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The King James Bible 1611-2011

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262 pages
The King James Bible has been a sacred and cultural icon of the English-speaking world since it was first published in 1611. The Kàroli Bible has played a similarly iconic role for Hungarians as the King James Bible has for the British. The selection of the papers offered here represents a treasure trove for biblical scholars, theologians, linguists, and students of English literature and cultural studies.
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The King James BiBle (1611–2011)
l’hàRMàttàN hONGRIE tut C K Collection dirigée par Enikő Sepsi
issn 2062-9850
The K ing Ja mes BiBle (1611–2011) tut
PrehisTory and afTerlife
e  T f  s T
KáROLI gáSpáR UNIvERSItY OF tHE rEFORMED CHuRcH IN huNGàRY L’Harmattan Publishing • Éditions L’Harmattan
Budapest • Paris 2016
PubLISHING dIREctORS: eNIkő sEpSI, ÁDáM gYENES, XàvIER PRYEN
sERIES eDItOR: eNIkő sEpSI
KáROLI gáSpáR UNIvERSItY OF tHE rEFORMED CHuRcH IN huNGàRY KáLvIN téR 9 h-1091 BuDàpESt, huNGàRY T: +36-1 455-9060
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eDItORIàL àSSIStàNt: aNDRáS mIkESY rEàDERS: KàtHRYN gOEtz, JOHN BROuwER
© autHORS, EDItORS, 2016 © KáROLI gáSpáR UNIvERSItY OF tHE rEFORMED CHuRcH IN huNGàRY, 2016 © l’hàRMàttàN PubLISHING, 2016 © Éditions L’Harmattan, 2016
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TABLE OF CONTENTS tut
A Preface to te Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
P I. T K J B
H W OSB: he King James Version: a Bible of Unity . . . . . . . 13 T F: he Metaporical World of te Sacred Word in te Prefaces of te Englis Bible: Translations from Tyndale to te King James Bible . . . . 29 A M: Luter and Tyndale on te Pater Noster. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 M S: If Words Were witout Spirit: te First Epistle of Jon in Tyndale’s hree Versions and in te King James Bible . . . . . . . . . 63 D B. B: A Novel Superlative in te King James Bible . . . . . . . . . . . 111 P F: Formal and Functional Equivalents of New Testament Greek Discourse Markers in te King James Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Á N: Arcaic language – Greater Credibility? . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
P II. I A
W. C M: Hell in Englis Bible Translations since te 1611 King James Bible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 S M: New and Recurring Symbols and teir Interpretations in te History of te Illustrated King James Bible Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 B M: Terms forExousia Hyperecousa (Higer Powers) in Hungarian Scriptural Translations of Early Modernity195. . . . . . . . . . . N R: he King James Bible and World Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 G I: “hus God te eaven created, tus te eart”: he Biblical Creation Story in Milton’sParadise Lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 N F: Capman’s Open Ended Allegory in isOdysses237. . . . . . .  .
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Notes on Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
“KÁROLI’S KING JAMES BIBLE CONFERENCE” tut
A P   P
InSeptember2011,teInstituteofEnglisStudies,teCenterforHermeneuti-cal Researc at Károli Gáspár University of te Reformed Curc in Hungary, togeter wit te Hungarian Bible Society, osted te international conference he King James Bible (1611–2011) – Preistory and Afterlife. he four undredt anniversary of te King James Bible (KJB), a major influence in saping te literature and culture of te Englis-speaking world, was indeed an extraor-dinary public event in 2011. Queen Elizabet II praised its language in an address to te nation; Prince William cose its text for is wedding liturgy; rare book collections of te largest libraries proudly exibited teir unique and precious copies; and scolarly conferences were organized trougout te United Kingdom, te United States, and several oter countries. Linguists ave demonstrated ow te proverbial nature of te KJB as filtered into te Englis language. Here are some well-known examples:east of Eden(Gen. 4:16);ow te migty are fallen(2 Sam. 1:19);to everyting tere is a season(Eccl. 3:1);Lay up for yourselves treasure in eaven(Matt. 6:20);turned te world upside down(Acts 17:56);A torn in te fles(2 Cor. 12:7). hese expressions all first appeared in te KJB. here are also several expressions tat ad already been used in te 1 five earlier translations, but it was due to te widespread popularity of te KJB tat tey found teir way into te natural speec of everyday Englis people: apple of is eye(Deut. 32:10);salt of te eart(Matt. 5:13);mote…in tine own 2 eye” (Mat. 7:3);in te twinkling of an eye(1 Cor. 15:52) and so on. Wile it is obvious tat te KJB as been respected bot as te inspired word of God in Englis and asa cultural icon of te Englis speaking world, wy ten, we may ask, is an international conference devoted to tis topic in Hun-gary, linguistically and culturally so remote from te Englis-speaking world? he answer is twofold. First, our university, founded after te collapse of communism in 1992, was named after te Calvinist pastor Gáspár Károli (ca.
1  Wycliffe (1382–4); Tyndale (1526, and 1530–1); 1534 Geneva (1560); Bisops (1568); Douai-Reims (1582 and 1609–10). 2  See David Crystal:Begat. he King James Bible and te Englis Language.Oxford: OUP, 2010, 263–300.
A P   P
1529–1591), wose name is associated wit te publication of te first complete Bible in Hungarian (1590). he Károli Bible (KB) was printed in te small village ofVizsoly inte Eastern part of te country and, is terefore sometimes also called te “Vizsolyi Bible.” Wit some exaggeration, we may say tat te KB as played a similarly iconic role for Hungarians as te KJB asfor te Britis. Altoug te KB was te linguistic medium of a minority culture, it as also played a tremendous role in te making of Hungarian identity troug te language and te literature it inspired. Several of te greatest Hungarian poets t from te 17 century up to te present day (Dániel Berzsenyi, Sándor Petőfi, János Arany, Imre Madác, Endre Ady) were Protestants (mainly Calvinists, but some of tem Luterans) and tus teir poetic language frequently carries te cadences and imagery of te KB, just as te poetry of Jon Milton, Jon Bunyan, William Blake, S. T. Coleridge, Ralp Waldo Emerson, Oscar Wilde, R. S. homas is deeply immersed in te text of te KJB. Anoter parallel between te two Bibles is te movements of emerging and re-emerging conservative support for “te KJB only” , or “Autorised Version”, a movement ironically called “AVolatry”, just as tere are calls for te exclusive use of te KB against any new translations - a penomenon tat may be likewise called “KBolatry” he oter reason for te conference is related to te first. “Englis Studies” ave establised temselves in te curriculum of Hungarian universities for t over a undred years, in te early 20 century. he first Englis Departments began to flouris between te World Wars, but wit te advent of communism, Englis Studies began to be considered as suspicious because of teir allegedly implicit imperialistic ideology. Since te 1960s, tey were smuggled back into te curriculum to te extent of becoming peraps te most popular subject witin te Faculties of Humanities by te time of te radical political canges in 1989. Wile Marxist ideology dominated te official academic discourse in te umanities, including Englis Studies, courageous and cunning pro-fessors and lecturers tacitly callenged te foundations of te old system by introducing te insigts of text-oriented New Criticism, and structuralism; ideology-free approaces to teacing or writing about Englis and American. hese scolars managed to read and interpret even premodern literature in terms of modernity, or, of te absurd. Sakespeare, among oters, was ailed as “our contemporary” after te tougt-provoking book of Jan Kott. Witin tis agenda, one could easily see is or er own mirror in a Sakespeare play, or in a tale of Geoffrey Caucer. However, te idea tat “Sakespeare migt be our contemporary, but we are notiscontemporaries,” a witty remark of a contemporary scolar, as promoted te new recognition tat te alterity, or difference, of premodern
 8 
“K’ (K) J B (C)”
culture – including medieval and Renaissance literature – sould be acknowl-edged. his perception is definitely a recent development tat as emerged st as a new paradigm only wit te advent of te 21 century. True, te move-ment in Hungary ad already begun as early as te mid 1980s wen te works of Nortrop Frye, Barbara Kiefer Lewalski, and oters were discovered and used by scolars of Englis literature at Hungarian universities. he critical and scolarly contribution of tese Nort American intellectuals ad a strong impact upon studying early modern Englis literature troug a rediscovered istory-oriented perspective, sometimes called te “religious turn” in early modern studies. Jon N. King, David Scott Kastan, Brian Cummings, and ot-ers ave explored te vast material concerning te Bible-centered literary cul-ture of te Englis Reformation. In te Hungarian academia, te new interest in religion, or te religious context of literature, is also explained as a counter-effect of te formerly ex-clusive Marxist attempt to erase religion from even cultural memory. As early as 1995, only tree years after teir foundation, te Englis Departments of te two curc-related universities, Pázmány Péter Catolic University and Károli Gáspár University of te Reformed Curc, decided to organize an in-ternational conference on “Teacing te ‘Bible and Literature’ at Universities.” he proceedings of te conference were publised ashe Bible in Literature and Literature in te Bible(Budapest: Pano Verlag Züric and Center for Her-meneutics, 1998). t he idea of organizing te conference on te 400 anniversary of te King James Bible was meant to continue tis initiative tat began in te mid 1990s. It goes witout saying tat in te years between tis above-mentioned pub-lication and te present volume, te Department (now Institute) of Englis of Károli Gáspár University as continued to organize similar conferences. For example, in 2007, our university osted te first conference on Jonatan Edwards in Europe (its papers were publised in 2009 by Oxford University Press asUnderstanding Jonatan Edwards). he proceedings of te conference t on te 400 anniversary of Milton’s birt were publised by our university as Milton hroug te Centuries.he centenary of Nortrop Frye’s birt was also celebrated wit an international conference, its proceedings publised by our university asNortrop Frye 100 – A Danubian Perspective. In 2011, we focused on te King James Bible. Scolars, bot young and old, local and visitors, came togeter to sare and discuss teir insigts or discover-ies. We issued a call for papers on bot te “preistory” and te “afterlife” of te King James Bible. In tis volume, we are offering a selection of alf a dozen of
 9 
A P   P
papers in eac section. Due to various difficulties, mostly financial, te editing of te present volume took longer tan we expected. he relevance of tese papers, owever, remains valid even almost five years after teir original delivery. It was an exciting callenge in 2011 to organize a conference on te KJB at Károli, an institution tat itself is a living example of te KB’s afterlife. In 2016, it is an equally exciting moment to launc tis modest volume for a broader audience. he KJB project as, in te meantime, been inculturated into its receptive Hungarian context: over te past few years, KJB as come to mean “Károli’s (King) James Bible (Conference).” he KJB, tus contextualized, now found a place in Hungarian Englis Studies.
31 January, 2016
 10 
Tibor Fabiny