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Annual Plant Reviews, Plant Architecture and its Manipulation

De
336 pages
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 17

Conventionally, architecture relates to buildings, embracing both art and science, and specifying both form and function. In scope, this closely matches the study of plant architecture. From an artistic perspective, we might marvel at the astonishing diversity of aesthetically pleasing plant structures, yet as scientists we know that, through natural selection, very little of form is dissociated from function.


The origins of studies of plant architecture and their influences on human existence are steeped in history, but, from a twenty-first century perspective, the field has been transformed from a discipline of observation and description into one in which complex networks of genetic, chemical and environmental factors can be directly manipulated and modelled. Arguably, manipulation of plant architecture has been one of the greatest mainstays of plant improvement - perhaps second only to the discoveries of the nutritional requirements of plants. With the advent of the ‘gene revolution’, there are countless new opportunities for selective modification of plant architecture.


This book provides a broad coverage of our current understanding of plant architecture and its manipulation, ranging from the architecture of the individual cell to that of the whole plant. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant physiology, developmental biology, molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology.

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Contents
Contributors
Preface
1
2
Cellular architecture: Regulation of cell size, cell shape and organ initiation ANDREW J. FLEMING
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
Introduction Growth and cell proliferation are related but separable components controlling cellular architecture Meristems as a source of cells in the plant Patterning of cellular architecture The cellular decision to proliferate or not to proliferate The cytoskeleton as an intermediary in the regulation of cellular architecture The supracellular organisation of growth 1.7.1 The relationship between cell architecture and organ size and shape 1.7.2 Cell division and organ initiation 1.7.3 Coordination of organ initiation Conclusions
Leaf architecture: Regulation of leaf position, shape and internal structure JULIE KANG and NANCY G. DENGLER
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Introduction Phyllotaxis 2.2.1 Helical phyllotaxis and the Fibonacci series 2.2.2 Regulation of phyllotaxis Leaf initiation 2.3.1 Role of expansin in leaf initiation 2.3.2 Molecular markers of leaf initiation Development of leaf symmetry 2.4.1 Adaxial domain 2.4.2 Abaxial domain Development of simple leaf architecture 2.5.1 Dicots 2.5.2 Monocots Development of compound leaf architecture 2.6.1 Molecular regulation of blastozone activity 2.6.1.1KNOXgenes
xi
xiii
1
1
1 3 6 8
11 15
15 17 18 19
23
23 24 26 26 29 29 30 30 31 33 33 33 34 35 38 38
vi
3
4
2.7 2.8
2.9
CONTENTS
2.6.1.2Phantastica 2.6.1.3Floricaula,Leafy,UnifoliataandFalsiflora Leaf expansion Development of internal leaf architecture 2.8.1 Cell division and tissue patterning 2.8.2 Vascular pattern formation 2.8.3 Epidermal cell pattern 2.8.3.1 Stomate pattern 2.8.3.2 Trichome pattern Concluding remarks
Shoot architecture I: Regulation of stem length JOHN J. ROSS, JAMES B. REID, JAMES L. WELLER and GREGORY M. SYMONS
3.1 3.2
3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7
3.8
Introduction Plant growth hormones and genes regulating their levels 3.2.1 Auxin, gibberellin and brassinosteroid 3.2.2 Ethylene and cytokinin Hormone signal transduction Dwarfism not mediated by hormones The green revolution Interactions between hormones Regulation of stem length by environmental factors 3.7.1 Effects of light on stem growth 3.7.1.1 Deetiolation 3.7.1.2 Shadeavoidance 3.7.1.3 Photoperiod 3.7.2 Mediation of light effects by hormones 3.7.3 Effects of other factors, including flooding and decapitation/grazing Concluding discussion  are hormones regulators of plant growth or merely permissive factors?
Shoot architecture II: Control of branching COLIN G.N. TURNBULL
4.1
4.2
4.3
Introduction 4.1.1 Species differ widely in propensity for branching during normal ontogeny 4.1.2 Responses to decapitation Branch positions and morphologies 4.2.1 Developmental zones 4.2.2 Shoot dimorphism: orthotropicvs. plagiotropic development 4.2.3 Relative timing: prolepticvs. sylleptic branching 4.2.4 Reiteration: monopodialvs. sympodial systems Bud initiation 4.3.1 Bud initiation genes 4.3.1.1Lateral suppressor(Ls)
38 39 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 48
57
57 57 57 65 65 66 67 70 73 73 74 76 78 78
83
84
92
92
92 93 95 95 96 98 99 101 103 103
5
6
4.4
4.5
4.6
CONTENTS
4.3.1.2Blind(Bl) 4.3.1.3Revoluta(REV) 4.3.1.4L AXandSPA 4.3.1.5SAXloci 4.3.1.6 Interaction of initiation genes Bud dormancy and branch outgrowth 4.4.1 Branch outgrowth genes 4.4.2 Physiology of branching mutants 4.4.3 Shoot branching and apical dominance models 4.4.4 Branching control: more than auxin and cytokinin Environmental influences 4.5.1 Light effects 4.5.1.1 Photoperiod 4.5.1.2 Light intensity and spectrum: shade and neighbour responses 4.5.2 Nutrition Conclusions and prospects
Floral architecture: Regulation and diversity of floral shape and pattern ELENA M. KRAMER
5.1 5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5 5.6 5.7
Introduction Phyllotaxy and merosity 5.2.1 Genetic control of floral phyllotaxy 5.2.2 Genetic control of merosity 5.2.3 Evolutionary aspects of phyllotaxy and merosity Floral symmetry 5.3.1 Genetic control of floral symmetry 5.3.2 Evolutionary aspects of floral symmetry Floral organ identity 5.4.1 Genetic control of floral organ identity 5.4.2 Evolutionary aspects of floral organ identity 5.4.2.1 Patterns of gene duplication and their functional significance 5.4.2.2 Patterns of gene expression and their morphological significance Elaboration of organ identity Sex determination as a modification of floral architecture Future perspectives
Inflorescence architecture ANUJ M. BHATT
6.1 6.2
6.3 6.4
Determinate and indeterminate inflorescence types Simple and compound inflorescences 6.2.1 Simple inflorescences 6.2.2 Compound inflorescences Growth and branching patterns of shoots Vegetative to reproductive transition
vii
103 104 104 104 105 105 106 107 110 112 113 113 113
114 114 115
121
121 121 123 124 125 126 127 128 130 130 133
134
136 138 139 140
149
149 150 150 152 152 154
viii
7
6.5
6.6
6.7
CONTENTS
Meristem identity 6.5.1 Shoot /inflorescence meristem identity 6.5.2 Flower meristem identity genes Genetic regulation of inflorescence architecture 6.6.1 Maize inflorescence development 6.6.2 Pea mutants 6.6.3 Tomato inflorescence development 6.6.4 Petunia inflorescence development 6.6.5 Capitulum development 6.6.6Arabidopsisinflorescence development Evolution of inflorescence architecture
Root architecture J. LÓPEZBUCIO, A. CRUZRAMÍREZ, A. PÉREZTORRES, J.G. RAMÍREZPIMENTEL, L. SÁNCHEZ CALDERÓN and LUIS HERRERAESTRELLA
7.1 7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
Introduction  an evolutionary perspective Basic root systems 7.2.1 Taproot systems 7.2.2 Fibrous root systems 7.2.3 Roots of desert plants 7.2.4 Food storage roots Regulation of root architecture 7.3.1 Embryonic root development 7.3.1.1 Auxin regulation of embryonic root development Parts of the root system 7.4.1 Primary root tip 7.4.2 Internal root structure Genetics of postembryonic root development 7.5.1 Root hairs 7.5.2 Lateral roots 7.5.2.1 Role of auxin in lateral root development Regulation of root system architecture by nutrient signals 7.6.1 Effects of nutrient availability on root hair formation 7.6.2 Effects of nutrient availability on root branching 7.6.3 Lipidderived molecules that regulate root development 7.6.3.1 Phosphatidic acid 7.6.3.2 Alkamides andNacylethanolamines Mutualistic associations between roots and soil microorganisms 7.7.1 Signaling in plantmicrobe interactions Conclusions
155 155 156 157 157 163 165 166 168 169 174
182
182 183 183 184 186 186 187 187
188 189 189 191 193 193 195
196
197
198 199
200 200 201
202 203 205
8
9
Woody tree architecture FRANK STERCK
8.1 8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8
CONTENTS
Introduction Anatomy 8.2.1 Vascular differentiation 8.2.2 Radial patterns 8.2.3 Ecotypes Mechanisms and constraints 8.3.1 Apical dominance 8.3.2 Apical control 8.3.3 Leafvs. wood allocation 8.3.4 Stability Interspecific patterns 8.4.1 Architectural tree models 8.4.2 Tree dimensions Intraspecific patterns Withintree patterns Applications in forestry Conclusions
Plant architecture modelling: Virtual plants and complex systems CHRISTOPHE GODIN, EVELYNE COSTES and HERVÉ SINOQUET
9.1 9.2
9.3
9.4
Introduction Nature of plant architecture: basic concepts 9.2.1 Meristem activity and phyllotaxy 9.2.2 Differentiation of axes 9.2.3 Architectural gradients Representing and analysing plant architecture 9.3.1 Representing plants as graphs 9.3.2 Coding plant architecture 9.3.3 3D Digitizing 9.3.4 Analysis of plant architecture databases 9.3.4.1 Looking for remarkable variations of positional information 9.3.4.2 Analysing spatial or temporal series 9.3.4.3 The fractal nature of plants Modelling functions on static structures 9.4.1 Models of plantenvironment interaction 9.4.1.1 Light capture 9.4.1.2 Rainfall interception 9.4.1.3 Momentum transfer 9.4.1.4 Scalar transfer 9.4.1.5 Accounting for gravity 9.4.2 Transport models
ix
209
209 212 212 213 214 217 217 218 218 220 221 221 224 225 226 228 230
238
238 239 239 240 241 242 242 245 246 248
248 249 254 256 256 257 260 260 261 261 263
x
10
9.5
9.6
CONTENTS
Models of plant development 9.5.1 Dynamic systems with dynamic structure 9.5.1.1 Specific approaches 9.5.1.2 Generic approaches: towards the definition of languages for morphogenesis 9.5.2 Descriptive models 9.5.2.1 Bottomup geometric approaches 9.5.2.2 Topdown geometric approaches 9.5.3 Reactive models 9.5.3.1 Management of fluxes 9.5.3.2 Reaction to the environment 9.5.3.3 Integrated reactive models Conclusion and perspectives
Applications of plant architecture: Haute cuisine for plant developmental biologists NICK BATTEY
Horsdoeuvre: tender asparagus in melted lemon and Parmesan butter The wine list Starter: rosemary and Taleggio stuffed tomatoes on a bed of herbs Main course: pea and Pecorino risotto with saffron Dessert: individual apple tarts with strawberry coulis Coffee served with Deglet Noor
Index
263 263 264
265 267 267 271 273 274 275 277 278
288
288 290 296 298 300 304
315