV GNNG CEEQORCIPCKV /oNCPKG 'P EG LQWT FG 2jSWGU N¶oINKUG oVCKV RNGKPG # NC UQTVKG FG NC OGUUG EJCSWG FKOCPEJG SWGNNG SWG UQKV NC VGORoTCVWTG QP oEJCPIGCKV FGU PQWXGNNGU UQWU NG RQTEJG %¶oVCKV WP FGU TCTGU NKGWZ FG ToWPKQP .GU XKUCIGU oVCKGPV UQWTKCPVU QW CXGPCPVU COWUoU GV EWTKGWZ HKGTU HGTOoU VTKUVGU QW UGWNGOGPV KPSWKGVU 3WGNSWGU EQKHHGU CRRCTCKUUCKGPV CW OKNKGW FGU HKEJWU NGU RNWU CXGTVKU RQTVCKGPV FGU DQPPGVU FG NCKPG NGU RNWU EJCPEGWZ FGU DQPPGVU FG HQWTTWTG +N [ CXCKV Ni VQWV WP oEJCPVKNNQPPCIG GV FCPU NC HQWNG NGU FGTPKGTU CTTKXoU UGODNCKGPV DKGP LGWPGU .GU TGPEQPVTGU oVCKGPV CIToCDNGU GV N¶QP U¶CVVCTFCKV GPEQTG WP RGW OCNITo NG HTQKF ª
19

,WNKG oVCKV RCTVKG TCRKFGOGPV 'NNG P¶CXCKV RCU GPXKG FG RCTNGT GNNG oVCKV RTGUUoG PGTXGWUG GNNG UG OCTKCKV NG NGPFGOCKPª 8Q[CKVQP i SWGN RQKPV GNNG oVCKV FKHHoTGPVG FGU CWVTGU ! 3W¶GUVEG SWK NC FKUVKPIWCKV ! 'P CRRCTGPEG TKGP ,WNKG oVCKV WPG LGWPG HGOOG CVVKTCPVG NC UKNJQWGVVG oNCPEoG N¶CNNWTG XKXG 5C EJGXGNWTG DTWPG CDQPFCPVG GV KPFKUEKRNKPoG CIToOGPVCKV N¶QXCNG FG UQP XKUCIG CPKOo RCT FGU [GWZ XGTVU GP COCPFG 'NNG RNKUUCKV UQWXGPV NGU RCWRKpTGU GP UQWTKCPV OCKU UQP TGICTF ENCKT FKUUKOWNCKV OCN WPG UQTVG FG ToUGTXG WP RGW UCWXCIG 5GETpVG GNNG UG ToHWIKCKV FCPU FG NQPIU UKNGPEGU 'V EG UQKTNi WPG HQKU FG RNWU GNNG CXCKV XQWNW U¶KUQNGT .G NGPFGOCKP KN [ CWTCKV NG OCTKCIG i NC OCKTKG 7PG HQTOCNKVo SWK QHHKEKCNKUGTCKV NGWT WPKQP NG UQKT i XKPIV JGWTGU WP RGW VCTF N¶QHHKEKGT FG N¶'VCV EKXKN oVCPV QEEWRo CKNNGWTU .GU OCTKCIGU oVCKGPV GP CWIOGPVCVKQP RQWTVCPV +N [ GP CXCKV GW JWKV N¶CPPoG RToEoFGPVG GV NGU PCKUUCPEGU UG OWNVKRNKCKGPV .GU VoOQKPU SW¶KNU CXCKGPV EJQKUKU ,WNGU #FQNRJG GV ,CESWGU CXCKGPV CEEGRVo CXGE LQKG .G OCVKP UWKXCPV VTpU VzV KNU UG OCTKGTCKGPV FCPU NC RGVKVG oINKUG 2GW KORQTVG KN HGTCKV DGCW .C PGKIG EQOOGPnCKV i HQPFTG GV NG UQNGKN WP RGW RNWU CTFGPV CFQWEKUUCKV NGU LQWTPoGU GP EG FoDWV F¶CXTKN /oNCPKG CXCKV XQWNW NGWT RToRCTGT WP DQP TGRCU 'NNG CXCKV RNWOo FGU ECPCTFU GV UQP IjVGCW oVCKV VQWLQWTU UCXQWTGWZ .C XKGKNNG /CTKG ICTFGTCKV ,WNGU RGPFCPV N¶QHHKEG SWK PG FGXCKV RCU FWTGT VTpU NQPIVGORU ,WNKG OGVVTC UC LWRG FG HWVCKPG WP RGW oNKOoG UWT UGU LWRQPU GORGUoU UC RGVKVG XGUVG XGTVG DKGP EKPVToG SWK NWK CNNCKV UK DKGP GNNG [ CXCKV CLQWVo WP EQN FG FGPVGNNG 'NNG UG EQKHHGTC F¶WPG ECRQVG PQKTG CWUUK FQWDNoG FG FGPVGNNG 5GU DQVVKPGU DKGP CUVKSWoGU oVCKGPV GPEQTG DGNNGU GV UQWNKIPCKGPV UGU EJGXKNNGU HKPGU 'NNG CWTCKV CKOo WP OCPEJQP %G UQKTNi UWT NC ITpXG GNNG CXCKV TGICTFo UGU OCKPU 'NNGU oVCKGPV FoNKECVGU i RGKPG CDuOoGU RCT NGU FWTU VTCXCWZ oVTQKVGU CXGE FG NQPIU FQKIVU CWZ QPINGU DKGP ICNDoU ,WNKG TGICTFCKV UQWXGPV UGU OCKPU CXGE KPVoTqV &¶Q~ NWK XGPCKGPV FG UK LQNKGU OCKPU ! 'NNG CWTCKV CKOo NGU RTQVoIGT FCPU WP LQNK OCPEJQP HQWTTo +NU oVCKGPV UK DGCWZ EGU OCPEJQPU GV UTGOGPV DKGP EJCWFU 2QWTTCKVGNNG UG RGTOGVVTG FG RQTVGT FG UK LQNKGU EJQUGU FCPU EG PQWXGCW RC[U ! 'NNG RQTVGTCKV WP CPPGCW i UC OCKP ICWEJG 'WIGUPG CXCKV KPUKUVo 'NNG CWTCKV DKGPVzV WP OCPEJQP SW¶GNNG EQPHGEVKQPPGTCKV CXGE FG NC HQWTTWTG 5QP GURTKV XCICDQPFCKV 6QWV oVCKV RQUUKDNG KEK OCNITo VQWV ,GVCPV WP TGICTF UQPIGWT XGTU NG NQKPVCKP GV TGNGXCPV NoIpTGOGPV UC LWRG ,WNKG TGDTQWUUC EJGOKP F¶WP RCU ToUQNW 'WIGUPG N¶CVVGPFCKV RCKUKDNGOGPV FCPU NGWT OCKUQP %GVVG RGVKVG OCKUQP GP DQKU QWXTCPV UWT NC 4QWVG FG NC 4CFG TGRToUGPVCKV VGNNGOGPV 'NNG oVCKV VTpU OQFGUVG OCKU KN N¶COoNKQTGTCKV LQWT CRTpU LQWT &oLi KN [ RCUUCKV NG RNWU FG VGORU RQUUKDNG .G ITCPF EQHHTG SW¶KN XGPCKV FG HKPKT oVCKV OCIPKHKSWG ,WNKG GP oVCKV VTpU HKpTG &GU TKFGCWZ LQNKOGPV ETQEJGVoU ICTPKUUCKGPV NGU RGVKVGU HGPqVTGU %G HQ[GT SW¶KNU KPUVCNNCKGPV oVCKV NG NGWT %GVVG CESWKUKVKQP P¶CXCKV RCU FG RTKZ NGWTU TqXGU NGU RNWU HQWU UG EQPEToVKUCKGPV

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'WIGUPG VGPCKV UC TGXCPEJG

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5QP COK 2KGTTG CXCKV TGnW WPG XKUKVG 7PG FCOG XqVWG FG PQKT oVCKV XGPWG 'NNG N¶CXCKV RTKUG FCPU UGU DTCU GV N¶CXCKV GOOGPo FCPU NG LCTFKP FW EQVo JCDKVWGNNGOGPV KPVGTFKV CWZ GPHCPVU .G UQKT 2KGTTG CXCKV RNGWTo OCKU KN CXCKV TCEQPVo SWG UC /COCP XKGPFTCKV NG EJGTEJGT 3W¶GUVEG SWG E¶oVCKV WPG /COCP ! 'P CXCKVKN WPG ! 'WIGUPG CVVGPFCKV RGPUKH /CTVKP CXCKV GW NC XKUKVG F¶WPG XKGKNNG VCPVG VTpU UoXpTG +N P¶CWTCKV RCU XQWNW F¶WPG VCPVG EQOOG EGNNGNi 'WIGUPG HCKUCKV RCTVKG FG EGWZ SWK P¶CXCKGPV LCOCKU FG XKUKVG 2QWT GWZ NG ToIKOG oVCKV GPEQTG RNWU FWT .GU GPHCPVU UG VCKUCKGPV VQWLQWTU SWCPF KNU CRGTEGXCKGPV NC UKNJQWGVVG FG NC UWTXGKNNCPVG SWK P¶oVCKV LCOCKU NQKP +NU CEEGRVCKGPV VQWV +NU PG RQWXCKGPV SWG VQWV CEEGRVGT 6zV NG OCVKP KNU UG NCXCKGPV i N¶GCW HTQKFG 8qVWU NoIpTGOGPV NGU RKGFU FCPU FGU ICNQEJGU KNU UG TGVTQWXCKGPV CW ToHGEVQKTG FGXCPV WP DQN FG UQWRG VTGORoG 'P JKXGT NG RQqNG RCTHQKU CNNWOo ToEJCWHHCKV WP RGW NC UCNNG +NU ITGNQVVCKGPV UQWU NC RpNGTKPG FCPU NC EQWT +NU CXCKGPV NGU FQKIVU GPIQWTFKU GV NGU RNWU ITCPFU CXCKGPV FW OCN i VGPKT WP ETC[QP FCPU NC ENCUUG INCEKCNG 'V RWKU WP LQWT KN CXCKV HTCPEJK NG RQTEJG +PSWKGV KN CXCKV OCTEJo NC OCKP UGTToG FCPU EGNNG FW /QPUKGWT SWK FoLi oVCKV XGPW EJGTEJGT /CVJKGW GV UQP RGVKV HTpTG GV RWKU 2KGTTG %¶oVCKV UQP VQWT +NU OCTEJpTGPV NQPIVGORU .G /QPUKGWT NWK HKV FGU TGEQOOCPFCVKQPU +N PG EQORTGPCKV RCU DKGP RCTEG SW¶KN oVCKV FoLi UCIG 2QWTSWQK HCWFTCKVKN SW¶KN NG UQKV GPEQTG RNWU ! 3W¶CNNCKVKN NWK CTTKXGT ! 1~ CNNCKV KN ! +N P¶CXCKV TKGP FKV JCDKVWo i UWDKT UCPU QUGT RTQVGUVGT ,GCP QJ 0QP ,GCP 7PG RGWT KPEQPVTzNoG NG UCKUKV SWCPF KN UG TGVTQWXC FCPU WPG UQWRGPVG UGWN $KGP RNWU UGWN SW¶KN PG N¶CXCKV LCOCKU oVo JCDKVWo i NC RTQOKUEWKVo FW FQTVQKT QDNKIo FG RCTVCIGT WP NKV 6QWV i EQWR N¶CDUGPEG FG ,GCP NWK FGXKPV KPVQNoTCDNG &GU NCTOGU TQWNpTGPV UWT UGU LQWGU ,GCP UQP LWOGCW UQP COK KN XQWNCKV VGNNGOGPV qVTG CXGE NWK 6QWV CW NQPI FG NC LQWTPoG U¶KN P¶CXCKV RCU QUo NCKUUGT UQP KOCIKPCVKQP ICNQRGT WP NoIGT GURQKT N¶CXCKV RQTVo OCNITo VQWV 2GWVqVTG SWG ! /CKU PQP KN UG TGVTQWXCKV CXGE FGU KPEQPPWU RNWU KPFKHHoTGPVU SWG UoXpTGU /CKU RQWTSWQK oVCKVKN Ni ! 1WK RQWTSWQK ! +N CNNCKV UQWXGPV EJCPIGT FG OCKUQP +N UG UQWXGPCKV FG NC OpTG )ToIQKTG SWK PG NWK FQPPCKV i OCPIGT SWG NQTUSW¶KN CXCKV HKPK FG RGNGT NGU EJjVCKIPGU %¶oVCKV NG DQPJQOOG WP RGW DQWTTW SWK NWK FQPPCKV WP OQTEGCW FG RCKP RQWT ECNOGT UC HCKO +N P¶oVCKV RNWU TGVQWTPo i N¶oEQNG 2QWTVCPV KN NKUCKV DKGP GV KN CKOCKV NKTG +N CXCKV NQPIVGORU EQPUGTXo WP XKGWZ ECJKGT GV KN RQWXCKV TGNKTG SWGNSWGU RQoUKGU +N UG UQWXGPCKV FGU XGTU FG 4CEKPG GV FoENCOCKV CXGE #PFTQOCSWG ¨ 3W¶KN CKV FG UGU CvGWZ WP UQWXGPKT OQFGUVG +N GUV FW UCPI F¶*GEVQT OCKU KN GP GUV NG TGUVG © 5GU CvGWZ ª 'WIGUPG U¶KPVGTTQIGCKV 5GU CvGWZ ! 'V RWKU NG XGTU SW¶KN FKUCKV UCPU JoUKVCVKQP GV TCRKFGOGPV ¨ 2QWT SWK UQPV EGU UGTRGPVU SWK UKHHNGPV UWT XQU VqVGU ! ©
22

+N TGUVCKV VTpU EWTKGWZ U¶KPVoTGUUCKV CWZ LQWTPCWZ NKUCKV NC OQKPFTG CHHKEJG /CKU KN P¶oETKXCKV RNWU DGCWEQWR GV PG FGUUKPCKV LCOCKU 3WCPF KN CXCKV GW WP EQWVGCW KN CXCKV VCKNNo FCPU NC RNWU RGVKVG DTCPEJG GV TqXo GP UEWNRVCPV NG DQKU 2WKU NG RpTG )ToIQKTG PG RQWXCPV N¶GORNQ[GT N¶GPEQWTCIGC i EJGTEJGT WP GODCTSWGOGPV .G RGVKV ICTnQP DNQPF CXCKV NWVVo LQWT CRTpU LQWT +N CXCKV ITCPFK 0CXKIWo # SWKP\G CPU 'WIGUPG GODCTSWC EQOOG OQWUUG UWT WP XQKNKGT 7PG KORQTVCPVG HNQVVKNNG oVCKV CTOoG RQWT NC RqEJG EJCSWG CPPoG GV NGU ECORCIPGU UWT NGU )TCPFU $CPEU UG UWEEoFCKGPV &WTCPV EGU NQPIU OQKU NGU GUECNGU i 5CKPV2KGTTG VTpU CRRToEKoGU FGU OCTKPU oVCKGPV NGWTU UGWNU OQOGPVU FG ToRKV 'WIGUPG FoEQWXTKV CKPUK EGVVG uNG GV GWV GPXKG FG U¶[ HKZGT .CU FGU GODCTSWGOGPVU CNoCVQKTGU HCVKIWo FGU KPVGTOKPCDNGU VTCXGTUoGU KTTKVo RCT NGU VTCXCWZ RoPKDNGU GV NGU DTWVCNKVoU KN CXCKV RToHoTo NC RqEJG EzVKpTG NG RGVKV OoVKGT SWK UG RTCVKSWCKV i 5CKPV2KGTTG #XGE WP oPQTOG EQWTCIG GV WPG ITCPFG XQNQPVo KN CXCKV VGPW DQP &pU UQP RTGOKGT XQ[CIG KN CXCKV UW SWG UC XKG PG RQWXCKV qVTG SW¶CKNNGWTU .G XC GV XKGPV FGU XQKNKGTU SWK VTCXGTUCKGPV RGPFCPV NC UCKUQP FG RqEJG PG N¶CVVKTCKV RNWU )TCPXKNNG oVCKV DKGP NQKP FG N¶CWVTG EQVo #W RGVKV OCVKP RCT VQWU NGU VGORU KN RCTVCKV CXGE /CTVKP UQP oSWKRKGT i DQTF FG NGWT YCT[ +NU TCOCKGPV FGU JGWTGU RQWT CVVGKPFTG NGU NKGWZ FG RqEJG &CPU NC UQKToG KNU TGPVTCKGPV HQWTDWU VTGORoUOQWKNNoU DKGP UQWXGPV NGWT DCTSWG XGPVTWG NQWTFGOGPV EJCTIoG FG NGWT RqEJG /CuVTGU i DQTF CRTpU &KGW KNU oVCKGPV NKDTGU FCPU NGWT VqVG GV XKXCKGPV OKGWZ %G TQEJGT CDTWRV CW OKNKGW FG N¶QEoCP N¶+NG KUQNoG CWZ TGFQWVCDNGU DTQWKNNCTFU N¶+NG FoPWFoG NKXToG CWZ XGPVU XKQNGPVU 5CKPV2KGTTG NWK CXCKV VQWV CRRQTVo 'WIGUPG oVCKV DKGP

23



5CKPV2KGTTG GP

+NU oVCKGPV PQODTGWZ UWT N¶+NG OCKPVGPCPV SWGNSWGU RGTUQPPGU TGITQWRoGU FCPU WPG UQTVG FG ITCPF DQWTI NQXo GPVTG NGU ITCXGU GV NC OQPVCIPG .G RQTV ToUGTXo CWZ ITQU DCVGCWZ UoRCTCKV NC DCKG GV FG EJCSWG EQVo NGU RGVKVGU GODCTECVKQPU FGU RqEJGWTU U¶CNKIPCKGPV UWT NG TKXCIG UQWU NGU ECDGUVCPU SWK RGTOGVVCKGPV FG NGU oEJQWGT UWT NGU ICNGVU .GU QKUGCWZ FG OGT [ XKTGXQNVCKGPV PQODTGWZ .G ETK FGU OQWGVVGU U¶CLQWVCKV CW DTWKV FGU XCIWGU +N [ CXCKV CWUUK NGU RGVKVGU ECDCPGU KPUVCNNoGU i RTQZKOKVo RQWT GPVTGRQUGT NG RQKUUQP %GU UCNKPGU CDTKVCKGPV OqOG SWGNSWGHQKU FG RCWXTGU RqEJGWTU SWK P¶CXCKGPV F¶CWVTG TGHWIG .C RqEJG oVCKV CDQPFCPVG FGRWKU SWGNSWGU VGORU GV NC XKG U¶QTICPKUCKV RNWU HCEKNGOGPV /CNITo NGU ToVKEGPEGU FW IQWXGTPGOGPV NGU OCTKPU CTTKXCKGPV RQWT NC UCKUQP JKXGTPCKGPV U¶KNU VTQWXCKGPV FW VTCXCKN GV UQWXGPV PG TGRCTVCKGPV RNWU .C RNWRCTV FG EGU JQOOGU oVCKGPV EQOOG 'WIGUPG LGWPGU GV RCWXTGU +NU XGPCKGPV UWT EGVVG uNG RQWT XKXTG OKGWZ %QPHTQPVoU SWQVKFKGPPGOGPV i FG OWNVKRNGU RTQDNpOGU OCVoTKGNU N¶KPIoPKQUKVo FGU WPU RCNNKCPV NC OCNCFTGUUG FGU CWVTGU KNU oVCKGPV UQNKFCKTGU GV EWNVKXCKGPV WPG SWCNKVo SWK FGXGPCKV GUUGPVKGNNG RQWT NGWT UWTXKG NC FoDTQWKNNCTFKUG 'WIGUPG oVCKV CFTQKV &GXGPW WP DQP OCTKP KN VTCXCKNNCKV DGCWEQWR GV RQWXCKV NWKOqOG GZoEWVGT VQWVGU NGU VjEJGU SW¶GZKIGCKV UQP OoVKGT /CKU KN [ CXCKV VQWV NG TGUVG 6TpU XKVG NGU XQ[CIGWTU FGXGPWU UoFGPVCKTGU UG JGWTVCKGPV CWZ PoEGUUKVoU FG NC XKG SWQVKFKGPPG UQWOKU CWZ TKIWGWTU FW ENKOCV &WTU i NC VjEJG GV FWTU GPVTG GWZ NGU JQOOGU U¶CEEQOOQFCKGPV FG NC XKG TWUVKSWG SW¶KNU OGPCKGPV KEK 2QWT NGU CWVTGU E¶oVCKV DKGP FKHHoTGPV ª .GU OCTKPU UKVzV KPUVCNNoU HCKUCKGPV XGPKT NGWTU HGOOGU QW NGWTU HKCPEoGU NGWTU HCOKNNGU %GU HGOOGU CTTKXCKGPV VQWLQWTU oRWKUoGU RCT WPG VTCXGTUoG oRTQWXCPVG P¶C[CPV UQWXGPV SWG FG OCKITGU DCICIGU 3WCPF GNNGU CXCKGPV RW EJCTIGT WPG ECKUUG GNNGU [ CXCKGPV UGTTo VQWVGU UQTVGU FG EJQUGU SWK RQWXCKGPV NGWT qVTG WVKNGU .GU FKHHKEWNVoU UG OWNVKRNKCKGPV UK GNNGU CXCKGPV FGU GPHCPVU .GU RGVKVU OCNOGPoU RCT EGU NQPIU XQ[CIGU oVCKGPV HCVKIWoU OCN HCIQVoU KNU

U¶CEETQEJCKGPV HTKNGWUGOGPV CWZ LWRGU FG NGWTU OpTGU GV CXCKGPV DGUQKP F¶qVTG CEEWGKNNKU VQWV FG UWKVG 5WT NGU DCVGCWZ XQ[CIGCKGPV CWUUK SWGNSWGU HGOOGU RNWU IjVoGU SWK CXCKGPV HCKV EJCTIGT FGU OCNNGU XGPVTWGU .GWT EQPVGPW P¶oVCKV RCU VQWLQWTU CFCRVo CWZ DGUQKPU SWK NGU CVVGPFCKGPV #W OQKPU CWTCKGPVGNNGU NG RNCKUKT FG TGVTQWXGT VQWVGU EGU RGVKVGU HTKXQNKVoU SWK GPLQNKXGPV NC XKG VQWU EGU RGVKVU TKGPU KPVTQWXCDNGU GV VGNNGOGPV TCUUWTCPVU FCPU EG RGVKV RC[U RGTFW Q~ KN NGWT HCWFTCKV OCNITo VQWV CRRTGPFTG NC RCVKGPEG GV NG TGPQPEGOGPV &GRWKU WPG SWKP\CKPG F¶CPPoGU FGU HCOKNNGU GPVKpTGU XKXCKGPV UWT EGVVG uNG .C RQRWNCVKQP CWIOGPVCKV TCRKFGOGPV OCKU NGU KPUVCNNCVKQPU U¶COoNKQTCKGPV RNWU NGPVGOGPV .GU OCKUQPU CWVQWT FW RQTV GV UWT NC TWG RTKPEKRCNG SWK U¶CNNQPIGCKV LWUSW¶i N¶oINKUG U¶CFQUUCKGPV NGU WPGU CWZ CWVTGU 2NWU NQKP NGU OCKUQPU GP DQKU ITKU RCVKPo UWKXCPV WP PQPCNKIPGOGPV SWK UQWNKIPCKV N¶COCVGWTKUOG GV N¶WTIGPEG U¶oRCTRKNNCKGPV FCPU NG FoUQTFTG .GU JQOOGU RTGUUoU RCT NG VGORU U¶GPVTCKFCKGPV VQWV PCVWTGNNGOGPV RQWT CDTKVGT NGU PQWXGCWZ XGPWU .¶GUUGPVKGN oVCPV F¶CXQKT VTpU XKVG WPG OCKUQP DKGP ENQUG VQWVGU NGU EQORoVGPEGU oVCKGPV GZRNQKVoGU GV NGU DQPPGU XQNQPVoU oXKFGOOGPV VTpU CRRToEKoGU %GU RKQPPKGTU SWK UG FoDCVVCKGPV RQWT UWTXKXTG FCPU EG RC[U RGTFW oVCKGPV JCDKVoU RCT NC OqOG FoVGTOKPCVKQP 7PG UQTVG FG EQORCIPQPPCIG U¶KPUVCWTCKV GV EGU JQOOGU WP RGW TWUVTG RGW GPENKP i U¶oRCPEJGT VTQWXCKGPV FCPU EGU oEJCPIGU RNWU QW OQKPU FoUKPVoTGUUoU N¶QEECUKQP FG UG OGUWTGT GV FG U¶GUVKOGT .GU TGNCVKQPU oXQNWCKGPV .GU ECOCTCFGU FG EQORVQKT RQWXCKGPV UG ToXoNGT FG DQPU COKU QW F¶CHHTGWZ KPFKXKFWU i HWKT 'WIGUPG oVCKV EQODNo KN U¶oVCKV HCKV FG DQPU ECOCTCFGU RNWU GPEQTG KN QUGTCKV FKTG FG XTCKU COKU +N CXCKV CWUUK WPG OCKUQP UC OCKUQP CXGE WP ITCPF VGTTCKP CWVQWT 2CT UC HGPqVTG KN XQ[CKV NC OGT GV FGU DCVGCWZ CPEToU i N¶GPVToG FW RQTV .G ITCPF PQODTG FG XQKNGU TQWIGjVTGU GV HCUUG[CPVGU CPPQPnCKGPV NG FoDWV FG NC UCKUQP 6QWV NG TGUVG oVCKV NQKP %GV oNQKIPGOGPV UCNWVCKTG CXCKV WP JGWTGWZ FoPQWGOGPV .C XKG NWK UQWTKCKV GPHKP +N CXCKV VGNNGOGPV UQWHHGTV SWG RNWU CWEWPG ETCKPVG PG RQWXCKV N¶CVVGKPFTG +N TGHWUCKV VQWVG RGTURGEVKXG UQODTG GV UG UGPVCKV ICIPCPV # EG OQOGPV ETWEKCN FG UC XKG KN CXCKV N¶KORTGUUKQP SWG VQWV oVCKV HKZo KN oVCKV CTTKXo CW DWV 5C VoPCEKVo CXCKV oVo DoPoHKSWG GV KN VTQWXCKV GPHKP WPG HQTOG FG UoToPKVo +N CRGTnWV ,WNKG 'NNG TGPVTCKV F¶WP DQP RCU NGU EJGXGWZ oDQWTKHHoU RCT NG XGPV .G EJKGP SWK N¶CXCKV XWG CWUUK UG RToEKRKVCKV i UC TGPEQPVTG 'WIGUPG N¶CVVGPFCKV +N EQPPCKUUCKV UGU VQWTOGPVU GV NGU DNGUUWTGU SWK CXCKGPV OCTSWo VTQR VzV NC RGVKVG HKNNG UGWNG #XGE RCVKGPEG GV VGPFTGUUG KN UCXCKV ECNOGT UGU CRRToJGPUKQPU 'NNG CXCKV WPG ITCPFG EQPHKCPEG GP NWK GV UG NCKUUCKV EQPXCKPETG HCEKNGOGPV SWCPF KNU FGXCKGPV RTGPFTG FGU FoEKUKQPU 2CT EJCPEG KNU oVCKGPV UQWXGPV FW OqOG CXKU %¶GUV CKPUK SW¶KN CXCKV RW CNNGT CW DQWV FG UQP ITCPF RTQLGV
26

'WIGUPG U¶oVCKV EJCTIo FG VQWVGU NGU HQTOCNKVoU +N CXCKV TGnW NGU CEVGU FG PCKUUCPEG KPFKURGPUCDNGU RQWT NGWT OCTKCIG +N NGU CXCKV NWU GV TGNWU WP RGW PGTXGWZ FoEQPEGTVo RTGUSWG TCIGWT #VVGKPV RCT VQWVG NC ETWCWVo FGU OQVU KN CXCKV GW FW OCN i TGHQWNGT WPG FQWNGWT SW¶KN EQPPCKUUCKV DKGP .¶KPLWUVKEG SWK NGU CXCKV OCTSWoU VQWU NGU FGWZ U¶oVCNCKV UQWU UGU [GWZ %GU RCRKGTU KNU NGU CXCKGPV NKXToU i VQWU NGU TGICTFU 2TGUSWG KPFKHHoTGPVU i NC EWTKQUKVo SW¶KNU RQWXCKGPV UWUEKVGT KEK QW Ni FCPU WP GPXKTQPPGOGPV Q~ WP ITCPF PQODTG FG RGTUQPPGU oVCKV KPECRCDNG FG NGU NKTG KNU CXCKGPV F GWZOqOGU CEEGRVGT NGWT VGTTKDNG XoTKVo E¶oVCKV oETKV $KGP KPPQEGOOGPV ,WNGU oVCKV i N¶QTKIKPG FG NGWT FoOCTEJG GV KN CXCKV GORQTVo NGU JoUKVCVKQPU FG UGU RCTGPVU %¶oVCKV WP DoDo HCEKNG SWK U¶oXGKNNCKV VTCPSWKNNGOGPV 5QP TGICTF DNGW oVCKV CVVKTCPV 'WIGUPG CXCKV oVo UoFWKV RCT EGV GPHCPV SWK RGVKV i RGVKV ToENCOCKV UQP CVVGPVKQP #EETQEJo i UQP RCPVCNQP KN KPUKUVCKV GV XQWNCKV ITKORGT UWT UGU IGPQWZ )CTFGT EG RGVKV FCPU NGU DTCU oVCKV WP XTCK DQPJGWT %G DoDo EQPHKCPV NWK CXCKV ToXoNo FGU UGPVKOGPVU KPEQPPWU +N CXCKV oVo VQWEJo CW RNWU RTQHQPF FG NWKOqOG %GV GPHCPV E¶oVCKV NG EQOOGPEGOGPV E¶oVCKV UQP GPHCPEG QDUEWTG OCKU E¶oVCKV DKGP RNWU E¶oVCKV UQP FGXGPKT 'V VQWV i EQWR EQOOG CRTpU WPG FoHGTNCPVG NGU oOQVKQPU EQPVGPWGU C[CPV GORQTVo N¶oPQTOG HCTFGCW FG UGU KPVGTTQICVKQPU 'WIGUPG CXCKV EQORTKU SWG E¶oVCKV ,WNGU SWK NWK CRRQTVGTCKV VQWV EG SW¶KN EJGTEJCKV VQWV EG SWK NWK OCPSWCKV +N oVCKV UGU TCEKPGU GV UQP FGXGPKT KN oVCKV N¶CPETCIG 6QWV oVCKV ToINo #W OQOGPV FG NC PCKUUCPEG 'WIGUPG oVCKV GP OGT 'V N¶GPHCPV RQTVCKV NG PQO FG UC OpTG ,WNKG NWK CXCKV FQPPo NG RToPQO FG ,WNGU GV [ CXCKV CFLQKPV EGNWK FG 8KEVQT NG RCVTQP[OG F¶'WIGUPG %¶oVCKV COWUCPV i RCTVKT FG OCKPVGPCPV KN U¶CRRGNNGTCKV ,WNGU 8KEVQT 8KEVQT %G P¶oVCKV PQP RCU WP DoICKGOGPV OCKU WPG UQTVG FG ToRoVKVKQP SWK EQPUQNKFGTCKV UC HKNKCVKQP 0¶oVCKVEG RCU RQWT NWK GV RCT NWK SW¶KNU RQWTTCKGPV OCKPVGPCPV UG RTQLGVGT FCPU N¶CXGPKT ,WNKG GV 'WIGUPG UG OCTKpTGPV i 5CKPV2KGTTG NG CXTKN RQWT NGWT RNWU ITCPF DQPJGWT

27



(TCPnQKU WP CTVKUCP

+EK NGU IGPU SWK UG EzVQ[CKGPV oVCKGPV VTpU FKUUGODNCDNGU 2QWTVCPV U¶KNU UG TGITQWRCKGPV RCT CHHKPKVoU GP ToCNKVo GP EG FoDWV F¶KPUVCNNCVKQP KN P¶[ CXCKV RCU DGCWEQWR FG FKHHoTGPEG FCPU NGWT HCnQP FG XKXTG /KU i RCTV WPG FK\CKPG F¶+TNCPFCKU KNU XGPCKGPV VQWU FG (TCPEG .GU 0QTOCPFU oVCKGPV NGU RNWU PQODTGWZ UWKXK FGU $TGVQPU GV FGU $CUSWGU .GU $TGVQPU oVCKGPV NG NKGP GPVTG NGU WPU GV NGU CWVTGU JCDKVWoU i NGU HToSWGPVGT FG VQWV VGORU 0G FKUCKVQP RCU SWG NGU $TGVQPU RGVKVU DTWPU CWZ [GWZ PQKTU CHHKEJCKGPV NGWT CUEGPFCPEG GURCIPQNG ! 3WCPV CWZ XQKUKPU FG NC /CPEJG OqOG NG /QPV P¶CXCKV LCOCKU ToWUUK i NGU UoRCTGT GV NGWTU TGNCVKQPU oVCKGPV EQWVWOKpTGU #KPUK FQPE EGU (TCPnCKU CXGE NGWT FKXGTUKVo UG TGVTQWXCKGPV FCPU EGU uNGU UK NQKPVCKPGU GP #OoTKSWG 2GWVQP KOCIKPGT SWG NG O[VJG COoTKECKP CKV RW CVVKTGT EGU CXGPVWTKGTU ! 5QWU NG EQPVTzNG FG NC (TCPEG KNU DoPoHKEKCKGPV FG UQP RCTTCKPCIG .¶CFOKPKUVTCVKQP TGRToUGPVoG RCT WPG XKPIVCKPG FG HQPEVKQPPCKTGU QTICPKUCKV VQWV EG SWK oVCKV GUUGPVKGN +NU RToXQ[CKGPV NG TCXKVCKNNGOGPV RQWT NGU JCDKVCPVU NC FKUVTKDWVKQP FGU OCVoTKCWZ FG EQPUVTWEVKQP NG UGN RQWT NC EQPUGTXCVKQP FW RQKUUQP .GU SWGNSWGU OKNKVCKTGU SWK VGPVCKGPV FG HCKTG HCEG CWZ DGUQKPU NGU RNWU RTGUUCPVU oVCKGPV RGTRNGZGU +NU XQ[CKGPV NGU DCVGCWZ CTTKXGT GV U¶KPVGTTQIGCKGPV UWT NG FGXGPKT FG NGWTU RCUUCIGTU +NU TqXCKGPV CWUUK SWGNSWGHQKU KPFoEKU %GVVG RGVKVG ICTPKUQP oVCKVGNNG RNWU i N¶CDTK KEK SW¶GP #HTKSWG Q~ NC EQPSWqVG ToENCOCKV FG RNWU GP RNWU F¶JQOOGU ! (CVCNKUVGU KNU CVVGPFCKGPV NC TGNpXG UETWVCPV N¶JQTK\QP UQODTG GV OGPCnCPV i NC OGTEK FGU oNoOGPVU FoEJCuPoU 6QWU NGU RKQPPKGTU P¶CXCKGPV RCU NGU OqOGU QDLGEVKHU 3WGNSWGU HW[CTFU CXCKGPV RW RQUGT UCE i VGTTG GV UG EQPHQPFTG RCTOK NGU CWVTGU GP TGEJGTEJCPV N¶CPQP[OCV %GTVCKPU CWVTGU GPEQTG RQWT VQWVGU UQTVGU FG TCKUQPU RNWU QW OQKPU CXQWCDNGU RQWXCKGPV FoIWKUGT NGWT KFGPVKVo FoUKTGWZ FG EQWRGT NGU RQPVU CXGE NGWT RCUUo .GU RNWU FoUGURoToU XGPCKGPV Ni RQWT VGPVGT WPG FGTPKpTG EJCPEG .C OCLQTKVo oVCKV RNWU QRVKOKUVG N¶CXGPKT oVCKV i GWZ

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EQPIoFKo FW ICTFGEzVG .C /QWEJG GP QRoTCVKQP UWT NC \QPG FG 6GTTG 0GWXG KN CXCKV RQUo UCE i VGTTG i 5CKPV2KGTTG +N PCXKIWCKV RGPFCPV NC UCKUQP UWT NGU YCT[U SWK RTCVKSWCKGPV NC RqEJG EzVKpTG RWKU KN JKXGTPC FCPU NC EQNQPKG *CDKVWo CWZ JKXGTU PQTOCPFU NC TKIWGWT FGU JKXGTU FG NC 6GTTG0GWXG PG NWK HCKUCKV RCU RGWT (QTV FG UGU FGWZ ICNNQPU GV HKGT FG UQP OoVKGT KN UG UCXCKV CUUG\ GZRoTKOGPVo RQWT RToVGPFTG i FGU TGURQPUCDKNKVoU 5GU HToSWGPVGU GUECNGU NWK CXCKGPV RGTOKU FG TGPEQPVTGT FGU EQNNpIWGU SWK CXCKGPV GW EQOOG NWK WPG ITCPFG GPXKG F¶CXGPVWTG +N U¶oVCKV NKo F¶COKVKo CXGE WP CWVTG LGWPG PQTOCPF ,QUGRJ (TCPnQKU ;XQP 'V RWKU (TCPnQKU HKV NC EQPPCKUUCPEG FG /CTKG#PPG NC U°WT FG ,QUGRJ (TCPnQKU +N oVCKV GPTzNo UWT NG %WRKFQP SWCPF KN UWEEQODC CWZ EJCTOGU FG NC LGWPG HKNNG /KIPQPPG RCU VTpU ITCPFG RNWVzV DTWPG CWZ [GWZ ENCKTU /CTKG#PPG CTTKXCKV FG 5CKPV2CKT GP 2C[U )TCPXKNNCKU +NU UG RNCKUCKGPV (TCPnQKU CXCKV RQWT /CTKG#PPG N¶CODKVKQP FW OGKNNGWT 2QWT GNNG KN P¶GWV RNWU F¶CWVTG EJQKZ

31



/CTKG#PPG

.G IQV FG N¶CXGPVWTG CXCKV ICIPo NC VQWVG LGWPG HKNNG SWK CXCKV CWUUK TqXo FG RCTVKT FoEQWXTKT EGU +NGU )TjEG i NC EQORNKEKVo FG UQP HTpTG GNNG CXCKV RW UCPU VTQR FG OCN EQPXCKPETG UGU RCTGPVU 5C VCPVG /CTKG(TCPnQKUG FoLi KPUVCNNoG i 5CKPV2KGTTG oVCKV VTpU JGWTGWUG FG N¶CEEWGKNNKT (TCPnQKU ;XQP NG RpTG FG /CTKG#PPG oVCKV EQWXTGWT GP EJCWOG i 5V 2CKT 5QP EJCOR F¶CEVKQP U¶oVGPFCKV VQWV CWVQWT FG )TCPXKNNG KN oVCKV EQPPW FCPU NGU DQWTIU GPXKTQPPCPVU RQWT UQP CFTGUUG UC FGZVoTKVo GV NC DGCWVo FG UGU RCKNNCIGU +N oVCKV RNWVzV UCVKUHCKV RTGUSWG CFOKTCVKH SWCPF KN TGICTFCKV NGU VQKVU FQToU UQWU NG UQNGKN RTQVGEVGWTU UQWU NC RNWKG 5QP HKNU CuPo P¶CXCKV RCU GW GPXKG FG HCKTG NG OqOG OoVKGT +N XQWNCKV HCKTG CWVTG EJQUG GV UWTVQWV FoEQWXTKT F¶CWVTGU JQTK\QPU .G RQTV FG )TCPXKNNG N¶CXCKV CVVKTo 6TpU OCPWGN KN CXCKV VTCXCKNNo CW EJCPVKGT PCXCN 'V RWKU KN CXCKV XQWNW RCTVKT # 5CKPV2KGTTG KN oVCKV CRRToEKo GV PG RQWXCKV ToRQPFTG i VQWVGU NGU FGOCPFGU .GU EJCTRGPVKGTU GV NGU ECNHCVU oVCKGPV KPFKURGPUCDNGU GV NGU CTOCVGWTU RC[CKGPV DKGP N¶GHHKECEKVo GZKIGCPV SWG NGU ToRCTCVKQPU UG HCUUGPV UQKIPGWUGOGPV GV TCRKFGOGPV .GU RCTGPVU oVCKGPV JGWTGWZ FG UCXQKT SWG NGWT HKNU UG FoDTQWKNNCKV VTpU DKGP (TCPnQKU NG RpTG CXCKV CWUUK TqXo F¶CXGPVWTG /CKU i N¶jIG FG SWCTCPVG EKPS CPU KN XCNCKV OKGWZ UG EQPVGPVGT FG NC XKG ECNOG FW DQECIG PQTOCPF .G FoRCTV FG /CTKG#PPG N¶CXCKV DGCWEQWR KPSWKoVo CVVTKUVo OqOG *GWTGWUGOGPV NC RToUGPEG UWT N¶uNG FG UC U°WT /CTKG(TCPnQKUG NG VTCPSWKNNKUCKV WP RGW +N UCXCKV SWGNNG UGTCKV CVVGPVKXG GV CXCKV VQWV i HCKV EQPHKCPEG GP GNNG 5C HGOOG #PPG/CTKG CXCKV CEEGRVo RNWU HCEKNGOGPV 'NNG CKOCKV i RGPUGT SWG /CTKG#PPG U¶QEEWRGTCKV FG UQP HTpTG +NU oVCKGPV UK LGWPGU 'P 0QTOCPFKG NGU GPHCPVU RCTVCKGPV VzV FW HQ[GT E¶oVCKV N¶JCDKVWFG RQWTVCPV EGTVCKPGU RGTUQPPGU FG NC HCOKNNG NGU ETKVKSWCKGPV XKXGOGPV %¶oVCKV XTCK .CKUUGT RCTVKT WPG LGWPG HKNNG UK NQKP UGODNCKV WP RGW HQW ª /CTKG#PPG CXCKV VQWV LWUVG FKZJWKV CPU

&QOOCIG SW¶GNNG UQKV TGUVoG KPFKHHoTGPVG CWZ CXCPEGU FW HKNU %JCTNGU KNU QPV RQWTVCPV WPG DGNNG HGTOG #W DQWTI XQKUKP NGU ICTnQPU PG OCPSWCKGPV RCU 5KOQP SWK PG XQWNCKV RCU SWKVVGT NG RC[U WP DQP ICTnQP VCKNNGWT FG RKGTTGU GV 0KEQNCU SWK VTCXCKNNCKV CXGE UQP RpTG VCKNNGWT F¶JCDKV &QOOCIG .C LGWPG HKNNG CXCKV XQWNW RCTVKT CXGE UQP HTpTG .GWT XKG U¶GP VTQWXCKV EQORNpVGOGPV DQWNGXGTUoG %¶oVCKV RCTHQKU FKHHKEKNG .G VGORU U¶oVCKV VTQR XKVG oEQWNo GV NGU RNWU ITCPFU oVCKGPV RCTVKU +NU FQPPGTCKGPV FGU PQWXGNNGU FG VGORU GP VGORU .GU EQWTTKGTU P¶oVCKGPV RCU HToSWGPVU NGU VTCXGTUoGU VTpU NQPIWGU GV VTpU FCPIGTGWUGU 5CKPV2KGTTG oVCKV UK NQKPª6GNNGOGPV NQKP &G N¶CWVTG EzVo FG N¶#VNCPVKSWG /CTKG#PPG CXCKV TGPEQPVTo (TCPnQKU NG LGWPG %JGTDQWTIGQKU 'NNG oVCKV COQWTGWUG GV oVCKV RTqVG i RCTVCIGT UC XKG UWT N¶uNG .C VqVG RNGKPG FG TqXGU /CTKG#PPG CXCKV CRRToEKo N¶CEEWGKN FCPU NC OCKUQP UWT NC TQWVG FG NC $WVVG CWFGUUWU FW RQTV SWG N¶QP FoEQWXTCKV RCT NGU HGPqVTGU &GXCPV NC HQTqV FG OjVU N¶QP CRGTEGXCKV NGU EJGOKPoGU F¶WPG HQTIG NGU CVGNKGTU GV FGU DCVGCWZ LWEJoU UWT FG ITCPFU DGTEGCWZ .GU DCTFGCWZ PGWHU FG NC HCnCFG oVCKGPV GPEQTG ENCKTU NC RCVKPG PG NGU CXCKV RCU GPEQTG CUUQODTKU .¶QFGWT FW DQKU oVCKV RoPoVTCPVG i N¶KPVoTKGWT %¶oVCKV WPG OCKUQP DCUUG WPG UQTVG FG NQPIpTG Q~ KNU EQJCDKVGTCKGPV F¶CWVCPV RNWU HCEKNGOGPV SW¶KNU U¶CRRToEKCKGPV DGCWEQWR ,QUGRJ(TCPnQKU U¶CDUGPVCKV UQWXGPV OCKU KN oVCKV VQWLQWTU VTpU EQPVGPV FG TGVTQWXGT UC U°WT /CTKG(TCPnQKUG oVCKV VTpU JGWTGWUG FG OCVGTPGT EGVVG VQWVG LGWPG HKNNG +N UGODNCKV SW¶GNNG UG UQKV KPXGUVKG F¶WPG UQTVG FG OKUUKQP RTQVoIGT UC PKpEG ¨ /C RGVKVG HKNNG NWK CXCKVGNNG FKV VQP RpTG PG UG TGPF RCU EQORVG VW GU EJCTOCPVG GV VGNNGOGPV LGWPG .GU ICTnQPU UG FoDTQWKNNGPV OCKU VQK WPG DGNNG EToCVWTG EQOOG nC 6W TGUVGTCU CXGE PQWU GV RWKU PQWU XGTTQPUª © ,GCP GV /CTKG(TCPnQKUG oVCKGPV UGWNU GV NC RToUGPEG FG /CTKG#PPG NGU EQODNCKV %GVVG LGWPG HKNNG IGPVKNNG GV ICKG oVCKV N¶GPHCPV SW¶KNU P¶CXCKGPV LCOCKU GW .GWT PGXGW DKGP CKOCDNG OCKU FoLi CIWGTTK XGPCKV UWTVQWV UG OGVVTG NGU RKGFU UQWU NC VCDNG GV FKUEWVGT CXGE N¶QPENG ,GCP +N oVCKV KPFoRGPFCPV GPVTCKV GV UQTVCKV UQWU FGU RToVGZVGU FKXGTU UC VCPVG P¶QUCKV RCU U¶KOOKUEGT FCPU UC XKG *GWTGWUGOGPV TCRKFGOGPV WPG oVTQKVG EQPPKXGPEG U¶oVCDNKV GPVTG NC VCPVG GV NC PKpEG /CTKG#PPG EJQ[oG [ RWKUCKV WPG RNWU ITCPFG CUUWTCPEG 'NNG CXCKV CRRQTVo WPG OCNNG RNGKPG ,QUGRJ(TCPnQKU N¶CXCKV RToXGPWG ¨ 5WTVQWV PG V¶GODCTTCUUG RCU FG DqVKUGU© 'NNG CXCKV UQWTK GV CXCKV TGORNK NC OCNNG 2CTOK NG NKPIG GNNG CXCKV INKUUo SWGNSWGU TWDCPU FW HKN GV VQWV EG SW¶KN HCNNCKV RQWT EQWFTG WP HGT RQWT NGU EQKHHGU SW¶GNNG RQTVCKV EJCSWG LQWT SWGNSWGU LQNKU OQWEJQKTU GV FCPU WP RToEKGWZ ToVKEWNG NG Fo GP CTIGPV SWK CXCKV CRRCTVGPW i UC ITCPFOpTG /CTKG/CFGNGKPG GV UGU EKUGCWZ i DTQFGT 'NNG P¶CXCKV RCU QWDNKo NG OoVKGT GV UGU HWUCKPU 'NNG CKOCKV TGRTQFWKTG NGU IGUVGU CPEGUVTCWZ FGU FGPVGNNKpTGU GV CFOKTGT NC FGPVGNNG SWK PCKUUCKV UQWU UGU FQKIVU 'NNG CXCKV CLQWVo WPG EQWTVGRQKPVG SWG UC OpTG NWK CXCKV EQWUWG /CTKG#PPG CKOCKV TCPIGT ToIWNKpTGOGPV EGVVG OCNNG JGWTGWUG FG OCPKRWNGT NGU oVQHHGU SW¶GNNG EQPVGPCKV 'NNG [ RWKUCKV FGU DQWHHoGU
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FG UGPVGWTU HCOKNKpTGU SWK oXQSWCKGPV N¶CWVTG OCKUQP UC OpTG GV NC XKG NiDCU i 5CKPV2CKT /CTKG#PPG oVQPPoG CXCKV RGTFW UGU TGRpTGU JCDKVWGNU 3WCPF i NC VQODoG FG NC PWKV (TCPnQKU U¶KN HKPKUUCKV FG VTCXCKNNGT CUUG\ VzV N¶CEEQORCIPCKV UWT NG EJGOKP XGTU NGU JCWVGWTU FG NC XKNNG KNU QDUGTXCKGPV UWTRTKU NC PCVWTG UCWXCIG FG NGWT PQWXGN GPXKTQPPGOGPV +NU PG XQ[CKGPV SWG FGU UCRKPU PG TGPEQPVTCKGPV CWEWP FGU CTDTGU SWK CXCKGPV VGNNGOGPV HCKV RCTVKG FG NGWT RC[UCIG HCOKNKGT .G XGPV UGODNCKV EQODCVVTG NC OQKPFTG RQWUUG GV UGWNU NGU RNWU TQDWUVGU ToWUUKUUCKGPV i U¶CEETQEJGT .GU CTDTGU HTWKVKGTU OCPSWCKGPV VQVCNGOGPV +N P¶[ CXCKV RCU WP UGWN RQOOKGT E¶oVCKV KPETQ[CDNG 5¶KNU NCKUUCKGPV NG EJGOKP VGTTGWZ KNU OCTEJCKGPV UWT WP UQN EQWUW FG OQWUUG Q~ NGU OCTIWGTKVGU U¶oRCTRKNNCKGPV GV NGU DCKGU ITKUGU GV TQWIGU U¶oICKNNCKGPV KEK GV Ni

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