Le Vodoun : leçons de choses, leçon de vie

De
Publié par

Le vodoun masque-t-il une autre réalité ? Une réalité totalement différente de celle qui est visible, bruyante, intempestive même… ? Telle est la conviction de l'auteur qui nous propose une voie d'accès à ce vodoun des profondeurs ; celui qui ne relève pas d'une religiosité mais d'un tout autre paradigme, celui du discernement. Symboles, magistère de la foi et magistère de la raison forment un triptyque autour de l'homme qui doit, avec cet ensemble, se construire son bien-vivre, à savoir nourrir son corps et nourrir son esprit.
Publié le : vendredi 8 avril 2016
Lecture(s) : 5
Tags :
EAN13 : 9782140007286
Nombre de pages : 530
Voir plus Voir moins
Cette publication est uniquement disponible à l'achat

Paul Aclinou
Le vodoun masque-t-il une autre réalité ? Une réalité totalement
différente de celle qui est visible, bruyante, intempestive même… ?
Telle est la conviction de l’auteur qui nous propose une voie d’accès
à ce vodoun des profondeurs ; celui qui ne relève pas d’une religiosité
mais d’un tout autre paradigme, celui du discernement. Le Vodoun :
Un paradigme qui gouverne une pédagogie active, une pédagogie
située totalement hors du champ religieux, et entièrement dans leçons de choses, leçons de viele magistère de la raison, là où l’art, qu’il soit sacré ou profane, est
d’abord au service de cette pédagogie. C’est en cela que le vodoun est
réellement un mode d’existence.
Cette réalité est translucide, mais ne peut émerger véritablement Le continuum de potentialités
qu’à partir de symboles, ce sont les mêmes qu’utilise le fait cultuel,
c’est-à-dire le mode du magistère de la foi. C’est à partir de ces
symboles, déployés cette fois en dehors de tout présupposé religieux
et cultuel que l’auteur nous dévoile l’autre aspect du vodoun, celui
qui est un recueil de véritables leçons de vie ; des leçons fondées,
justifi ées et mises en action à travers une scénographie dynamique.
Symboles, magistère de la foi et magistère de la raison forment
un triptyque autour de l’homme qui doit, avec cet ensemble,
se construire son bien-vivre, à savoir nourrir son corps et nourrir
son esprit.
Enseignant-chercheur, docteur ès sciences physiques et diplômé
d’études théologiques, Paul Aclinou propose en marge de ses activités
professionnelles, une réfl exion sur l’homme ; réfl exion dont le point
de départ est la culture des pays du golfe de Bénin. Culture et mode
d’existence dont il poursuit le décryptage avec ce second volume consacré
au vodoun.
Les impliquésISBN : 978-2-343-08930-0
39 € Éditeur
Le Vodoun :
Paul Aclinou
Les impliqués
É di teu r
leçons de choses, leçons de vieLes Impliqués Éditeur

Structure éditoriale récente fondée par L’Harmattan, Les
Impliqués Éditeur a pour ambition de proposer au public des
ouvrages de tous horizons, essentiellement dans les domaines
des sciences humaines et de la création littéraire.


Déjà parus

Kouamé (Jean Claude), Étrange arc-en-ciel dans le ciel africain, roman,
2016.
Makosso-Akendengué (Léonard), Notre frère et ami le caméléon, récit,
2016.
Versini (Charles), Message corse, récit, 2016.
Chanas (Léna Léticée), Autopsie, slam, 2016.
Djadal-Rab (Issa Brahim), Hymnes à une Révolution, essai, 2016.
Madaule (Jacques), Autobiographie de ma mère, récit, 2016.
Gossan (Davy), L’argent. Comment s’en procurer pour de bon ?, 2016.
Coezy (Ericque), Le pouvoir noir en question, essai, 2016.
Êtchian (Amon), Charlie Hebdo, 7 janvier 2015 et si les caricatures du
Prophète Mohammed n’étaient pas le vrai mobile ?, 2016.
Gros (Olivier), Moi, je ne t’oublierai pas !, méditations, 2016.



Ces dix derniers titres de ce secteur sont classés par ordre
chronologique en commençant par le plus récent.
La liste complète des parutions, avec une courte présentation
du contenu des ouvrages, peut être consultée sur le site :
www.lesimpliques.fr




LE VODOUN :
LEÇONS DE CHOSES, LEÇONS DE VIE © Les impliqués Éditeur, 2016
21 bis, rue des écoles, 75005 Paris
www.lesimpliques.fr
contact@lesimpliques.fr
ISBN : 978-2-343-08930-0
EAN : 9782343089300 Paul Aclinou




Le Vodoun :
leçons de choses, leçons de vie



Le continuum de potentialités














Les impliqués Éditeur RQ pGLWL OLQHV <
H OLp RXE JLH 8QHSpGDJR DWWDQ UP
YD?0XO+H
<Y HOLQHV pGLWL RQ 5pD HG
/HPXVpH YLUW HOG XPRW
'80(0($87(85P GH
&RWRQRX WDLW F?p DORUV KRPH 'D RORQLH IUDQoDLVH WDEOLV ?p
G
QW HQID GH .RXWL XQ YL H OODJ VLWXp X 6XG (VW GX V SD DORUV TX
H X
.RX7L [
.RX
7L
XWLOLVp
1'( /$/(*
GH
WRQQDLHQW V?p VRQ JUD G OOH TX?H pWDLW .RX FH TXL VL QLILH
WH VLWXDWLRQ

U WWSI SHG LDRUJ HVB*E DQJX D GpVL RQ JE p SRXU FH URX GH
ODQJX H SDUDv XULHX[ DU ILH LJ H ODQJX FH HYLHQ W j GLUH OHV
ODQJX H FH URXH DUWLH GX URXH ODQJ &H ?HVW SDV WUqV DO LQ RULJ Q
HVWHIWQ?FH SDVOHFDVGHW WHVOH RX VODQ HVG JX HODSODQqWH "
XVLZTHHHHHJDVHU/WJOHU%LX3TYHKFHFWGUULDQQXHV/GXF/\GHOJN3DQqHSHHQJG\HHDGVQDWXUHHOpVVULHQWpH&GXWLOLVpVFODQ6XGQLQURXpFJG\SRRQWWJ\JkSLJGPQVHHIL.RXWLNLDGHpJFX\RGUPHSGSHRJDSQ[DOSPpWHSGILQLQWXFD/(VJHGXLUHpVRQWWJSHDEQHJSDj/HG0SDQL7V(XPUOHHJ\GHQ6LSXH2NTXLL[Z%ppJDQGUGXVLWRQJ3QLILHWODHHHIIH/
JE
FHW j ILQ WWU H SULVH IXW pFLVLRQ OD $XVVL FUpDWXUHV GHV
GH ORLV DX YLH j GpIL XQ HQWDLW UH FHOD TXH FRQVLGpUp
DYD LOV QRPDOLH XQH pWDLW ORQJ WHPSV VL YLYUH TXH WURXYHU SDU
DLH DY YLOODJ H LHQV HV P?DWWHLQGUH SDV HXW QH PRUW / D
FHX WRXV j GLVDLW (OOH SRUWDLW HOOH RP HO TX QL pH WDLW HOOH
TXDQG LW VDY H RQQH SHUV SOXV H TX kJpH VL kJpH V PH XQH YLYDLW
FDPDUD PRQ LW PH QRP FH SDV SRUWDLW QH YLOODJH O?RULJ LQH $
IRQF WLR Q ? HDX G? UV FRX RX ULYLqUH RUH LOOH ORFD OLWp RX YLOOH
qUH VLJ U QLILH SHXW 72 UD SKqPH OH $LQVL SKqPH DX DSSOLTXpV
TXL WRQV OHV U XQLTXHPHQW V VpPLTXH SRO H G?r WU SDUWLFXODULWp
OD RQW HOOHV
V WRQ GHV QRWDPPHQW IRQF WLRQ Q PRW DX UH FRQWUDL VHQV XQ FRQIp U
HXW SKUD VH OD H VWUXFWXUH OD PDLV LVWHU? H[ DWWHLQGUH VLJ QLILH
PRU H FHOXL UV WRXMRX VW VHQV OH PDLV LRQV V IRQF WLRQ HQ
V WRQDOHV PRUW GDQV OD SOXSDUW V ODQJ V GX VXG QLQ HF DY HV DULDQW
OD PRUW VW RX WDEOLH? HQFRU OD UW PR DJDJQp
Q ODQ H XED HXW VH WUDGXLUH DU OD RUW LVWH H[ RX PLHX
OHP QYLOODJ ?RU HOODWLRQGHVRWKHTXLIXWjOLQHGH H O?DSS
O?KLVWRLU UD FRQWD PH pOqYH &HW RWRQRX GH YHQDLV MH PRLPrPH
DGHDPD XQ WRXWHV OHV Up LRQV GH ODFRORQLH FH IXW DLQVL XV TXHM? SRXU
QW YHQDL pOqYH DX QLYH H GHOj DX WXGHV OHV SRXUVXLYUH
GH XQV TXHOTXHV SRXU SRVVLELOLWp OD YHF FRORQLH D GH VHUYLFH
DX LQVWLWXWHXUV IXWXUV GH IRU PDWLRQ OD VWLQp pWDLW QRUPDO FRXUV XQ
VHPHQW
j VLWXpH YLOOH XQH NRX3DU j %pQLQ GX UG 1R DX SHQVLRQQDW
XQ GDQV YDLV WURX PH MH LQTXDQWH pHV QQ HV PLOLHX $X
5(6 5(/,0,1$,
$9$17 52UUp
PHQW TXH H
$X PLOLHX
QV TXL
PH VXLV
SRVH LW
U OD
DFUTXLRQVHDODHDX[DHPHHpPIOVXLVHSpHGX.QVTQ[[DHHOFQWSVXRRXU/H\U-H-pXOHFJHOODLWUOTX?LOVHDUGjDDH-WHVIRQGH%MQWVDPLQGHpDHD.WDO\DWIGTDWHQPRQHHHVWHXUVjHHLSURSRVHUHD\PHFLW-WKQRWUHPGDQVG?XQJV?DJWFFLHX[POLJHUHLWUGHHIDFGXLVVXHVDRWOVRQrVRFLpWpVVQRV
KDTXH VLPSOH UD LVRQ TXH QRXV Q?D FFRUGLRQV SDV XQH LRQ SUpWWHQW FLVH
DLQVL &?p WDLW UV DLOOHX RX %pQLQ X HV DXWU OHV RPPH PRL SDV
WRXMRXUV GDQV OHV IRQGHQWV FXOWXHOV PDLV TXH XV QR QH OH UH
SUp VHQW pWDLW DLVGpFRXYU MH H TX FH H FRPSWH DLVUH QG PH MH
DFWHPHQW SOXV RX YRGRXQ DXWUH XQ GpFRXYUD LV MH .RXWL VXU OpJH QGH
WD SRXU HU H H[ Q PHWWUH SRXUUDLV MH TXH pFHSWSU OHV UpXQLU
H ILQ X[ UH ID OLJ LW GX FRQWHQXV OHV VFUXWDLV MH TXH UH PHVX j IXU W $X
DXUDRXWL UYLUGHMXVWLILFDWLIVDLHQWSXVHDQFLHQVGH X[
TXL QFHV FUR QRV GH pOpPHQWV OHV VXU SRLQW OH LUH H HSULVHQWU M?DYDLV
XDQG G?LQIRUPDWLRQV GpSRXUYX SDV GRQF ?p LV YRGRXQ GX V?DJ LW
LO FDV
TXL HXUV YDO GHV QWLHO HVVH O? 2U 6XG QLQ GX SRSXODWLRQV GHV FXOWXUH OV
&?H VW GRQF WRXW QDWXUHOOHPHQW TXH MH PH VXLV WRXUQp YHUV OHV IR
pWHQGXH V
qV WU WDLHQW SRVVLELOLWpV OHV Oj FDU H[HPSOH SDU HPSRLVRQQHPHQW
SDU XWUH G?XQH X PDQLqUH G?XQH PRXULU ID LUH OD GH GLIILFLOH
LW SDV qV WU VWLRQ PH LW SUpRFFXS FDU LO Q?p WD DYDQW GH HYHOLU"O?HQV DTXH
pH ?D YRLU SDV QH L SRXUTXR IH PPH FHWWH H YLYDQW HQWHUUH SRXUTXRL
HIIH Q GHPDQGp WRXMRXUV VXLV PH DQV TXDUD QWH GHSXLV HVSULW
GD Up SRQVH QV VD UH VWpH pWDLW TXHVWLRQ TX?XQH G?D XWDQW WH FRQWH[
VRQ GDQV O?KLVWRLUH UH SODF HU SXLVVH TXL MXVWLIL FDWLRQ GH VHPEODQW TX?XQ
UD FH LW H
DLQFX RQY OHXU FH HQWHQ W VD LVH j pFXWLRQ H[ (Q HIIHW H PrP VL MH VXLV
OHV DQFLHQV GH L .RXW DYDLHQW ID GHPDQGp ORUV VXU HOOHV TX VEDV
QFHUQpHV HV SHUVRQQ HV WRXWH U SRX WUDQVSDUQWHV DVVLVHV
GHV XU UH SRVHU GRLYHQW LQFRQWHVWDEOHV WUH SRXU GpFLVLRQV OHV GRQW
HW DQFH RQIL ID LW SRSXODWLRQ OD TXL VDJHV GHV VRQW ORFD OLWp XQH GDQV
QFLHQV OHV U DFWHV OHXUV GDQV YLOODJ H GX QV DQFLH OHV PRWLYp DYDLHQW
UD LVR OHV VXU SOLFDWLR Q G?XQH O?pFRQRPLH ID LUH SDV SRXYDLW QH
FULYDLV XYHOOHTXHM?HODQR TX VUH TXHOTXHVSDJ QGXFRPSWH MHPHVXL V
W{W $SUqV GH ORFD OLWp .RXWL XQ Up FLW HQWHQGX SOXV GH H TXDUD QW DQV SOXV
QRP FH GH O?KLVWRLUH DLW HU WKqPH OH GRQW H YHOO QRX XQH pFULUH YRXOX M?DL
FKDLW SSUR UH OD WUDLWH O?KHXUH TXH DORUV GL[ HYLQ TXDWU DQQpHV GHV
UH WUDLWH OD j IRLV H XQ WDUG SOXV WH WH[ XQ H ID LU G?H Q Up VROXV
IRU VL LQWULJXp LW P?DY LO pFLW FH RXEOLp MDPDLV Q?D YDLV
LVWH XL PRUWH[QRPTXLHVWHQFRUH HQDXMRXUG?K OHVL
OD jGLUH F?H VW RXWL GH QRP OH SULW RFDOLWp OD ORUV GHSXLV YLYDQWH
HQWH SXLV VDLVLH IXW 0L .RX7L XUH OOHV QDW ORLV V GpILDLW TXLWRXW H SDUF
QG UH UH LOOLVLEOH OH PHVVDJ SU
LHX[ OLJ UH GX LW ID XOWXUHO HW VLRQ
VHOOH XQLYHU
T
WG DQVO?LVODPG DQVOH YRGRXQDX
TXH
LQRQ
H
LW ID DU FRXSV LO VW Q?H SD

LW ID
OH GLVFRQWLQXLWp GDQV OD WLTXH SUD
LW XUD G?
UXVGXID&HjGXGGRDHOH\3RXUOHYRGRXQODGLVFRQWLQXLWpHVWODUqJOLVDLQWUOURSjGjHHVUDE\TX?LOVI\HOGXIDLHX[G-HpH[DGUGSGLHDDHDjTHH--DOIHHYHD\FVVS/DHHQQRXVLWUHGJOHWQLWFXOWXHO?jVHHS[GHH\RGYDOD\QVHFVGGOHVIDDLWYIDUOHV?HpMIFQHOGH\JVSFDJHHrTVRQWGHWDFVXUWRXWH[GSFG
OHPHQW SDUD GR[ XL WLTXHSU XQH W FXOWXHO O?DFWH H VRPPHW OH rWUH
TXL IRL XQH HQWUH D TX?LO ID LW H LRQ H[ GpFRQQ OD PHVXUDLV MH
WRWD OD HVW TXL ORFD FXOWXHO
?XQ UWLFXOLqUH HVWDWLRQPDQLI FHWWH j FDWLRQ SOL H[ G? GpEXW XQ
MXVWLILFDWLI OD OpJ HQGH OH QRPGH .RXWL MH FRP PHQo DLV j SHUFHYRLU
XQ WURXYHU H pWDLW EXW OH GRQW FFXSDWLRQSUp QRXYHOOH PD $YH F
WH X WHO FLHUJ XQ ?OHU SRXU LVH pJ H XQ GDQV UH QG VH TXL
H FHOXL pYRTXHU pJ DOHPHQW PSOH O?H[ VWpPDWLTXH QL UpJ XOLHU SHX
HVW /RXUGHV j DJH OH O?DXWUH
GD RPPH FDV XQ 'DQV IRL U OHX FRQIRU WHU H PDQLqUH XQH HVW TXL
qOHULQD VRXIIUD QWV HW qUH QW VS XQH XpULVRQ PLUD FXOHXVH LW VR SRXU XQ
LQILUPHV RQW EHVRLQ G?D VV LVWDQFH OHV DXWUHV OH IRQW VRLW SDU
W VRQ TXL RX OHPHQW DFL GpSODFHU VH SRXU kJ pV WURS H TX SDUF H TXL
DLGHU FHX[ VDQFWXDLUH GH HV RXUG j SDUW OHV YRORQWDLUHV TXL YRQW SRXU
DX QG H TXL Up WLHQ FK GX PSOH SDU FDV OH F?H VW OLJ LRQV G?D XWUHV
GDQV SULQFLSHV PrPH OHV VXU IRQGH QW VH TXL V HPHQW FRPSRUW G?D XWUHV j
HQWH V?D SSDU YRGRXQ GX H O?DLU QV VWpPDWLTXH HVW TXL FRPSRUWHPHQW
QQpH HV RLUH PRLV GHV GXUH SHXW FHOD HW ULHQ W QH RQ
HU GHPDQG VHUYLFH XQ Up RXVRXGUH j SUREOqPH XQ D RQ TXDQG
TXHOFRQTXH GLYLQLWp XQH j ELHQ RX NRQRQ ER XQ j V?D HVVH GU QH RQ
HRQWUDLU HH FKULVWLDQLVPHOHMXGDwVP
OH DQV SUD WLTXDQW FUR DQW GX TXH PDU OD HVW IRL OHXU GH SUH VFULSWLRQV
VLGXLWp DX[ HQ II HW V DORU TXH O?DV FKULVWLDQLVPH RX O?LVODP DU PSOH
OH RPPH XWUHV j FRPSDUp YRGRXQ OH GDQV HQWGLIIpU DVVH]
VW WXHO XO LW OH XH DLV VDY SULQFLSHV V GDQV ID PLOLqUH P?pWDLW
TXL UDWLTXH SURJU UHHVVDLVHWTXHMHSLVGHODGLVWDQFHSDUU SRUWjODS DS
PHVXUH HW XU DX QX j PHWWDLV MH TXH FKH FRX VRXV OD SRUWpH
VWXSpIDLW DLV pFRXYU MH TX FH SDU VWXSpIDLW Wp GRQF DYDLV
LQGpSH QGDPPHQW QVHPEOH YLYUH OH IRQGH QW TXL YDOHXUV H
GLPHQ OD vWUH SSDUD ID LUH H GRQF
GLVVRFLHU GH VHUD LW EXW OH GRQW LRQ UpH[ IO H G?XQ pORLJ pV DYDLW
FOXVLYHPHQWGXYLY TXRWLGL UH DX 8QULWXHOSDUFHTXHUH QWH[
LQFLSDO H SRLQW DX RFFDVLRQ H PrP OD SDU
YHXJ ODQW TXH OH PHVVDJH H IRQG QRXV TXH OH ULWXHO UH QG WRWDOHPHQW RSD
VXU 0DLV G?D OHUWH V SRLQW GH VHUYLU SRXU Oj VRQW TXL HW Up FLWV
V VHLQ DX YLGHQWV VRQW TXL SDUWLFXODULVPHV V VXU HW FRQWUDGLFWLRQV
VXU SDV DUU WLRQV QRXV QH QRXV TXH FH DU DLQVL F?p WDLW GpWDLO &? HVW
WHPSVYLVjYLV G?XQH YLQLWp
F
&(48(-(6$9$,6
WRXWHV OHV PLOOHV WUDGLWLRQQHOOHV R
GH
$LQVL
Q
Q
G
GDQV UDLVRQ VD DEDQGRQQHU SDV QH V? LW LO LU (Q HVSULW
PDLV W{W
TXH
IOJHGUGYW$FVjOHVDGLHX[HGGDQTOHVKHOGSURFFpOO?DSSXPFQHFXVQHQDYHvFIOEIGpHOH\RUVGpLUG?XQHHHHQWGJOHXDHFJDDH/ODOHFGG[EOHVRWVDH\,&T?GUHKHHHGDEUHQHVSVXUHUj6OGLHQSFHDWLVRQSUDHVODQRXVGHFFpIDXVGHGHVLQGLYLGXVRPPHX
UH PHVX j W IXU DX FRPSWH UH QGDLV PH MH UH OLJ LRVLWp HW ULWXHO
LRQ QH[ QWUH OD SULVH H FRQVFLHQFH D GpFRQ SDUW HW YHF XWUH G? SDUW
TXHOV DX[ MH Q?D YDLV SDV DFFRUGp FRXS HDX RQG?D WWHQWL MXVTX?j
pOpPHQWV TXL IXUHQW FXOTXpV LQ WUqV FLUFRQVWDQFHV HF FHV HX[
OHV VRLHQW TXH TXHOOHV HW SURSRVH RXV TX?RQ VROXWLRQV GHV
O?DXWHXU W VRL TXH HO TX VRL j SRVHU VH QW SHXYH TXHVWLRQVXL OHV WRXWHV GH
H QRWU MHW SRXU D XL DFWLRQ WRXWH pILTXHV PDO RX pQpILTXHV HII WV
DUWLVDQV OHV PHV Pr QRXV rWUH SRXYRQV QRXV HUPHV G?DHV XWU (Q
DQV HW DYHXJH IRL XQH DFFRUGRQV QRXV TXRL j FH TXH DWWHLQGUH
SHXW QH VSULW QRWUH DEDQGRQQRQV QRXV TXRL j H TXH DWWHLQGUH
QR SHXW QH LQJ HVWLRQ U SD QRWDPPHQW PHQWV HPSRLVRQQH GHV GHKRUV
TX?H HVW RQVWDQFH DYHF QVHLQpH HVW QRXV TXL FKRVH H HFRQG
SRXUTXRLODFLUFRQVSHFWLRQHVWGHPLVH
YRLOj j SDV Q?H VW H GpPDUFK GH O?HVVHQWLHO PDLV XWRLUH G? VHUYLU
SHXW LO U FD DXVVL LPSRUWD QFH VRQ DYRLU SHXW GLVFRXUV OH &HUWHV YHUWXV
RQQ LO GRQW KHUEHV OHV HW SODQWHV OHV W QRWDPPHQ VRLJ QHU YRXV
XYUH SRX OHV GLVFRXUV TX?LO SURGXLW PDLV DX[ LQJ Up GLHQWV LO TX? PHW HQ
DV VRQW QH FH DWWHQWLRQ VRQ WRXWHDFFRUGHU DXW LO TXRL ULVVHXU
ERNRQR DX YLVLWH QG RQ TXDQG TXH FRQVWDPPHQW Up SpWDLW QRXV RQ
PH SRVLWLRQQHU SDU UWUD SSR DX YRGRXQ GqV OD SOXV WHQGUH ID QFH HQ
HQW SHUPHWWDL PH WVUH QRV GH PDQGD WLRQV HFRP GHV PXVXOPDQHV
WLHQQHVFKU DFFHVVRLUHPHQW
YLY ODTXH OOH QV FHVWUDOHDQ OOH XOWXUH FH O?DPELDQ GH GHKRUV (Q
VRFLpWpV
UV TXRWL DX H YLYU OH QW SUD WLTXH
OD DQV ?XYUH PLVH HVW TXL LqU OD DOLWp ILQ H DXWU VRQ DFFpGHU
SR VWqPH GX PpFDQLVPH OH GpPRQWHU j SDUYH QLU ID XW LO VXUWRXW
HW HQWLHO VV FHW GH HFKHUF H OD j DOOHU DXW VWqPH GX FRQFHSWHXUV
SRXU O?HVVHQWLHO rWUH SDV HYDLW XOWXHO ID LW OH TXH FRQFOX
DL M?HQ O ULWXH WRXW H DLW GH FOX H[ HVW GHUQLHU FH TXH ORUV 'q V 0DZX
XSUr PH O??WUH GH GLUHFWLRQ Q FDV XFXQ HQ Q?H VW FRPSRUWHPHQW
HSHQGDQW QWLU ID LW VH EHVRLQ OH TXH IRLV FKDTX UH QRXYHOOH
VH TXL YDVVDOLVDWLRQ XQH H SDUWLFXOLqU
OH DQV LPLWpH WLRQ DVVDOLVD HW RQWUDW XQ JDUGV HV HQ EL j HVW
XQH SUD WLTXH TXL ELHQ TX HQWH pU GpI HW SOHLQH PLOLWp ?KX SRXU
PRWHXU RPPH VRLW ?H OOH TX OH TXH GLYLQLWp XQH HQ IRL OD DV Q?DXQ
H SDUFH
WH LWp
W W
GRQWOH LVWqUH GRQFORLQGHWRXWPDJ
VHUYLFH
VWqPH
VHVFDHDvWOUJHGGXDKXPDLQPGD\HHFXQJPrPHpFHRQMRXHQWDP\HTXLWH/JHD?PLqUHFGSUHpjXLODQVSFFHODGIRL(QFHIIHW\ODTX/HVWLRQGHYLHQWSjTXRLHVQHYUYHDQWDOHVFGLHX[VW\GUDQVDOHXUUDJGUDOHPHQWDpJWURXYHQWTFTXLUH?HVWXQHVJjTUPHGHGFDDFHH\VHHJDHVHDD/HOFHDTGXHrGHGOVDLWHQSDGPOV\HJUHRFRH?HGLUH-qJTXL\H
FHOXLGHODSp XQQLYHD LH XTXHMHGLVrWU
SLOLHUV GH FHHFRQG QLYHD X GX GpWHUPLQDQW QW OOHV OHV IRU
H U{O
H XL VHXOHPHQW GLYLQLWpV HV TXHOTX UPpH IR VW RXFKH RQGH
VWDQGDUG VWOHYRGRXQ FXOWXHOF?H
DX LHX GRQQHU GH DYDQW FXOWXUH OOH G?D ERUG HVW TXL IRL XQH GRQF F?H VW
HV KRPPHV OD YLH HW GRQF TXL QH H LVFXWH DV QL SDU OHV GLHX[ SDU
qJ OH XQH VW GLHX[ X[ V?D VVHU H H SRV TXL HW H OREDO HVW
IR XQH PDLV IRL OD GH H PD LVWqU OH GDQV VRPPHV 1RXV TXHVWLRQV
PHV SRQVH GH YUDW LPHQ DV Q?D SSRUWH ?XYUH HQ LVH OHXU HW
H DXQLYH TXH MH P? WWDUG SDV G?D XWDQW H TX OD SOXSDUW V GLHX[ GH
U SRX H FRQQX DPPHQW II LV VX VW RXFK FHWWH H TX H GLU DXWDQW UD LOOp RX
SUD WLTXp VW TXL FHOXL F?H VW FUD LQW W HV TXL FHOXL F?H VW FRQQDvW PRQGH OH
HWRXW OjTX ?HHYRGRXQ F VWF JUHDUI ULWXHOFRORUpHEUX H RLVVVLYHS QW
FRXFKH OD F?H VW LQGpQRPEUDEOHV YRLUH QRPEUHXVHV VRQW FRXFKH
LqUH SUH OD GH GLYLQLWpV V FRQVFLHQW GX DX QLYH DX PHVXUH PRLQGUH
H XQ GDQV LQWHUYLHQW VSULW VRQ QRXUU LU WLI LPSpU UQLHU FH PDLV
WUH FKDTXH j URSU H HVW TXL HVSULW Q VR UU LU QRX GX pJDOHPHQW
DX VW HOOH USV FR VRQ QRXUU LU GX HUYLFH DX HVVHQWLHOOHPHQW
HVW OOH TXRWLGLHQ X YLYUH GX VHUYLFH DX VW HOOH PrPH LQWHPSHVWLYH
XEpUD H[ YLVLEOH qV WU HVW SUH PLqUH YRGRXQ GX VWUXFWXUDWLRQ
GDQV RXFKHV GHX[ D TX?LO GRQF IXW FH GpFRXYUD LV MH TXH &H
&(48(-('(&2895$,6
LWODIRL PHVHUGLSDU
WRX DYDQW LRQ UpIOH[ OD GH UR DXP DX SOHLQHPHQW VRPPHV QRXV TXH
QGXLVHQW TX?H OOHV ELHQ RX OOHV FRQFHSWXH VRLHQW TX?H OOHV
HQWDOHV IRQGD DOHXUV HV VRQW &H UH LQWHU ODWLRQV VHV DQV HW DJ LU VRQ
PPH DQV SRXU WLUSH U H[ DX JUD QG U MRX GHV YDOHXUV TXL VRQW SUH SUR V j O?KR
LRQ UpH[ IO OD UU LPHU SHXW RQ OHVTXHOOHV VXU SRLQWHV V DIIUH OHX U ODLVVH
OHPHQW VXEWL WUqV TXL PrPH DQWH pOp JRXUH XVHUL SUp FLVH FRQVWUXF WLRQ
FRXYUDLVDYH FVWXSpIDFWLRQF SURIRQGH&?HVWGRQFFH TXHMHGp
FHW V?p WHQG MXVTX?R YRLU VD YRXOX DL UD LOOHU OD SRXU ELHQ RX
SUD WLTXHU TXH H VLWXDQW VRXV OD KH FRX WRXW OH H PRQG vW QQD FR SRXU OD
SURI RQG Up OLWp 8QH " UD GpFRXYLV MH TXH HOOH HSURI RQG Up DOLWp
DYH YRLU KRVH ? UD QG SDV D Q? TXL QWHQX XQ RQWHQX XWUH WRXW
SSDU ODLVVHU SHXW YRGRXQ OH H TX V UHFKHUF KH OHV GDQV M?DYDQoDLVTXHO TXH
GLUH XYRQV
VW GLUH
LO
LH DJ
OHV qJ
O??WUH
GLYLQLWp
ORWH

8QH SpGDJRJLH RXEOLpH OH YRGR DJH +DUDWWD GLW ULV

OHHHRXOSSHH(ORHOTOVJVEG\FX[RQH$Q3LVDQWTU[DPOH&QHG3G&jrDUFWGV\VHQWUHUUVQH[SUHQJHQHUHSFRQVWLWXHQWUVHFSDVLGpUpHQJJHQLTXLFjGROJH'HqVV)JD/EHGTRDHHDKF-,JU/XVFHHVOGFVSRGHFQRSDUHX[HFQWUD\HFF'LHXHR[G?HL/VPLHUHDpURXOQGpVLJHIDHQGJRXLGV\
FOL DXO
PHVRXHQYHUVOHVKRP HX[ $EVHQFHGHI pURF HQ LWp
OHV?WUHVKXPDLQV
TX?H QYH X[ HQWUH ELHQ JUD DXVVL DJ G? WXLWH UH $EVHQFH VVLYLWp
DWXUHOVRXVXUKXPDLQV VVXUQ $EVHQFHGH HVW
SUp UD FLVTXHMH SSHOOHL
TXL WRXWHV HQWUp SRQG j GHV FULWqUHV qV WU HVVHQWLHO ?H Q L Up GpQRPE KXLW
HVW H U{O OH GRQW PDLV VHXOHPHQW GLHX[ OTXHV TXH FHQWUH FRQWUH
FRQGH DU 6L OD SUH PLqUH FRXFK PSRUWH XQH LQILQLWp GH YLQLWpV GL OD VH
FRXFKH
VHFRQGH OD GH YRGRXQ OH WUDQVOXFLGH HVW YRGRXQ OH GDQV TXL FH GpSORLH
TXL FDGU FH F?H VW LVRQ OD GH PDJ LVWqUH OH UH jGL HVW F? SpGDJ LTXH
FWLRQ O?D GH HVVHQWLHOO? SODFH H TXH pQpUD LVWH UH FDG FH GDQV &?H VW
DXSUHUD WWDFKHQWUHPLHUF DG
VSpFLILFLWpV GHV SUp VHQWDQW Q WRXW SpGDJ LH OD GH O?HQVHPEOH
SL TXL pUD pQLVWH FDGUH GX GXR FH ?H VW D HW D GLHX[ OHV
GLYLQL WpV X[ RQFHUQHTXH QH TXL OLVWHJpQpU SOXV FDGU 8Q
TXH GH FWLRQV IRQ HV OXL FH HVW XL ILTXH VSpFL FDGUH 8Q
XWLOLVHQW
RXFKHV HX[ HV TXH FDGUH GHX pOLPLWDQW HQ pJ RFLDWLRQ FHWWH GDQV
&HV DXWHXUV pFLVHQW SU pJDOHPH QW OHV PDQLqUH V GRQW O?KRPPH SHXW
6XSUrYR ID PHF?HVWOH PHX JHGHVGLHX[
GLHX[ V GH WHQWUp VHQ QRXV DQRQ PHV UV DXWHX FHV SRXUTXRL 9RLOj
HV HW PrPHV X[ GLHX[ OHV VRQW DWLRQ FL FHWWH GH RXWLOV
XVVLDYHFOHVKRPPHV PDLVD QpJ FLDWLRQDYHFOHVGLHX
H QpFHVVDLU XQH F?H VW SHUPDQ QWH pJ LDWLRQ XQH QpJ FLDWLRQ
XQH VW YLYUH ELHQ VRQ EkWLU GH ?REOLJ DWLRQ Up VXOWH TXL FRPEDW
SpG OD GH SURSRV OH ?H VW H O?DXWU W O?XQ IRUU PH ID XW LO G?R
0DLV OH ELHQYLYUH H SHXW rWUH TXH H VRQ ID LW W FHOXL D FLpWp VR
LVVDQFH VD H FRQWLQJHQWH HVW TXL YLH H YL OD SRVVqGH O FDU
YLYUH ELHQ H SRXU RPEDWWUH GRLW LO YLYUH HQ EL VRQ FRQVWUXLUH VH GRLW
ORUV O?KRPPH GH LVWHQFH O?H[ LPSRVp RX SUp UPLQp GpW FRPPH
RQ rWUH HXW ULHQ TXH HQW SRV WqPH GX FRQFHSWHXUV OHV TXH
?H LV WHQF H O?H GH O?LQGpWHU PLQDWLRQ H GLU VHPEOH HOOH DEVROXH
VRLW O?DQJ VRXV TXHO Q OH FRQVLGqUH XQH LGpH XH QRXV SR
YRGRXQ OH GDQ H DV GH H LGp XQH D TX?LO QRWHU GH RQYLHQWRPPH XQH VRUWH
X
RQW KXLW
KLTX
S
W LO
OH
LUQRXUUFSSDUDvWJVRQWSDUFpHODVVXUHUjJDWFjUTXRLDLGHUUG?HVWV{OHLHUVRQSDUDTXRWLGLHQQRXVjpH3HXMHDHVYLYUHVSRXUJpLFGLYLQLWpVPDvWODHRHLOOHVVHQWLHOOHVTX?HFSRVRFRXVHJHSOHDV/JG\DXWHOOHRJU\LIQHGLVSDVVXUODTXHHOOHLOLOYLWGYRLOjDSRGLFWLTXHVpUQHG&VTXLOHV&UHGHpSpGJJFDUHD\VFQRWUHFHLVVHQW\OOHVHVQVQRXV\KRPPHVROHVYLQHUpSRFHVEHG&DO/DULWXHODHHMpDFLRHSGXXRLQ[HVWXRQqVVHVODDH\LPVWH
HWOHDXMRXUOHMRXU ULUVRQHVSULW QRXU
USV FR VRQ
XUH FW VWUX HOOH ULWXHO GX FHOOH HVW H FK RX HPLqU SU D WUDQVSDUHH QW
LQYLVLE FRXFKH OD GH SUpVHQFH OD pFHOH GH SHUPHWWHQW QRXV TXL
KH GX ULWXHO TX?D II OHXUHQW OHV OpPHQWV PEROHV QWVDSSDU GDQV OD FRXF
FHV GH QLYHD X DX SUp FLVpPHQW &?H VW RPPXQV VRQW OHXU TXL PEROHV
GHV D LO QYLVLEOH YRLUH WUDQVSDUHH QW VW O?XQH GRQW UH O?HQFDG QW
TXLXFKHV HQWUHOXLHWOHVGHX[FR Oj ?KRPPHH FHQWUHPDLV VWGRQFOH
SpUD WLI GH WUDLUH
VRQW SRQVHV OHV GRQW RQWRORJ LTXHV HVWLRQV TX GHV HVSqFH
TXH HVWLRQV TX OHV VXU LRQV IOH[ OHV JDOHPHQW FHQWUH RQ HOOH
H LTX SpGDJ ?XYUH Q PLVH OD Q?HVHXOHPHQW VWSDVKDXW SOXV TXHVWLRQ
GRQ KH FRX H VHFRQ LOOHXUV DU RXEOLpH GDJ H SDUOH
SRXUT YRLOj H UH DSS QW PRLQV GHYHQXH HVW SRXUVXLYLH ILQ OD TXH
ULWXHO GX HPSULVH O? FDV VRQ GDQV PDLV OH FHWWH j FHSWLRQ H[
GRQF DLW QH XQ YRGR OH O?KRPPH DLUH I GH DJ V? LW TX?LO D FHO HQ
SKLORVRS RX X[ HOLJ VWqPH WRXW GH SURSUH OH HVW SpGDJ LTXH
ILQDOLWp /D RUSXV OH GDQV UH OHYH U XYRQV SR QRXV TXH ORJ LTXHV
OpPHQWV XOV GHV VH OD VXU WHOV FRPPH FRQVLGpUH U OHV HII FWLYHPHQW
XW RQ TXRL HQ UpFLVH MH YRGRX OH RXEOLpH H SpGDJRJL 8QH YROXPH
HU SUH PL XQ 'D QV HVVHQWLHOOH IRQF WLRQ OHXU VLWXH VH TXH QLYHD X FH
TXH ?H VWj
H WHUUH SHXSOH QL Q?RQW TXL GLHX[ HV VRQW FH VRPPH (Q
SHXSOHXQHVRFLpWpXQH DFHRXVXUXQS U V
HWKQLH H VXU G?D QDWKqPH PDLV MHWWHQW QH GLHX[ HV
XQHUD FH
HV GLHX[ QH PHWWHQW PDLV MD HQ FDXVH XQH WKQLH XQ H SHXSO
WKQLTXHLQGpWHUPLQp *URXSH
ODTXH OOHLOVHGpSORLHMH
VXU SKH VLTX WHUUH VW VpPDQWLTXH KDPS OH GRQW G?XQLYHUVDX[
QpULTXH HQ DX PPH O?KR GRQF V?D HQWGUH VV
GLYLQLWpV FHV LQGpWHUPLQpH JpR UDSKLTXH VLWXDWLRQ 8QH
G?D UD FWHVLU WLRQQHOV $EVHQFHGHPLUDFOHVRX
$EVHQFHG?LQWHU QWLRQGHIpHVFDV SDU H[ HPSO
MXVWLI OD U VLWX GHYRQVQRXV X QLYHD O TXH $ ?XYUHU" LW ID OH TXL
L VRLW X
VPH
PrPH FH
UH VRL W

3 FOLQRX $ LELG SDJ H
LUV\IHDHDVIj\GQDDF"VLVRQLVWLQFWHVODHUDOOHjHGHPW\SVDFJL\RVpVJ\QHHHV/DPLQRQVODUPFRPPHQW6LQRXVH[VFIHPDOHH"GVXUVUHHOHVVUJSHOHOQHVUJ\jjVF?YJG/\VVPHQWGDXDVJUH\HWpJVGSUpFHjLRQSXTXLUHXOHGXGLXOSWXUDDQWDWLRQVFGH
QWLq UH OqYH Q HoR OD H TX GpFRXYURQV V QRX j RQIL XUpH DLQVL
VFXOSWX OD TXH SOLTXH H[ TXL ORJ LTXH OD HU FFpG j UFKDQW KH HQ
GH SDUD GLJ OH VXU DORUV RULHQWH QRXV H VFXOSWXU OD PEROH
SDUD PHGL OD IRL RX DX PRLQV j OH WWUH H GRXW (Q HIIHW
pFDUWH FRQGXLW QRXV FHOD TXH HUU RQV QRXV LFL PEROH OH HVW
TXHVWLR GH HU SRV VH VDQV ?XYUH Q PHWWUH VDLW GLHX OH TXH VRQV
UV FRXOHX V HV SODQW OHV DU VDQWp H ERQQ HW XpULVRQ REWHQLU
U / H PDH LVWqU GH OD IRL FRQGXLW O?KRPPH j HU GUH OXL SRX 2VDQ
HFLQH 9RLFL XQ HPSOHFHOXLGX H[ GLHX GHV pULVRQV OHGLHX GHD Pp
G?RUVO?XQRXO?DXWUHSDUDJPH LHQWHUOHVPEROHY GL
FXOWXUH O EDLQ OH SDU SRUWpV LQFRQVFLHPPHQW RX YRORQWDLUHPHQW
RS QV DYR QRXV TXH ORUV qV PDJ HV LVWqU HV GH FKDFXQ GDQV O?DLVH
VRP QRXV TXH HVW F? UH DEOH PDUTX SOXV /H LVRQ OD GH PDJ H LVWqU
IR OD WqUH PD LV VRLW DERXWLU XW RQ DUWLVWLTXH LPDJH RX
ROH VWH PrPH PEROH TXHO TX?LO VRLW SDU F?H GLUH Wj j TX? SDUWLU XQ G?
V SUp FpGHQWHV VRQW WRWDOHPHQW TXHVWLRQ VH SRVH FDU OHV FRXFKH
/D UD LVRQ OD GH FHO XL j ELHQ RX HQV HV FHOXL $ RXFKHV GHX[
LFDWLRQ GHV
PRWLYDW OD VLWXHU GHYRQVQRXV QLYHD X TXHO j PDLV F GRQ ?KRPPH
VFXOSWXUH LR SHERFVGHW
FHUWDL GH H OH F?H VW LJ HDQWVH[ WURS RX PpF KDQWV
VXSS VRQW TXL GLHX[ GHV FHX[ WURPSHU GHVWLQp HVW TXL DFW DUWHI
XQ PPH O?KR H ID FW UWH XVVL VH SHXW H PERO OH LQWHUPpGLDLUH
UD H LO HQV GH HXU SDVV D HU VH EROH OH QLYHD X VRQ $GpF FHWWH VW F?H RSSRVLWLRQ HQ PrPH XHO
OH
H VRLW
RX Q WRXW H WU LWp GLYLQ TX?LO XH LQYRT
VW F?H IRL
YRWU H DLWHU
GLHX[ VRQW GLVSRVLWLRQ LOV RQW OHXU H LJHQF FHUWHV PDLV LO V VRQW Oj
SRXU O?KRPPH &H TXL QH VLJ YDQW
p
W ?DJ LO LV
SRVVLEOH
JVL\PXJURVpSVU\OHHjH-GHVWLRQVRQFWLRQQHQWOYRLUVPEROHOjH&[ULIHLQHJHRUDXFGj)TGXLL,HUVLOVPHrJV\LVWqUHHJDpPQG-FDLFFGDYODOQFRDRPHWTJHSpRG?XQG\HEPrPHO\XIV[DHDDGHjJOHH?VWHHpFHRQWHQXWRHDGjSGXHVVRXVU1?O?KRPPHOQJ,OHHO[JVHLFUDHLVRQL/pHQDXGHHRXQHO/JLFGIGHOLEHUWpSJFODWRXWHDOD
Q GLPHQVLR VD DQV OHo OD j DOOH U SRXYRLU H WDS FKDTXH j SRXU
ULWXHO OH FDUW XVVL LFL ID XW O ?XYUH HQ GDJ LH OD GH
?LQYLWH j QRXYHDX VH SHQFKHU VXU OD GDJ LH DLV FHWWH IR
HOHIRUPHUj FHWWHOLEHUW IRQGD LOID PHQWDOHPHQWOLEUH XWHQF RU
O?KRPPHHVW FHOXL GH OD GLUHUD HOXLLVRQF?H VWGH OD SpGDJ FDU VL
YRGRXQ VWDQGDUG H YRXV SURSRVH H QRXV LQWpUH U VVH j O?DXWUH
OH HVW F? FXOWXHO X OLHX GRQQHU GH QW HOOH XOWXU ?D ERUG HVW TXL IRL
RQF XQH GRQF TXL V?LPSRVH DXVVL LHQ DX[ GLHX [ TX?D X[ KXP DLQV F?H VW
HW YLH D GH UqJ OH QH VW GLHX[ X[ V?D HU GUH VV TXH SRVH TXL W OREDOH
TXL IRL XQH PDLV IRL OD PDJ LVWqUH OH GDQV PrPH TXDQG VRPPHV
OHV H FRQVLGqUHTX RQ PPHQW RQVFL TX?LQF GLUH j YLHQW GHPDQGH&HOD
FRPPH ID DSSHO j XQ pFLDOLVWH GRQW F?H VW FWLRQ GH
VW PpGH FLQ XQ FKH] UH QGRQV QRXV QRXV G TXDQ FRPPH DFWHPHQW H[
VW QW DXFXQHP FRQGLWLRQQp SDU OD Up VXOWDW VXFFqV RX pFKHF Q?H
TXH HPEOH LO LU HQ ?
rJED HQ D HQ FUR\H] YRX V VDYRLU H LF KH VH ERNRQRQ OH QDWXUH
WRXWH H SUp VHQWHV pV GLIILFXOW GHV SRXU VRLW FH H TX RX DYHQLU VRQ SRXU
TXH H Up SRQV XQ DYRLU U SRX XpULVVHXU OH L DXVV HVW TXL ERNRQRQ
DX V?D HVVH GU RQ DQG TX HII W (Q V?D H GUH VV RQ ODTXH OOH j GLYLQLWp
HQ IRL D GH DUOHU YHX[ MH IRL OD GH HPD LVWqU GX SULPRUGLDOH UqJ OH
LO TX? XOLHUSDUWLF H FHFL D TXL ULWXDO VPH XQ PDLV VPHULWXDOL
F?H VW SULPH V?H IRL OD PD LVWqUH OH VHXO DWLTXH SU OD 'D QV
QRXVDSSHORQVYRGRXQ TXH HO RQFHSWX VWqPH
O?RULJ VRQW TXL FHX[ GH VVH VRXSOH WUDRUGLQDLUH H[ O? VLGH TXH
FHOD HQ VW ?D XWUH GH UD WLRQDOLWp OD H HUQH LQW LTXH OR OD DOWpUHU VDQV
FKDFXQ OH SDUWDJ j I DX O?DXWUH GH
QGpSHQGDPPHQW IRQF WLRQQHQW HW DELWHQW RK PDJ HV LVWqU X[ V
GH PD H qULVW GX FHOXL WUDQVOXFLGH GLUH SUpIqU MH TXH p FDFK
OH VXU II HW PRLQGUH OH SDV Q?D LQWHPSHVWLI PrPH HQYDKLVVDQW
LRQ RQQH[ TXL SOLTX H[ H TXH OH ULW
FHUH XU QL SDUWDJ QW OH PH ROH PE HVW WRWDOH LOV QH VRQW QL HQ RQF
PDJ LVWqUH V GHX[ OHV QWUH LRQ GpFRQQH OD TXH GRQF YR ] 9RXV
HQVRQVHLQ
HQVHPEOH HWOHYLYUH FLDO HVR URXS GHVDQWpPDLVGHFHOOHGXJ HOH URXS
HQFRU HUD ?KRPPH GHPHQWDOH SK VLTXHDQWp DYHF
ULHQ SOXV ?RQW FRQFOXVLRQV OHV TXH W UD LVRQ OD GH GRPDLQH GXGRXQ VW
VRQW
PDVTXH XU
SRVVLEOH
VW LQVL OD VXLWH
TXL GH LW ID VW XQH WLRQ LQWURGXF VW &?H
RQYLHU
GDQV OD LRQ UpJ GX RO IH GX %pQLQ 8Q LW ID O FXOWXUH TXL VXOWH GH
LTXH
QD *KD
6XG GX
GLW O OWXUH
48(/48(62,2166(59
/(7(5092'28

3 FOLQRX $ LELG
U[pQJDH%YDR(PPHQWLHVFUF\DY7VO$G[X%HH[[YHJDH\DpDL$4YDG\?H8QHHXWGVpHGDOMHVDPDLVJGHFRX\FHUSHHpJDU\TXHWHUDHDHUHp-DSH?WIIDGFH/HDGWDYFVJGJQUHSFFG?DHHODFHLHS\GELHQJSDJG?UpHHHGpDJ
HQ UL DYLV PRQ j TX? DUFH FKRL[ FH W DL SDQGXHV ODUJHPHQW
DXVVL ELHQ HQ IULTXH HQ TX? $PpULTXH WRXV OLHX[ R FHV UR HV QF VRQW
YDXGRX pFULYHQW XWHXUV GHV SOXSDUW OD FDU VRXYHQW SOXV OH V?REVHUYH
TX FH j WUDLUHPHQW RQ YRGRX RUWKRJ O? SKH SUpIp M?DL YROXPH
SUH PLHU OH 'D QV YRG WHUPH OH SRXU UHWHQXH L M? TXH O?RUWKRJ SKH
VXU H SRUW TXL SO LFD WLRQ XQH LFL V?LPSRVH SOLFDWLRQ H[ SUH PLqUH 8QH
OH KULVWLDQLVPHSDUH PS HVFKDWROR LTXHF F RPPHOH
YL XQH SDV Q?D TX?LO ORUV GqV V?D LW LO QW GR FRPSDJ DJ QRQQ H G?XQ
SHXSOHV TXL RQW OH YRGRX Q FRPPH RPSD QRQ URXWH FDU F?H VW
GHV FXOWXUH OD VHORQ KXPDLQ G?r WUH FRQFHSW OH UH U FRXYUL HXW TXH FH
H PLUH &?H VW FH IRQGH PHQW TXH H PH SURSRVH SORUHUG?H DYHF HQ SRLQW
GKqUH W YRORQWDLUHPHQ RX LQFRQVFLH TXHOOHV DX[ WRXWH XQH VRFLpWp
SDV RX YHQLU FRQVWDQW Q VRQW TXL HV KpULWp DOHXUV GH QRQ
DFFHSWp YHPHQW REMHF WL QFHVFUR GH ID LW IRQGH PHQW XQ VRXVWHQG
OLpV LQW LPHPHQW VRQW TXL YLH GH PRGH XQ HW SHQVpH GH PRGH XQ
VWqPHV GH DOHXUV HW HF G?D HV XWU QFHVUR XL GLW W FX
DYHF LQWHUDFWLRQV QRWDEOHV X LO FDV OHXU GDQV VL PrPH
PEOHV GX 1RUG &HQWUDOH HW G?$PpULTXH QV VHV V WURL VRXVHQVH
1RLUV HV pJ HDEO OL QRQ DUWLH XQH OHPHQW FHUQ RQ HOOH
SRSXODWLRQ DXVVL Q EL DX HQLQ TX?D X 7R R DX ULD 1L W TX?DX
SDQ YDVWH XQ RQFHUQH PSULVH FHWWH Up VXOWH TXL FXOWXHOOH
SU HUPHYRGRXQ OHW SDU XVGpVLJ HQRQRQV TXLHQGpFRXOHQWTX
LTXHV SUD GHV W QFHVUR GH HQVHPEOH G?XQ KRPPHV OHV VXUO?HPSULVH
TXL GRPLQH j SRUWHU XQ H DXWU UHJDUG XU OH ID LW HO FXOWXU VRFLR W UH OLJ LHX
YRXGUDLV MH H ODTXH OO SDU LRQ IOH[ XQH DUWLH VHFRQGH OD GRQF
GRX YR RXEOLpHSpGDJRJLH
LH GH OHo RQV FKRVHV H HoRQV RGRXQ /H
VL FRQVFLHQ FHV OHV GDQV H OHQW PrPH QDWLRQO?LPSU UH U DVVX G?H Q DILQ
LQWHPSRUHOV FRPPH FHOD VH GRLW HW TXL RQW OH ID LW HOLJ LHX[ SR
TXL SUp V FHSW URSRVp V VRQW TXL pFHSWHV SU GHV O?XQLYHUVD OLVPH
YR GX SULQFLSDOH ULVWLTXH DFWp FDU OD IIHW HQ FDU XQLYHUVHOOHLO LW V?DJ GH WU QVFULUH XQ VRQ
QW LW
O?LQYLVLEOH
/(7(50
OHV LRQV OLJ UH LF LQHV DIU j O?XQLYHUVLWp GH DLQW /RXLV DX pQpJ
?pFULUH
?LQWRQDWLRQ
FULUH GDQV H YROXPH
LI
$ ,1('( 25,*
8QH

WWSK ZZZXVHH LFDLQ H[SRVLWLRRUJ\RQ DUF LY KW O" OD W HGLW LG
WWSZZZK HHXV RGRXFRPY
KDHrOVSpGDJRJLHQVPDrSUHIODHG?PRvQH2DHRGRXWPFQJJHHDH\U\HWFURXYVUHJMX,QSDHUYLVLEOHD)R(pHJHGXUHHWHHDHRXEOLpHSRUXWLRQIPD)FX\UVDXQD[pVWp&HOGDVFOLSTURULRQDHWH[GHVYHGXSjQDH)2H/Rj/\DWOfUPDUTXDJVQGQGGGFSGW6U6HYDSVLFDSOHFHHFX-HFUo-[OQJpQWHO-pGHYRGRXSOHDV
HDOpO DLVLPHMHO? FRP 2UVWSUDWLTXp $ID JUDID RX SKLTXH
O?DL WRXWH GDQV GLYLQDWRLU DUW RPPH FRQVLGpUp HVW TXL VWqPH
HQ FRPPH QH SDWULPRL FXOWXUH HO LPPDWpUL GH O?KXPDQLWp ?H
VFR ULW O?LQVF IRQF WLRQ FHOOH TXL OXL VW HFRQQXH FHOOH SRXU TXHOOH O?8QH
VD H pH DU pS rWUH XW H GLHX GX ULJ O?R LQH TXH U VDYRL j DII LUPp
GpMj M?DL TXH FH GLUH TXH SHX H
SDU OD j OOp LQWHUSH pWp M?DL OHTXH O U VX SRLQW DXWUH XQ Oj &?H VW
VRXKDLWDEOH
S LWp GDQ OH SURSRV PH SRXUVXLV FHSHQGDQW XQH FHUWDLQH KRPR
?REMHFW j UDUW SSR U H FRQGDLU VH VW FHFL 7RXW UpJ LRQ OD GDQV
UOpHVSD WRQV FRPPH OH VRQ W OOHV TXL VRQ SHUF HSWLEOH GDQV XQH JXH ODQ
PHQWIRU WUqV QDVLOODUG VRQ XQ WUDKLW TXL ILQDO
W XQ HF YRGRXQ G?p FRQFHUQp V ORFXWHXUV GHV
RXWXPHV GRQF pFLGp SRXU rWUH DOHPHQW WRW HQ UPLWp RQIR HF DY OHV XV HW
HV ?D L TXH O?RQ RLWSHU TXDQG RQ QWHQG OD LDWLRQ SURQRQ GHV DXWRFKWRQ
GH V?D VVDQW YUD L OH GDQV WDLW TX ?LO FRQYHQLU G? M?DL PRW
SURQRQoDL %pQLQ D VFRQFHUQ XSOHV OHV GRQW IDoRQ OD DXVVL
PRL UDKL DYRLU TXRL SRXU ORUV pWRUTXp P?D LO PDLV DV RQWHVWD QH
LUH HW TX?LO YRGRX MH OXL L IRXU QL OHV SOLFDWLRQV H[ TXH YRXV YHQH] GH
O?XQH GHV HUVRQQH TXL RXOHYD LHQW OH UREOqPH PD qUH PDQL
HVW DO
HL SURIHVVHXU DOq q O?KRPPH GH .RXWL SRORJ DQWKUR XH TXL HQV
92'281
XUJ HWGH6WUD VER
SRVLWLRQ RQ SRXU /\ GH FDLQ DIU PXVpHV
HPSOH H[ SDU FDV OH HVW &? YDXGRX LWXUHpFU O? H GRXEOX HQ DMRXWH
RQ SDUI RLV VL PH SOXV SHX XQ Up QG H YRGRX H O?pFULWXUH TXH
VLJ QDOH H OLJ QH PrPH OD VXU UH VWHU j FRQWLQXHUD L MH TXH DXVVL DII U LUPH
pFLV HWWH HUDSSRUW YRXGUDLV MH TXH HX SRXU GRQF HVW F? SDUW
P?HQ TXL XUV OHF UV SOXVLHX GH DWWHQWLRQ O? HWHQX FKRL[ 0RQ
TX?LO FH W PRW OH SURYLHQW G?R JXH ODQ OD GH ORFXWHXUV DX[
G? HVW L TX HFW UH VS GH PLQLPXP OH WUH LW SDU PH OHWWUH OD U VRQ
HHQ SUREOqPH XFXQ SRVDLW QH TXL
PHVXUH R MXVWLILH O?XVDJ HV OHWWUHV $8 SRXU OH YRFDEOH GDQV ODVH SUp GX HV SDJ TXHOTX HV RQVDFUH RXYU H DJ QW
VRQW OV
D
XQ GXDOLVPH LHX[ OLJ UH XVVL PDLV TXL VpSDUH QHWWHPHQW OH GLYL
O
Q
G
QRXUULU VRQ VSULW V
MHGGO/DLSpDjFDGHpJXpFHWWHHD-SFJHGXH\HH\ODDSGF?GD\JGLVWULEXWLRQVL\OXPLqUHVDVRQDXQVGHVHD-)XDD\6LNLG\QGGHHXDWY\JVVO?DUWFGLYLQDWRLUH,FHKLQRLVTX?HVWVOHR<JLH.LQ,JGHSU-Vp[D\W)KHH/DVD\UOR)WXGHHG?pQWDVWDD\HVGHQODV\HGHVGDQ\WDDXFOUXO\GVFHWJOHHVLHV)
QDQW Q ID LW O?RQW V HQVHLQHPHQW ULWDEOH OH VLWXH VH R QLYHD OH
TX?RQ WWHLQW O?RQW ID LW Q VH pEDUU QW VVD GH WRXW FH TXL HVW IOX HU VXS GqV
DSSHOOH M? H TX FH WLWXH FRQV TXL H O?KRPPH GH
RJDWLRQV LQWHUU OHV WRXWHV j Up SRQVHV OHXUV RVHU SURS SRXU GpWRXUQpH YRLH
XQH H VXLYU GH FKRLVL RQW UV FRQFHSWHX OHV TXH WRXW VVXV SDUG PRQWUH U
YRXGUDLV ULWXHOV FWV DVSH VHV V UWp pFD IRLV XQH HSWXHOOHRQF pOp DQF
YRGR GX VVH ULFK OD PRQWUH U YRXGUDLV GLYLQDWRLUH UW DVSHFW
VRQ H GHOj )D GH VWqPH GX O
UVD XQLYHOLWp SOXW{W PRQWUH YRXGUDLV
WLWDLUHH FHWWH WXGH VXUWRXW MH QH PH VLWXH SDV GDQV XQH WLTXH RS LGHQ
HU ERUG PR U UPDWLRQQLOHV HQVSRXODIR ?D LQL Q UFHTXHMHpJDOHPHQWSD
PDLV PLHQQH HVW TXL O?RSWLTXH GDQV SHUWLQHQFH VD SRXU PDLV
FRQGDLUH QRQHQ QW TXH VXMH PRQ SURMHW FH SRLQW L HVWXVV VH
7RXWHIRLV QRLV FKL H VWqP OH DYHF VRQDUD RPS DU SDUWLFXOLHU
GLYLQDWRLUH O?DUW GH JUD SKLTXH
WLO VHPEOH PH V?H PLQHU HXW H O?RUL LQH GH TXHVWLRQ
WULJ LQJ PPHVSRXUOH<L.
SpUDWLRQ HQ WULJ HV UD PP H QRPEUH OH LQGLUH FWHPHQW HW YRGRXQ
GX D GLHX OH SRXU G? HV IL[ ILJ UH V GH QRPEUH OH GLUHFWHPHQW
QRPEUH PrPH j DERXWLW TXL DWLRQ VWUXFWXU XQH VWqPHV
X[ GH V GH VLPLODLUH WXUDWLRQ VWUXF XQH XYRQV UH WUR QRXV TXH ID LW TXL
UWLFXODWLRQ G
SRLQW OH VW HO TX VDYRLU GH DORUV HVW TXHVWLRQ OD O?KXPDLQ
VXU H SRV YRGRXQ H TXH DORUV KXPDLQ LU ?DJ GDQV 7DR GX WUDGXFWLRQ
HVW TX?LO HOD HQ SXU UH OLJ LHX[ PRQLVPH GX VXU H UH SRV .LQJ <L
HII (Q ILUPp DI DLUHPHQW FO JUD O LQWp PH GXDOLV XQ DYRQV QRXV
HWqPHG HV HGDQVO DORUVTXPRQLVPH pHVWOH SUp OHOH<L.LQVXSSRV
Q FDV IRQGD PHQWDOHPHQW TXDQW j OHXU p SUp RV VXSS WXHOFRQFHS FDU DQV
H FRQWU SDU GLIIqUH VWqPHV X[ V pFLVLRQ OD j G?D LGH
W HV GLGDF WLTX FWLRQV IRQ OHXUV EDVpHV VRQW HOV OHVTX VXU SUp FHSWHV GH
WHQFHV W UH SUp QWDWLRQV HV JUD SKLTX XVVL ELHQ TXH SDU OHV FRUSXV GH VHQ
OHXU U SRX HQXHV UH VRQW TXL EDVH GH QV RSWLR OHV U SURF KHV
SRXU SURSRVHU XQ HUo DS RPSDUDWLI HV HX[ PHV VWq (Q HII W
VLPLODULWp TXL MXVWLILH TXH MH
H XQ HVVH LQWpU QRXV TXL )D GH VWqPH GX SURF SDUWLFXOLqUH PHQW
HVW GHUQLHU &H
TXH DLQVL YDULDQWHV V VH W PDOJ DFKH OH GX FHOXL j VLPLODLUHV
GLYLQDWRLUH WqPHV XWUHV LO PDLV pHQQ HXURS DQFLH RP
UOp H OD GX VWqPH H )D ?D YDLV FL FHX[ FHUWDLQV VRQW WUqV SURF KH
QDWLRQ GHSXLV GHV PLOOpQDLUHV SDUPL PRQGH FRQQDvW GHV PHV VWq GH GLYL/?81(6&2
VWqPH GH GLYLQDWLRQ ID
LD
EUH
PR ORQ PDLV GLYLQDWRLUH UW WLWUH VRLW OH LQVFULSWLRQ O
TXH FH
HVW L
VWUXFWXUDWLRQ GH UW GH SHQVHU
VH OLYUH QW
WUDLWH XL
PRQ PDLV


DOpJH / GHVHUDDQDO pHH GpWDLODXFKDS LWUH SDJHHWV
SRLODX UGHUQ O?DQFLHQ VXU pR FLH PDQ /D HVFODYHV GHV WH QH SDJ LWLRQ
WLWXWG?,Q WKQOR LH3DULV , pG LWLRQ
$$G1/RQVHHVG\G0E,H)DPHDHJJ%H%HDDHJQDQRXVOHWHVOQUHJDFVXHVYHLHXrHHF(GQ&VLJD\DQSHDQOD{WURXYF\F
FJFHUUjVLQXGTHWH\GFHLSHWHQLUJV/W/SjHFHHQJFMLQJX[PWJODURSRVHXRV
[SHPTXLHGHHVRQFUWHSOXV)LPSRUWDQWjO?KRPPHFHQ?HD%UOTQG?D
GHSWHVUHVWORLQDSSRGOHTXLVWOjTXHPRQDYLVDHJDXVVLHSDX61LHJHULDHTXHGXV\GVWqPHU)rDUGF
HVW
HW GLHX GX pFLVLRQ FHWW H QWU UD vW DSSD TXL DGLFWLRQFRQWU OD GH FRPSWH
DV ?H VW D FHO j DGKpUH U RU WKROR LTXH YRLUH UH OLJ LHX[
HPHQW 8QH WHOOH FRQFOXVLRQ SHXW VH H RPSUHQGU G?XQ W SRLQ GH YXH XQLTX
DQFH RQQDLVV XQH LQYL WHU HW VRXYHQLU XQ SHUSp HU SRXU PpPRULDO
XQ HVW F SXEOL GRPDLQH OH GDQV SDUWRXW YRLW RQ TX? pUH WLRQ Q HW YLVLEOH
VH[OH F DYH D X GLH OHUH pVHQWH SU TXL DLUH VWDWX OD UPH G?D (Q XWUH
TXHODFKRVHGHVIHYpVDSODFHDWURX PPHV
rJED JUkF ?H VW YR\DQW OH HQ GLVHQW VH ?LOV TX DILQ GHKRUV RUJDQH
KRPPHV TXL VRQW SRXU ULHQ GDQV WRXW FHOD ODLVVHUDL GpVRU
PRW VRXIIOHU HQ VDQV VDFULILFH OH IDLW L TXL PRL F?H VW &RPPH
L UOH FRQFOXVLRQ TXL HVW FHOOH HV ERNRQRQ HVW/ j F? rJ VDYRL ED TX
GRQQH 0DXSRLO DUG UQ Ip PLQLQ VH[ GX O?HPSODFHPHQW GH
(Q YRLFL XQ HPSOH H[ (Q UH ODWDQW OD YLVH GX VLJ D0pGML
LQYLVLEOHDXSUH PLHUD ER YLVLEOHTXHGDQVVDSD TXLVHPEOH UWLH
HXFWXU VWU VD GDQV ELHQ DXVVL YRGRXQ GX PEOH HQVH O? VXU SRUWp WUH GRLW
UH DX TXDQW FKRL[ XQ VXSSRVH REMHF WLI &HW PRQWUH U GH SURSRVH
V SULQFLSHV GH YLH TXH OH SUp VH &
HVW FHWWHFRQFHSWXDOLVDWLRQ GH
DYHF YLH GH SULQFLSHV GHV LRQ QFHSWXDOLVDW FR FRPPH VRXVWHQG
TXH UHQGV FRPS MH HW QLWLDWLYH O
GH UD YL VXLV MH QGX HQW LHQ SURXYHU
j UH VWH FHOD PDLV WUrPH H[ pSXUD WLRQ VRQ W QH RUL VRQ WURXYH VWqPH
OH H RUH HULD DX H rWU SHXW &?H VW WUrPH H[ j SRXVVp ULWXHO
QR UD QG SOXV OH WURXYRQV QRXV TXH D\ FH DQV II HW HQ &?H VW
1L GX WLWUH DX SURF ODPp RU LQHOOHPHQW O?KXPDQLWp
H LPPDWpULHO FXOWXUH O SDWULPRLQH GX LYH SUp QWDW OLVWH OD VXU
LQVFULW HVW )D GLHX GX QRP XWUH
G?D OOHU KHU KHU ?H VW U DOO YHUV FHV IRQGDDX[ PHQW TXH MH YRXV
VXIIL TX?LO IRQGDPHQWDX[ OHV p pFRUQ DV Q?D SUD WLTXH GH VLqFOHV GHV
pPDO FHWWH XEpUD QFH GX ULWXHO TXL FRPSWH GH O?KRPPH HQ DFWH G?RXQH
OH LW ID
WUH ERNRQRQ ULVVHXU OH FKH] W V UEH V
et
PPHVS UD DU PSOH
WRXWHH[FOH[HG3SRDUFJHF[HDLQHVVDHVJQGHKHQQHGDOIjJDJrDHUXHGpXJREVHUYDOVRQLQLWLDOHH\UDHQ?QQOHSSVGX3S3GHVDHSRVLWLRQFLHHJLFDSTD/DHGUHLHDRJJ
UH DJ 4XLYRQWVHUYLUjFRQVWUXL GHVWpWU
3UH GH) QRQVSDUH DSKqPHVLQLWLDX[ PSOHOHV
UFUH FWTXDQWjVHVSDUROHVRQVSHVWHUFL
WWHQWLI j VHV WHV SODQ HW VH
H GU UH H GRLW RQ DQG TX URGLJ pH HVW TXL H JDU Q PLVH OD PpPRLUH
HQ DUGU GH DXVVL RQGLWLRQ $ WWHQWLI G?r WUH FRQGLWLRQ j IRQGD PHQWDO
HVW XL FH YHUV pH G?HQWU SRUWH H DXVVL PDLV G?KD ELOOD VHUYLU SRXU
QoX FR HVW DSSDUH QW HVW TXL FH TXH FRPSUHQG RQ ORUV 'q V SpGDJ LH
pFRXOH GRQW EDVH VLWXH H TXH II HW HQ QLYHDX FH j &?H YRGRXQ VW
LWXHO WRXW WUDYHUV j FHWUDQVSDUH DU YUH pFRX VH TXL FH VFUXWHU
SOXW{W DLV GLU MH LEOH LQYLV FHW XQLTXHPHQW HU VFUXW GH HVW SULV SDUWL &H
81 5,6 $57,
HQRXVYHUUHQGpWDLO TX RQV WUDQVSDUH?H HF VWF
SDU vW DSSDUD TXL H GH LUH RQWUD DX VDLV LU VH PDLV UH OLJ LHX[
SULYLOpJ U V ID XW H LO FHOD LUH RXU SpG OD YHUV
H LRQ ODUpIO W TXL WHU GRLW pRULHQ WRXW DII OHXUH HVW F? LFWLRQODFRQWUDG
TX SRLQWH OD LFL VW VH [H VRQ SRVHU H[ 9RXORLU GpSDUW H SRLQW OH DYHF
FWLRQ GL RQWUD DXFXQH DLW XU LO Oj HW HPSOH H[ SDU XHOOH H[ ID YHXU
UpFRPSHQVH QH ?D XWRULVH GH rWUH SX DLW XU GLHX GX FRQFOXVLRQ
pOpPHQWV GLIIpUH QWV FHV QWUH DFWLRQVLQWHU GHV FRPSWH WHQLU
DV VW F?H HQILQ qQH VF Q QWUpH OHXU GH ?RU H GU H HW LQWHUYH QDQWV
GHV O?KLVWR LUH GH HPHQW GpURXO GX FRPSWH WHQLU DV QH &?H VW OpJH QGH OD
O?RUL j HVW TXL LQLWLDOH WLRQ ou
RSpUD PPHVWpWU DJ OHV QG UH UH
H


Ou OuOu
V?pFUQSDUWLUQHVH/OWVH\DHQjSULVQWVLJJ6RLWVR?JE?S?E?/UGDOTXLUJPPHVHUDOHVWpWUDJJGHX[GHVFrH
HPSOHV H[
URLWHjFKHG DX OHFWXUHGHGLVSRVLWLRQVVXLYDQWHV
VHORQ REWLHQW RQ FRQVWUXF WLRQ SDU VXLYDQW
VW WpWUDJ GRXEOH UD PPH OH REWHQLU SRXU KDSLWU DX YHUU RQV
H QRXV G?LQVFULSWLRQ GHV DSKqPHV GH DVH QGDQW OD PDQLSXODWLRQ TX
H ?RU O?RSpUD RQ WL GH DVH GH OpPHQW HVW TXL )D GH VLJQH
XQ GRQ QHU SRXU GHX[ SDU VVRFLpV WUH GRLYHQW WpWUD UD PPHV OHV $LQVL
HFL pRPDQ GH qPHV VW DXWUHV G? j DLUHPHQW RQWU GRXEODQW OHV TX?H Q
LRQQHO V FRQFHSWHXUV RQW VL FKRL GH HFRPPH
Mâle
Femelle
EWHQRQV

Femelle
DTX QH VLJ
RQVWUXL UH



?SFGXS?[H?VUHFRPELQDLVRQDH?IHIGU8FSVRLWDSUq?JFRD?H/GHHQQKHV
?
?
SRXUH pOpPHQWVQUHFRPELQHUOHV
GpF OH GH SRVVLELOLWp OD HVW V SDUWLH HX FHV DYHF RQoX DLQVL
)D H VLJ QH GX ULpWpSURS FRQFH SWHXUV GHV O?HVSULW GDQV Ip PLQLQ
HW PDVFXOLQ GX OH DE DU LQVpS O?HQVHPEOH PH FRP YLH OD UH SUp QWH
TXH VLJLHU QLI YRXGUDLW TXL FH OH PHO SDUWLH OD SRXU ? HW
? ? ? HW PkOH UWLH OD SRXU HW VDYRLU j GRQF DUWLHV 'H X[
? ?
? ?
0kOH
(QXWLOLVDQWO?RUXVQRXVR GUH GHVWUDLWVFLGHVV G?LQVFULSWLRQ
LQGLTXpFLGHVVRXV
PHOOH WUH O?DX W PkOH SRODULWp GH HVW TXL XQH DUWLHV GHX[
FRPSRUWH FWD PPH HVLJ KDTXH TXH SRVHQW UV FHSWHX FRQ VV
XWUH
UH
G
YQ,H,DDUT7QJUJGLHL\DJRDp??H)?H\HKVHUVLPQVSF\GHHHHFH9GFHP)UJSRXUHOHFVHFRQGWpWUDJUDHPPHFHTXLDGRQQHVHSRXUO?RFW\DJOUDPPHFUHDFVRQVWLWXpJSHDQ\VVHPHGLOXJUGRFGJXUHDG
XFKDSLWU9 GpYHORSSHQRXVHQSDUOHURQVD
OPXG OH TXH FOpV WURLV GHV SULQFLSH OH QLILp VL DSKLTXHPHQW
UH WURXYRQV QRXV HPSOH H[ FHW 'D QV PR Q FRPPH SpGDJ LH OD
HU OHY HXYHQW QH PRPHQWV HX[ FHV TXH GLVDLW QRXV RQ VL FRPPH
HVWF? KXPDLQ O?DJ LU IRQGDQWDOHPHQW DV OqYH QW QH LVWHQFH O?H[
H PRPHQWV HX[ FHV TXH VDLW GL QRXV RQ HVVL G?D XWUHV HQ
UH FRPELQHU GH OD YLH <p NX VW FRPPH VL SDU O?LPSRVVLELO LWp GH OHV
VRUWLH OD H O?DXWU W *Er YLH OD QV GD O?HQWUpH O?XQ PEROLVHQWVLJ QHV
TXDW FHV GH 'H X[ LW DSS pFK QRXV PEROLTXH OHXU GH GpSORLHPHQW
FRPPH QFKDQJpV ODLVVH RPELQDLVRQ UH GH FHSWLRQO?H[ j
VLJ QHV V OH WRXV SRXU YUD L HVW HOD TXH KDSLWUH DX YHUU RQV 1RXV YLH
UH FRPELQDLVRQ QLILHVL HQWUH XWUH V ?XQH TX YLH ERXFKH VXU
OD EROH XQ HVW H VWqP GX TXH R PHVXUH
OD DQV ' SRODULWpV X[ OHV XVVL OXL SUp VHQWH TXL PDLV SDUWLV VRPPHV
QRX GRQW FHOXL GH Ip QW GLI WRWDOHPHQW DPPH WD XQ REWLHQW 2Q
PSOH QRWUHH[
G
SRXU OH SUH PLHU PH WpWUDJUD GX VLJ QH W VHORQ 0 ? ?
0 Q VHOR ID LW VH HFRPELQDLVRQ FWLRQ GpFRQVWUX OD $LQVLGH
$/(6+(5$%$(7)/(* ,( ('$* 876'(/$3
LU
D
LqU SDUWLH p FRUU GH TX OTX
OV V/H VRQW
:ROL 'L /RVR Oq :q $EOD $NOD XGD 6D D XNSr7XU 7XOD
ILOV V ILOV /HV
VRQW
DEGJHHjQGHURLWVGVFXY)QHHOFUGDFWXUHLHQJPRH.HHQVSpGDJODGHVILOVRK*SRXUSDGHGpSORLHPHQWHJLRSGVLJQHVOSH\VXHV<GRS/V\LJPHYUTXLWIQHJXEOHVKR)HJpqQHHSOHDPD)RGHQJGQSUHpJpLHVGUGHVILOV*GD[HHHHXXFV\HHUGMLVRQWDXVVLH2RX/GMLrD0PSUH)PXLWLFLHHDODPpHJDH,ROVXLYHQWGHFDDGDD)FHUFDHErFH/-JHHS\HHX-UUp
XHOHV &HTXLYHXWGLUHT GH)D
VLJQHV GHV FHV VHXOV GHV VXV QRPV OHV GHX[ SDU
V?REWLHQQH QW HQ GR XEODQW RX HQ VVRFLDQW /qWq &r W
*Er HN GLVDQW TXH D D ILOV L TX RQW FKDFXQ ILOV
PH SUL O?H[ 2Q H HV VL H RPEUH OH SRUWH LPSRUWDQWH
H PDUTX ?8QH 0pGML V?p FULUH HXW 0HGML PrPH 'H
TXL SDJ V OHV QV FFRUGp V SDV GRQF VHURQW QH V LO LQYDULDQWV
GHV RPPH NRQRQ ER W GRX RX G? WHUPHV OHV RQVLGpUp ?D L
XWLOHPDLVFHQ?HGLVSHQVDEOH VWSDVLQ
DYHU V? HXW HFWXUH VD 9RGRXQ GX O?DLUH V DQ VRQW TXL RX YDOHXUV
FHV VXU LVWHQFH H[ XU HQW DQLV TXL HXSOHV HV FXOWXUH OD GH UD
M? pYRTXH OH FDGUH 8QH DJRJLH SpG RXEOLpH OH YRGRX LPSHUI HFWLRQV
OD GH SURSRVO?D DQW DQQH[
M?DLUHSURG $WRXWHVILQVXWLOHV FRQFHUQp VSHXSOHV SHQVpHGV
GH IRQGD PHQWDX[ OHV IRU PHQW TXL FHX[ HQW pJDOHP PDLV SpGDJ LH
SDU ?XYUH Q PLV VRQW TXL HSWV FRQF GHV pSORLHPHQW DX HQVXLWH
VXU D DSLWUHF ,, XQ H DXWU VXU KDSLWUH ,, 1R XV URQV SDVVH
SRVLWLRQQHPHQWGHVSURWDJ RQLVWHVXQF KDSLWU XQSUHPLHUF GHUKDSLWU
D O?DSSURF SpGDJ H LTX SOLFLWHPHQW H[ GpSOR H YRXV SURSRVH
YR ODLVVHU SRXU SOD RQGVH DX WURXYHU VH IRLV FHWWH TXL
ULWXHO QVXQ ?XYUHG jO? YRLU OORQVOHV 1RXVD DVVXPHQWO?H PHQW QVHL
TXL VHXOV VLWRWDOLWp TX GX SURSRV YD SRUWHU VXU OHV GLHX[ D HW rJ
Up Uj IL ULJ SLWDXOHFHO?DQDOUVDODFULXUG WHXQVVD
WHPS GHV pQDJ HU UPHW PH HOOH XUV DLOOH 3DU SURSRV PRQ GH
VWUX OD PLHX[ UU VSRQG IRU &HWWH PRPHQWV SDU ULGH DVVH]
rWU W TXL HVVDL UPH IR OD j SUpIp EOH H VHPEO PH D FHO GLDORJ XH
IRU XQH YLOpJ SUL Lp DL M? PLHU SU OH GDQV RPPH YROXPH FH 'D QV
FLHX[
G?D XWUHV VRXV LOOHXUV KRPPHV G?DHV FHOOHVXWU LQWpUH UH QHQWQRXVVVH MRL
VWq OH DERUp pO RQW TXL FHX[ GH DWLRQVUp RFFXS OHV TXH PRQWUH U
SRQWV GHV FRPPH HURQW &H OOHXUV DL SpVGpYHORS FRQFHSWV GHV VXU
WSRUWpV HJDUGVTXLVRQHVUUVG?DXWUHVYH GDQVFHOLYUH PEDUGp HVH TXHOTX
QV OH YRGRXQ MH RSRVHUD SU L SDU
GX FRXUV OH GDQV TX PSOH FHW WUDYHUV j PRQWUH YRXGUDLV H -,75( 5(0,( &+$3 5
,1752'8&7,21
]RPELV?VRXULDHSHXSOpGH DJ SD\
OD
DLW LO XDQG TXH H UF RXL $K DXWRFKWRQH XQ
H
LV -
EHRXSSH QVp S URSRVLQVLTX
jD FHX[TXH KRUORO
U VRQ
GH
GULDJDXHDOWSQQFDDODWLYHIDWWHQGDjXRD3LVjGTOVDFUFJHLPqG?QH)[WURXYHGGHUD/HXXFp\HYVDDDUH[UXHJFFVDJEDDDLV/WMYHOSDWUFGDVUHXQVVTXHWj6-IDLTUDS\HHVDHPSVIUjHYI
SULV? HQ M? WRXV FHX[ TXL W DYDLHQ Q? ULHQ FRP DWLRQFODULILF j DWWHQWLRQO? GH
XQH FRPPH VVDLW UD DSS SURSRV OH 3DUI RLV LO VHPEODLW PH SRLQW DX
FKRVHV OHV PHWWUH j WLHQQHQW LOV ODTXH OOH GH QRP X HW DSSDUWLHQQHQW LOV
TXH OOH FHOOH VRFLpWp OD GH O?HQVHPEOH SRXU pJ DOHPHQW PDLV PrPHV
GH LUH HYLYUH OHV IRQGHPHQWV GH OHXU XOWXUH QRQ VHXOHPHQW SRXU HX[
pVLU HXU DUWDJHU ID LW P?DYDLHQW GHX[ OHV WRXV FHVYpULWDEOHVHVSpUD
OHXUV DLW pW TXL FH YLYUH GH UD LVRQ OHXU GDQV TXRWLGLHQ GX O?REVHUYD WLRQ
GHO DOODLW XL H HQGUH RPSU ID LUH SULV HQW DYDLHQW
O?DXWUH HW ?XQ OWXUH OHXU VXU W GLHX[ OHXUV VXU WHQXV LW P?DY QHYHX
RXUV SDUI WRXMpUH RLV? pQ
QDUTXRLV HQ ID H GH L PRQ DQ DPL MH $Q UH YHUUDLV VRQ VRXULUH WUDQTXLOOH
XYHU UR UH PH MH {W ELHQW TXH MXELODWLRQ HLQH VHU XQH HF DY GLVDLV PH MH
GH SROLFH OD OLYUD LVRQ GH PHV JHV V DSU DYRLU UPLQp WH OHV IRU PDOLWpV
HQGDQWTXHM
O?DpURSRUS ORLQGXYLHLOKR PPH'DQVOHKDOOGH
pWDLV TXH ORUV PpPRLUH HQ VRXYHQW UH QDLW PH FRQVHLO H FH
WH DU QH MH TXH DYDQW MRXUV TXHOTXHV DLWF?p .RXWL UH Hj QFRQWU
HUQLq QRWUH GH ORUV 9LHX OH GLW DYDLW pUp QLWp HW 3DWLHQFH
F?HF?H GPrPH? IU VWWUqVWIURLG RL V
KXLW GL[ GHJ Up V DORUV Q TX?R HVW KDELWXp VXSSRUWHU UH QWH RQ
IUDvFKXU RLG GLUDLW
SDV ? QRQ HXU? UDvFK HW HQW SOXLH LW DX RQ ORUV FDU VRXULV
H? HQFRU SDV PHV VRP Q? QRXV O?LQVWDQW 3RXU WDUG SOXV SDUI RLV
UH FWRE HQ UH ODLV XQ HQGUH SU SRXU FRPPH ? SOXLHV GHV VDLVRQ SHWLWH
DUU LYH OD VHQVLEOH TX?H Q ILQ GH QpH MRXU HW SOXV HQFRUH HQ VRLUpH (QVXLWH
PHQW HSpULRGHQ?H VWYUDL FOpPHQFHGXWKHUPRPqWUHPrPHSHQGDQWFH WW
OD HIRLVWRXW RFWREUH ILQ OD MXVTX?j V?LQVWDOOH HW TXDUWLHUV VHV SUH QG
EXW GH PRLV SXLV XQH IU HX vFK QH GXUH TXH TXHOTXHV MRXUV HQ
QWVRXULHXUV $&RWRQRXFHW
SD\JHLUUpHO VD XQ DORUV RII UD QW O?DWPRVSKqUH QLPEH HQFRUH ? TXRL
MH QH DLV HQ HSWHPEUH XQ YRLOH ID LW H SRXVVLqUH H YDSHXU G?H DX W GH
PD MXLOOHW HQ PPH FR ? R?W HQ FRPPH ? XU GH HVW U KDOHX
VROHLO OH VRXV QR pV VRQW UW DpURSR VRQ HW &RWRQRX HSWHPEUHH
PH
H
QG UD ELHQ O?LQILQLSRXUQRWUH
MH PRL
XOWXUH
H KLVWRLUH
L
WRXW
V
VH VRQW
HF
D
FR DYDLW LO VLOHQFH XQ SUq UHPDUTXH XQH LW YDLV Q?D
?V\DQOWHHHJDVHXHPVWpHSSLVOpVrGD"GFRQQDLVVHQWLOVDD-X-SRLQW[G?rDWUHUHQDSGVH\SFHXR\HHHDFU/DjIJFHHDj\[YHHFHUPPXHW?Q
H-HDUHDHQFRPSWHO?KLVWRLUHGHOIXFQS)IRpDFSUQHXJ$JH\FGHHHOWUOH&P[OVGHqOYDWGpDJSHHDFHGOHUHLOLVDQW-WX\WHURXYHDVGGG?DXMWUHDLVFOD
OIWQFOHDGMDYV?\DHRH
UH ?pWDLV JDUGH" HQGUH SU YUD LPHQW? Q HXW WRXMRXUV RQ
SHXW H 0DLV XWp DMR DYDLW LO VLOHQFH XQ UH QFR Uq $S V JDUGH SDV
HQG SU Q? RQ VL VH? FKR TXHOTXH GH RX HOTX?XQ TX O?HVFODYHGH WRXMRXUV
UH VW RQ VDLV 7X UH GHPHX VRXIIUD QFH OD PDLV FKDQ QW PDvWUH V
QFOX /
G
FLWpV DWU
PRPHQWV GHV UI RLV IXU HQW FH UH HU H VHFRQG OD MXVTX?DSUq V
GX OD OLEpUp V HVFODYH GHV QXOOHPHQW pWDLHQW Q? TXL G?D XWUHV
GRQF Up PXQpUpV QRQ IRU FpV WUDYDX[ H WLWUH X UH VVRXUFHV
GHV DWLRQ SORLW O?H[ RXU pJ HQW DOHP QU{OpV UH IX QW LOV FDU VHXOHPHQW SDV
HW OH? FRORQLD FRQTXrWH OD GDQV RQWULEXWLRQ j PLV IXU HQW LOV FDQRQ j
ODFKDLU LOVIXUHQWGH RPPHVXSSOpWLIV UH WURXYpVHQU{OpVGDQVO? UPpH
XURSpHQV DXWUHV G? SDU RX DQFH OD DU SURSU WDLUH
OHXU j KHWDQW HQ FRPSULV LTXH IU HQ OLEpU V HVFODYH V
GHV SOXSDUW OD TXH VDYHQW UVRQQH V GH SHX PDLV RQYLHQW HQ PRQGH
FKRVH FHOOHQWH XQH VW ODYDJH O?HVF GH O?DEROLWLRQ VDLV 7X
TXHQRXVpYRTXLRQVO?HVODYDJ HWDORUV P?DYDLWGLWHQHII
URPSX EkWRQ j GHYLVLRQV QRXV R VRLU Q U O?KRUOR ILW PH TXH
W H XQ UHUTXH WRXMRXUV j WLWUH QGLYLGXHO O?DYDLV ID LW HQ QW j O
HVSUL
IXW H Oj PDLV RXU? ?D YRLUH G?D PLWLp IRLV TXHOTXH HW VRXYHQW IXU LH
&H IXW M?HQpWDLVFRQVFLHQW XQH O?$IU LTXH UVVHV SHXSOQRL
GHFHX[
(XURSHDYHF G VSHXSOHV HG RQWU
UH QDQW HQ LW DLV MH SXV OH H TXH DXWDQW F{Wp H SUp VXSSRVpV VHV
HQWHQGXV DYDLV LW FHW PHQ HQ IRU P?HI oDQW GH PHWWUH PD
YD TXH GLVFRXUV GHV HQX FRQW OH Up PLQHU DSSOLTXp P?pWDLV
3HQGDQW OHV X[ PRLV GH YDFDQFHV TXH MH QDLV U SDVVH FKH]
UpVRUV HV LUH HQ HQW SHXY LOV QW FRQQDLVVD HQ PH FDU HQFRUH
QFRU LQVLVWRQV HW GLVRQV OH QRXV TXRL SRXU Oj9RLOj VRPPHV
HQ RXV OHF WXUH OH QRXYHO DTXH FK j FHWWHV HW DLUDJ pFO V G?D HV XWU j
HVFqGDF WX XYHUWXUHV DXWUHV G? pFKRV V
HQ UDUHTX? SDV Q?H VW LO SRXUWDQW H OHF SUHPLqUH WXU WD V O?RXYUDJ GDQV H
HVW U ?DXWHX SHQVpH OD WRXWH HVVDL XQ GLVRQV OLV WX TXH RXYHUW OLYUH
FRP HVW HLJHPHQW QV HW WRXW SXLV (W GpSOR U" OHV PHVXUH
V OH PDLV FHOD? WRXW FRQQDLVVHQW
FRPSDWULRWH 0HV V?U ELHQ 2XL GLW PH JHU O?KRUOR LJ FH QRUD
FHWWH GH pWRQQHPHQW PRQ 'H YDQW DWULRWHVFRPS OHXUV GH PDMRULWp
WUqV DQGH WDLW DXVVLHQ LRQ GLUHFWGH pWDLV MH FRPSULV TXH OH SURSRV

Soyez le premier à déposer un commentaire !

17/1000 caractères maximum.