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An Illustrated Brief History of Western Philosophy

De
400 pages
This illustrated edition of Sir Anthony Kenny’s acclaimed survey of Western philosophy offers the most concise and compelling story of the complete development of philosophy available.

Spanning 2,500 years of thought, An Illustrated Brief History of Western Philosophy provides essential coverage of the most influential philosophers of the Western world, among them Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Jesus, Augustine, Aquinas, Machiavelli, Descartes, Hobbes, Spinoza, Berkeley, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Mill, Nietzsche, Darwin, Freud, Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein.

Replete with over 60 illustrations - ranging from Dufresnoy’s The Death of Socrates, through to the title page of Thomas More’s Utopia, portraits of Hobbes and Rousseau, photographs of Charles Darwin and Bertrand Russell, Freud’s own sketch of the Ego and the Id, and Wittgenstein’s Austrian military identity card - this lucid and masterful work is ideal for anyone with an interest in Western thought.

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I
II
III
Preface
CONTENTS
List of Illustrations
Acknowledgements
Philosophyin itsInfancy The Milesians Xenophanes Heraclitus The School of Parmenides Empedocles The Atomists
TheAthens ofSocrates
The Athenian Empire Anaxagoras The Sophists Socrates TheEuthyphro TheCrito ThePhaedo
ThePhilosophyofPlato
Life and Works The Theory of Ideas Plato’sRepublic TheTheaetetusand theSophist
v
x
xiii
xvi
1
2 5 6 9 14 17
21
21 23 24 25 28 31 31
38
38 40 44 54
IV
V
VI
VII
contents TheSystemof Aristotle Plato’s Pupil, Alexander’s Teacher The Foundation of Logic The Theory of Drama Moral Philosophy: Virtue and Happiness Moral Philosophy: Wisdom and Understanding Politics Science and Explanation Words and Things Motion and Change Soul, Sense, and Intellect Metaphysics
GreekPhilosophyafterAristotle
The Hellenistic Era Epicureanism Stoicism Scepticism Rome and its Empire Jesus of Nazareth Christianity and Gnosticism Neo-Platonism
EarlyChristianPhilosophy Arianism and Orthodoxy The Theology of Incarnation The Life of Augustine The City of God and the Mystery of Grace Boethius and Philoponus
EarlyMedievalPhilosophy
John the Scot Alkindi and Avicenna The Feudal System Saint Anselm Abelard and Héloïse Abelard’s Logic Abelard’s Ethics Averroes Maimonides
vi
61 61 63 67 68 72 75 77 80 81 83 86
91 91 93 95 97 99 100 102 106
109 109 112 114 117 120
125 125 128 130 131 133 135 137 139 140
VIII
IX
X
XI
contents Philosophy in theThirteenthCentury
An Age of Innovation Saint Bonaventure Thirteenth-Century Logic Aquinas’ Life and Works Aquinas’ Natural Theology Matter, Form, Substance, and Accident Aquinas on Essence and Existence Aquinas’ Philosophy of Mind Aquinas’ Moral Philosophy
OxfordPhilosophers
The Fourteenth-Century University Duns Scotus Ockham’s Logic of Language Ockham’s Political Theory The Oxford Calculators John Wyclif
RenaissancePhilosophy
The Renaissance Free-will: Rome vs. Louvain Renaissance Platonism Machiavelli More’s Utopia The Reformation Post-Reformation Philosophy Bruno and Galileo Francis Bacon
TheAge ofDescartes
The Wars of Religion The Life of Descartes The Doubt and theCogito The Essence of Mind God, Mind, and Body The Material World
vii
144
144 147 149 150 152 154 156 157 159
164
164 165 172 174 177 178
182
182 183 186 188 190 193 197 199 201
206
206 207 210 212 214 217
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
contents EnglishPhilosophy in theSeventeenth Century The Empiricism of Thomas Hobbes Hobbes’ Political Philosophy The Political Theory of John Locke Locke on Ideas and Qualities Substances and Persons
ContinentalPhilosophy in theAge of LouisXIV Blaise Pascal Spinoza and Malebranche Leibniz
BritishPhilosophy in theEighteenth Century
Berkeley Hume’s Philosophy of Mind Hume on Causation Reid and Common Sense
TheEnlightenment ThePhilosophes Rousseau Revolution and Romanticism
TheCriticalPhilosophy ofKant Kant’s Copernican Revolution The Transcendental Aesthetic The Transcendental Analytic: The Deduction of the Categories The Transcendental Analytic: The System of Principles The Transcendental Dialectic: The Paralogisms of Pure Reason The Transcendental Dialectic: The Antinomies of Pure Reason The Transcendental Dialectic: The Critique of Natural Theology Kant’s Moral Philosophy
viii
221 221 223 226 228 232
237 237 240 245
251 251 256 260 263
266 266 267 271
275 275 278
280 283
286
289
291 295
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
contents GermanIdealismandMaterialism Fichte Hegel Marx and the Young Hegelians Capitalism and its Discontents
TheUtilitarians
Jeremy Bentham The Utilitarianism of J. S. Mill Mill’s Logic
ThreeNineteenth-CenturyPhilosophers
Schopenhauer Kierkegaard Nietzsche
ThreeModernMasters
Charles Darwin John Henry Newman Sigmund Freud
Logic and theFoundations ofMathematics Frege’s Logic Frege’s Logicism Frege’s Philosophy of Logic Russell’s Paradox Russell’s Theory of Descriptions Logical Analysis
ThePhilosophy ofWittgenstein
Tractatus LogicoPhilosophicus Logical Positivism Philosophical Investigations
Afterword
Suggestions for Further Reading
Index
ix
298 298 299 304 306
309 309 314 316
320 320 327 329
333 333 339 343
351 351 353 356 357 359 362
365 365 368 370
382
386
392