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A Brief History of Spirituality

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272 pages
A Brief History of Spirituality tells the story of Christian spirituality from its origins in the New Testament to the present day.
  • Charts the main figures, ideas, images and historical periods, showing how and why spirituality has changed and developed over the centuries
  • Draws out the distinctive themes of Christian spirituality, exploring the historical and cultural events and experiences that changed people’s attitudes and practices
  • Coverage extends right up to the modern day, exploring the huge changes in spirituality in recent years and the way it is nowadays often contrasted with ‘religion’
  • Written by a leading commentator on spirituality, and published in the popular Brief Histories of Religion series
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Preface
Contents
Introduction: What is Spirituality? Contemporary Meaning Spirituality and History Interpretation Periods and Traditions
1
Foundations: Scriptures and Early Church Christian Spirituality and the Scriptures Scriptural Markers Spirituality in the New Testament Spirituality and the Early Church Liturgy Spirituality and Martyrdom Spirituality and Doctrine Origen Evagrius
xi
1 1 4 6 10
12 12 14 17 21 22 24 25 27 28
2
3
viii
The Cappadocians Augustine PseudoDionysius Christian Spirituality as Transformation and Mission Theories of Spiritual Transformation Conclusion
The Monastic Paradigm: 300–1150 The Emergence of Monasticism Widows and Virgins Syrian Ascetics Egyptian Monasticism Wisdom of the Desert Monastic Rules Benedictine Expansion The New Hermits The Cistercians The Spiritual Values of Monasticism Spirituality and the Conversion of Europe Local Spiritualities: Ireland Spirituality in the East Syriac Spirituality Conclusion
Spirituality in the City: 1150–1450 The Gregorian Reform TheVita Evangelica TwelfthCentury Renaissance The Rebirth of Cities Cathedrals and Urban Vision The City as Sacred Universities as Sacred Space Vita Evangelicaand Urban Sensibilities The Mendicant Movement
Contents
28 30 31
32 35 38
40 41 42 43 44 45 49 53 55 57 60 62 63 67 70 72
73 73 74 76 77 78 80 81 82 83
4
5
Dominic, Francis, Clare, and Bonaventure The Beguines FourteenthCentury Mysticism Devotional Spirituality Spirituality and Eastern Christianity The Renaissance Conclusion
Spiritualities in the Age of Reformations: 1450–1700 Seeds of Reform: TheDevotio Moderna and Christian Humanism The Crisis of Medieval Spirituality Spirituality and the Lutheran Reformation John Calvin and Reformed Spirituality Anabaptist Spirituality Anglican Spirituality Puritan Spirituality Early Quakers The Catholic Reformation The New Orders Ignatius Loyola and Early Ignatian Spirituality Carmelite Mysticism Lay Devotion SeventeenthCentury French Spirituality Conclusion
Spirituality in an Age of Reason: 1700–1900 Spirituality in the Roman Catholic Tradition Pietism Wesleyan Spirituality American Puritanism and the Great Awakening Shaker Spirituality Orthodox Spirituality PostRevolutionary Catholicism The English Evangelicals
85 90 93 98 99 102 104
106
107 109 110 112 115 116 119 121 122 122 123 128 131 133 138
139 141 143 145 148 150 153 156 159
Contents
ix
6
The Oxford Movement John Henry Newman A Distinctive ‘‘American Spirituality’’ Conclusion
Modernity to Postmodernity: 1900–2000 The Impact on Spirituality Evelyn Underhill Dietrich Bonhoeffer Simone Weil Dorothy Day Thomas Merton Spiritualities of Liberation Gustavo Gutiérrez Feminist Spirituality Spiritualities of Reconciliation Ecumenical Spirituality: The Example of Taizé Spirituality and InterReligious Dialogue: Bede Griffiths Making Spirituality Democratic: The Retreat Movement Making Spirituality Democratic: The Charismatic Movement Conclusion
Epilogue Notes Select Bibliography Index
x
Contents
163 165 166 170
172 173 175 178 180 183 184 187 188 190 193 195
197
200
202 204
205 210 230 241