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Annual Plant Reviews, Polarity in Plants

De
360 pages
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 12

A fundamental feature of developmental biology is that of the establishment of polarity. It can be described at different levels - polarity of the organism, polarity in tissue patterning and organ development, and polarity of the cell.


This volume provides an account of current research into the mechanisms by which polarity is generated at the level of the cell, organ and organism in plants, drawing especially on recent work with model organisms.The emphasis is on the use of the techniques of molecular genetics to dissect molecular mechanisms.


This is the first volume to bring together the diverse aspects of polarity in plant development. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant developmental biology, cell biology and molecular biology.

Visit www.blackwellplantsci.com the plant science site from Blackwell Publishing.

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Contents
List of Contributors Preface
1
Polar cell growth and the cytoskeleton biology PATRICK J. HUSSEY, MICHAEL J. DEEKS, TIMOTHY J. HAWKINS and TIJS KETELAAR
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Role of the cytoskeleton in cell expansion 1.2.1 Tip-growing cells 1.2.1.1 Root hair initiation 1.2.1.2 Root hair tip growth 1.2.1.3 Root hair growth termination 1.2.2 Intercalary growing cells 1.2.3 Trichomes 1.3 Components of the cytoskeleton 1.3.1 Actin binding proteins 1.3.1.1 Profilin 1.3.1.2 Actin depolymerising factor (ADF) 1.3.1.3 Actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1) 1.3.1.4 Cyclase associated protein (CAP) 1.3.1.5 Villin 1.3.1.6 Actin nucleators 1.3.2 Signalling to the actin cytoskeleton 1.3.2.1 PLP proteins 1.3.2.2 ROPs 1.3.2.3 CDM domain proteins 1.3.2.4 PIP2 1.3.3 Microtubule associated proteins 1.3.3.1 Tubulin and tubulin cofactors 1.3.3.2 Katanin 1.3.3.3 MAP65 1.3.3.4 MAP190 1.3.3.5 MOR1/GEM1 1.3.3.6 Kinesins 1.4 Conclusion References
xi xiii
1
1 2 2 2 3 9 10 11 14 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 27 27 28 29 30 31 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 38
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CONTENTS
Mechanisms of cell polarity establishment and 51 polar auxin transport ARTHUR J. MOLENDIJK, OLAF TIETZ, BENEDETTO RUPERTI, IVAN A. PAPANOV and KLAUS PALME
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Root hairs 2.3 Rho GTPases 2.3.1 Rho GTPases and cell polarity 2.4 Specific gene expression in root hair formation 2.4.1 Plasma membrane trafficking is required for establishment of cell polarity in root hair formation 2.5 Does Rop localise secretion at the future bud site? 2.5.1 How are Rops activated/deactivated? 2.5.2 How do Rops control polarity? 2.6 PIN proteins and cell polarity 2.6.1 Molecular mechanisms that control PIN polarity ± current models Acknowledgements References
Polarity and cell walls PRZEMYSèAW WOJTASZEK, DIETER VOLKMANN and Ï Ï FRANTISEK BALUSKA
3.1 Introduction 3.2 Cell walls and turgor ± the physiology of `walled' cells 3.3 Cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton continuum in plant cells 3.4 Cell walls and polarity at the cellular level: targeted exocytosis and local endocytosis establish and maintain specialised wall domains 3.4.1 Unique properties of cell wall domains are essential for the establishment and maintenance of polarity in tip-growing cells 3.4.2 Cell wall domains of cells elongating axially along the apical-basal polarity axis: cross-walls versus side-walls 3.5 Cell walls and polarity at the organismal level 3.6 Cell walls as a linker between different levels of polar organisational hierarchy Acknowledgements References
Polarity in single cells: root hairs, epidermal pavement cells and trichomes STEFANIE FALK, JAIDEEP MATHUR È and MARTIN HULSKAMP
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4
Three steps to single cell polarity Root hairs and pollen tubes Epidermal pavement cells Trichomes
51 52 53 53 54 55
56 57 58 59 61 64 64
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CONTENTS
4.4.1 Does trichome cell polarity originate from the polarity of cell divisions? 4.4.2 Trichome branching mutants and cell polarity 4.5 Molecular analysis of the branching genes likely to be involved in polarity establishment 4.6 Molecular analysis of branching genes likely to be involved in polarity fixation 4.7 Molecular analysis of the genes involved in growth directionality References
From polarity to pattern: early development in the fucoid algae COLIN BROWNLEE
5.1 Introduction 5.2 Photopolarization: translating a unidirectional light signal into spatial information 5.2.1 Developmental changes following fertilization 5.2.2 Sperm entry establishes an initial axis of polarity 5.2.3 Photopolarization involves re-alignment of the sperm-induced polar axis 2+ 5.3 Downstream of light perception: actin and Ca 5.3.1 The role of actin 2+ 5.3.2 Ca and zygote polarization 2+ 5.3.3 Ca signalling in the growing rhizoid 5.4 Polarization and the cell cycle 5.4.1 Cell cycle regulation of polarization 5.4.2 Polarization and division plane alignment 5.5 Polarized signalling and cell fate in the multicellular embryo: positional information and cell-cell communication 5.6 Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Polarity inArabidopsisembryogenesis  RAMON A. TORRES RUIZ
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Polarity from an early stage ± maternal and zygotic polarities 6.3 Cell division planes and cell polarity 6.4 Stages inArabidopsisembryogenesis 6.5 Zygotic polarity ± vesicle trafficking in the cellular rush hour 6.6 Epidermis and radial axis/polarity 6.7 Embryonic shoot pole ± pole position for polar activities 6.8 Adaxial/abaxial polarity in the cotyledons 6.9 Polarity of the basal embryonic region 6.10 Conclusions Acknowledgements References
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130 131 133 134
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157 158 161 162 165 169 172 177 180 183 184 185
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Polarity in roots PETER W. BARLOW, DIETER VOLKMANN Ï Ï and FRANTISEK BALUSKA
7.1 Introduction 7.2 Polarity within primary root tissues is an expression of the actin cytoskeleton and of polar auxin transport 7.2.1 Recent insights into actin-auxin feedback interactions driving polarity in root cells 7.2.2 Plant synapses as represented by the actin/myosinVIII-enriched and auxin-transporting cross walls 7.2.3 Spatially distinct acropetal and basipetal auxin transport systems and their consequences for cell body (nucleus) localisation 7.2.4 Actin-auxin-based cell body rotations induce morphogenetic periclinal cell divisions 7.2.5 Hypothetical model explaining how the polar transport of auxin confers synaptic status upon non-growing cross walls 7.3 Establishment of new polarities and new root organs 7.3.1 Sites for organogenesis 7.3.2 Hypothesis for the siting of lateral root primordia 7.3.3 Repolarising the primordial plaque 7.3.4 The emerging primordium: formation of the quiescent centre 7.3.5 Polarised inductive events in lateral root initiation 7.3.6 Disturbances to the usual pattern of lateral root initiation 7.3.7 Root nodules and other types of root primordia 7.4 Polarity of secondary growth 7.4.1 Origin and polarised behaviour of the vascular cambium 7.4.2 Sites of mixed polarity 7.4.3 Comparison of primary and secondary meristems and their polarity 7.4.4 Comparison of sites of renewed cell division in roots 7.5 Cell polarity and organ growth 7.6 Conclusions References Appendix I Appendix II
Development of the shoot apical meristem È RUDIGER SIMON
8.1 Architecture of the shoot meristem: layers and zones 8.2 The making of a meristem 8.3 Regulation ofKNOXgene expression 8.4 Communications arising ± between periphery and centre 8.5 Communications along the apical-basal axis 8.6 Establishment and maintenance of stem cells 8.7 Robustness and flexibility of stem cell regulation 8.8 Specificity of theCLV/WUSregulator 8.9 Determinate or indeterminate: shutting off stem cells in flower development 8.10 Integration of meristem activity: new genes and mutants
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205 206 207 214 215 218 219 220 221 221 225 226 227 228 230 230 238 240
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CONTENTS
8.11 Polarity in the shoot meristem: stability in changing Acknowledgement References
Polar signals in vascular development THOMAS BERLETH and ENRICO SCARPELLA
9.1 Introduction 9.2 Apical-basal polarity in vascular regeneration experiments 9.3 Apical-basal polarity in embryo vascular patterning 9.4 Auxin-signal transduction in embryo vascular patterning 9.5 Vascular patterning in the leaf 9.6 Adaxial-abaxial polarity affects vascular bundle organization 9.7 Vascular tissues as sources of positional information 9.8 Future research Acknowledgements References
Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of seed plants JOHN L. BOWMAN
10.1 Introduction 10.2 Early dissection experiments 10.3 Next to the meristem 10.3.1 PHANTASTICA 10.3.2 Ectopic KNOX activity 10.3.3 Ad-ab polarity of Phan/AS1/RS2 10.3.4 PHABULOSA 10.4 In the realm of micro RNAs 10.5 Away from the meristem 10.5.1 KANADI 10.5.2 YABBY 10.5.3 Lamina expansion 10.5.4 Lamina differentiation 10.5.5 The other axes 10.5.6 Relationships between the adaxial leaf domain and axillary meristems 10.6 From the leaf back to the meristem 10.7 Phylogenetic perspective 10.7.1 Development paradigms: of wings and leaves 10.7.2 Evolution of leaves Acknowledgements References
Polarity in floral development MARTIN KIEFFER and BRENDAN DAVIES
11.1 Introduction 11.2 Polarity in inflorescence architecture 11.2.1 Flower initiation
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317 319 319
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CONTENTS
11.2.2 The adaxial-abaxial axis 11.3 Polarity of flowers 11.3.1 The dorso-ventral axis of flowers 11.3.2 The radial axis of flowers 11.3.2.1 Initiation of floral organs 11.3.2.2 Regulation of the organ-identity genes 11.3.2.3 Floral determinancy 11.4 Polarity of floral organs 11.4.1 Asymmetry ofAntirrhinumpetals 11.4.2 Polarity in theArabdopsiscarpel 11.5 Conclusion Acknowledgements References
Index
320 321 322 325 326 327 329 330 330 331 333 334 334
339