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Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists

De
320 pages
Climate change and air quality are two of the most pressing issues facing Mankind. This book gives undergraduate and graduate students and professionals working in the science and policy of pollution, climate change and air quality a broad and up-to-date account of our understanding of the processes that occur in the atmosphere, how these are changing as Man’s relentless use of natural resources continues and what effects these changes are having on the Earth’s climate and the quality of the air we breath.

Written by an international team of experts, this text gives an excellent overview of our current understanding of the state of the Earth’s atmosphere and how it is changing. It is an invaluable resource for students, teachers and professionals.

Key features:

  • End of chapter questions
  • Each chapter includes both basic concepts and more in-depth material, allowing faculty to direct students accordingly
  • Most up-to-date treatment of key issues such as stratospheric chemistry, urban air pollution, and climate change
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Contents
List of contributors List of abbreviations, constants and nomenclature Preface
 1 The climate of the Earth  John Lockwood 1.1 Basic climatology 1.2 General atmospheric circulation 1.3 Palaeoclimates 1.4 Polar climates 1.5 Temperate latitude climates 1.6 Tropical climates References Further reading Questions
 2 Chemical evolution of the atmosphere  Richard Wayne 2.1 Creation of the planets and their earliest atmospheres 2.2 Earth’s atmosphere before life began 2.3 Comparison of Venus, Earth and Mars 2.4 Life and Earth’s atmosphere 2.5 Carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere 2.6 The rise of oxygen concentrations 2.7 Protection of life from ultraviolet radiation 2.8 Summary References Further reading Questions
 3 Atmospheric energy and the structure of the atmosphere  Hugh Coe 3.1 The vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere 3.2 Solar and terrestrial radiation 3.3 Solar radiation, ozone and the stratospheric temperature profile 3.4 Trapping of longwave radiation 3.5 A simple model of radiation transfer
ix x xiii
1
1 3 5 10 14 17 24 25 25
26
27 30 31 34 38 40 48 51 52 53 53
54
54 56 59 61 61
viC O N T E N T S
3.6 Light scattering 3.7 Conduction, convection and sensible and latent heat 3.8 The energy budget for the Earth’s atmosphere 3.9 Changes in climate and the concept of radiative forcing 3.10 Solar radiation and the biosphere 3.11 Summary References Further reading Questions
 4 Biogeochemical cycles  Dudley Shallcross 4.1 Sources 4.2 Sinks 4.3 Carbon 4.4 Nitrogen 4.5 Sulphur 4.6 Halogens 4.7 Hydrogen 4.8 Summary References Further reading Questions Answers
 5 Tropospheric chemistry and air pollution  Paul Monks and Roland Leigh 5.1 Sources of trace gases in the atmosphere 5.2 Key processes in tropospheric chemistry 5.3 Initiation of photochemistry by light 5.4 Tropospheric oxidation chemistry 5.5 Nighttime oxidation chemistry 5.6 Halogen chemistry 5.7 Air pollution and urban chemistry 5.8 Summary References Further reading Questions
 6 Cloud formation and chemistry  Peter Brimblecombe 6.1 Clouds 6.2 Cloud formation 6.3 Particle size and water content 6.4 Dissolved solids in cloud water and rainfall 6.5 Dissolution of gases 6.6 Reactions and photochemistry 6.7 Radical and photochemical reactions
64 69 74 76 79 80 81 82 82
83
86 86 89 95 97 102 107 108 108 110 110 112
114
114 117 119 120 128 130 134 140 142 143 144
146
146 147 149 151 152 158 162
6.8 Summary References Further reading Questions
 7 Particulate matter in the atmosphere  Paul I. Williams and Urs Baltensperger 7.1 Aerosol properties 7.2 Aerosol sources 7.3 The role of atmospheric particles 7.4 Aerosol measurements 7.5 Summary References Questions
 8 Stratospheric chemistry and ozone depletion  Rob MacKenzie 8.1 Ozone column amounts 8.2 The physical structure of the stratosphere 8.3 Gasphase chemistry of the stratosphere 8.4 Aerosols and clouds in the stratosphere 8.5 Heterogeneous chemistry of the stratosphere 8.6 Future perturbations to the stratosphere 8.7 Summary References Questions
 9 Boundary layer meteorology and atmospheric dispersion  Janet Barlow 9.1 The atmospheric boundary layer 9.2 Flow over vegetation 9.3 Urban boundary layers 9.4 Dispersion of pollutants 9.5 Summary References Further reading Questions Hints and answers
10 Urban air pollution  Jes Fenger 10.1 Air pollution through the ages 10.2 Pollutants and sources 10.3 From emission intensity to pollution levels 10.4 Urbanscale impacts 10.5 Means of mitigation 10.6 Case studies
C O N T E N T Svii
164 165 167 167
168
170 178 185 192 195 195 197
198
198 201 206 210 212 214 216 216 217
218
218 224 229 233 240 241 242 242 242
243
243 245 249 252 256 259
viiiC O N T E N T S
10.7 Summary References Further reading Questions
11 Global warming and climate change science  Atul Jain 11.1 Historical evidence of the impact of human activities on climate 11.2 Future outlook of climate change 11.3 Potential impacts of climate change 11.4 Pathways to policy considerations 11.5 Summary References Questions
Appendix: List of websites Index
265 266 267 267
268
269 278 285 287 289 290 292
293 295