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Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Volume 2: Physical and Geochemical Methods

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This second volume in the Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research series deals mainly with physical and geochemical analytical techniques used in paleolimnology. Other volumes deal with the acquisition and archiving of cores, chronological techniques, and large-scale basin analysis methods (Volume 1), biological techniques (Volumes 3 & 4), and statistical and data handling methods (Volume 5). These monographs will provide sufficient detail and breadth to be useful handbooks for both seasoned practitioners as well as newcomers to the area of paleolimnology. Although the chapters in these volumes target mainly lacustrine settings, many of the techniques described can also be readily applied to fluvial, glacial, marine, estuarine, and peatland environments.

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CONTENTS
Preface The Editors Aims & Scope ofDevelopments in Paleoenvironmental ResearchSeries Book Editors and Board of Advisors ofDevelopments in Paleoenvironmental Research Book Series Contents of Volumes 1 to 4 Safety Considerations and Caution List of Contributors
1.Using biology to study longterm environmental change. John P. Smol, H. John B. Birks & William M. Last
References
2.Pollen. K. D. Bennett & K. J. Willis
Introduction Where is pollen found? Extraction from sediments Identification Datahandling Presentation of results Data analysis Interpretation Summary Acknowledgements References
3.Conifer stomata. G.M. MacDonald
Introduction Preparation, counting, identification and analysis Comparison of stomata and pollen from modern lake sediments Stomata and pollen records from lake sediment cores Summary Acknowledgments References
4.Plant macrofossils. H. H. Birks
Introduction Brief history
vii
xiii xiv xv
xvi xvii xx xxi
1
5
33
49
viii
Outline of methods Indicator potential Uses of plant macrofossils in palaeolimnology Summary Acknowledgements Appendix 1 References 5.Charcoal as a fire proxy. C. Whitlock & C. Larsen75 Introduction Charcoal production, transport, and deposition Site selection Chronology issues Methods Interpretation of charcoal records Conclusions Summary Acknowledgments References 6.Nonpollen palynomorphs. B. van Geel99 Introduction Methods used Indicator potential and applications of a selection of nonpollen palynomorphs Conclusions and future directions Summary Acknowledgements References
7.Protozoa: testate amoebae. L. Beyens & R. Meisterfeld Introduction Methods Applications Other protozoa Conclusions and future directions Summary Acknowledgements References 8.Diatoms. R. W. Battarbee, V.J. Jones, R.J. Flower, N.G. Cameron, H. Bennion, L. Carvalho & S. Juggins
121
155
Introduction Biology Distribution and ecology Taphonomy and preservation Field sampling and coring Laboratory procedures Data analysis and interpretation Summary Acknowledgements References
9.Chrysophyte scales and cysts. B. A. Zeeb & J. P. Smol
Introduction Taxonomy and nomenclature Methods Paleolimnological applications Future research directions Summary Acknowledgements References
10.Ebridians. A. Korhola & J. P. Smol
Introduction Morphology, taxonomy and preservation in the sediments Methodological aspects Brief history of use of ebridians in palaeoecological research Indicator value and future research priorities Summary Acknowledgements References
11.Phytoliths. D. R. Piperno
Introduction and history Phytolith production and taxonomy Laboratory methods Applications of phytolith analysis in lake sediments Summary of the major results Other potential applications of phytoliths in lake sediments Summary Acknowledgments References
ix
203
225
235
x
12.Freshwater sponges. T. M. Frost
Introduction Sponge species and their distribution Sponge life history Sponge spicules Paleolimnological studies using freshwater sponges Techniques for assessing sponge spicules in sediments Future applications of sponges in paleolimnology Summary Acknowledgements References
13.Siliceous protozoan plates and scales. M. S. V. Douglas & J. P. Smol
Introduction History and taxonomy Ecology Paleoecological potential Laboratory methods Data presentation Paleolimnological applications Other related siliceous indicators Summary Acknowledgements References
14.Biogenic silica. D.J. Conley & C.L Schelske
Introduction and history Methods Applications Future directions Summary Acknowledgements References
15.Sedimentary pigments. P. R. Leavitt & D. A. Hodgson
Introduction Pigments in lake sediments Sediment collection, transportation and storage Extraction of sedimentary pigments Isolation of pigments
253
265
281
295
Pigment identification Identification of pigments using mass spectrometry Conclusions Summary Acknowledgements References
Glossary, Acronyms and Abbreviations
Index
xi
327
361
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