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Contents
1 A "laudatio" for Professor Hans Kleinpoppen Jim Williams, and Rainer Hippler
1.Introduction 2.Early studies of line polarization 2.1Level widths, fine and hyperfine structure 2.2Threshold excitation and resonances 3.Level crossings, anticrossings and Lamb shifts 4.Correlation and coherence 4.1the MeasurementTheory of 4.2Excitation of two–electron atoms, and states of helium 4.3Hydrogen 4.4PotassiumSodium and 4.5Calcium and Strontium 4.6Mercury 5.Photoionization (Synchrotron) Studies 5.1Calcium [(Ar)4s] 5.2Atomic oxygen 6.Outer shell excitation in heavy particle collisions 7.Inner shell ionisation 8.Two–photon studies and the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen Paradox 9.Conclusion
1
1 2 2 5 6 14 14
16 21 22 23 24 25 25 27 29 35 38 40
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xvi
COMPLETE SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS
PART I: ELECTRON SCATTERING
2 Complete Experiments in ElectronAtom Collisions – Benchmarks for Atomic Collision Theory Klaus Bartschat
1.Introduction 2.excitation in helium 3.excitation in helium 4.excitation in sodium 5.excitation in mercury 6.simultaneous ionization–excitation in helium 7.Summary
3 Differential Cross Section and Spin Asymmetries for Collisions between Electrons and Oriented Chiral Molecules A. Busalla, M. Musigmann, K. Blum, and D. G. Thompson
1.Introduction 2.Discussion of cross section 2.1General theory 2.2Numerical results 3. Spin asymmetries 3.1Introduction 3.2Discussion of the asymmetry 3.3the asymmetryDiscussion of 3.4Numerical results and discussion
4 Towards a Complete Experiment for Auger Decay A. N. Grum–Grzhimailo, A. Dorn, and W. Mehlhorn
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Introduction Example for a possible complete experiment Proposal for an "almost" complete experiment Performance of an "almost" complete experiment Conditions and applicability of the proposed method Conclusions
5 The Transfer of Angular Momentum for Electron–Atom Collision Processes Involving InelasticallyExcited and Transitions M. Shurgalin, A. J. Murray, W. R. MacGillivray, and M. C. Standage
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61 62 70 76 79 84 87
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93 94 94 96 100 100 101 103 104
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111 113 115 117 124 125
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PART II: PHOTON IMPACT
6 Complete Photoionization Experiments Using Polarized Atoms G. Prümper, B. Zimmermann, U. Becker, and H. Kleinpoppen
Contents
1. Introduction 1.1 Approximations 2. The observables in photoionisation 2.1Experimental setup 2.2The thallium5dspectrum 2.3Results for the dynamical spin polarization 2.4Differences between the LMDADasymmetry and dynamical spin polarisation 2.5 Summary
7 On the Contribution of Photoelectron Auger Electron Coincidence Spectrometry to Complete Photoionization Studies N. Scherer, S. J. Schaphorst, and V. Schmidt
1.Introduction 2.Selected process 3.Results from a particular correlation pattern 4.Proposed study 5.Conclusions
8 Complete Experiments in Molecular Photoionization N. A. Cherepkov
1.Introduction 2.On the possibilities of complete experiments with atoms and molecules 3.Principles of complete experiments with molecules 4.Photoionization of excited aligned molecules 5.Photoionization of oriented (fixed–in–space) molecules 5.1General consideration 5.2Particular results for O K–shell of CO 6. Conclusions
PART III: EINSTEIN–PODOLSKY–ROSEN EXPERIMENTS
9 Experimental Tests of Bell’s Inequalities with Correlated Photons Alain Aspect
1. Introduction
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151 153
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155 157 158 160 165
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xviii
COMPLETE SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS
2. Why supplementary parameters? The Einstein–Podolsky– Rosen–Bohm Gedankenexperiment 2.1Experimental scheme 2.2Correlations 2.3Difficulty of an image derived from the formalism of Quantum Mechanics 2.4 Supplementary parameters 3. Bells inequalities 3.1Formalism 3.2A (naive) example of supplementary parameters theory 3.3Bell’s Inequalities 4. Conflict with quantum mechanics 4.1Evidence 4.2Maximum conflict 5.Discussion: The locality condition 6.Gedankenexperiment with variable analyzers: The locality condition as a consequence ofEinstein’s causality 7. From Bell’s theorem to a realistic experiment 7.1Experimentally testing Bell’s inequalities 7.2Sensitive situations are rare 7.3Production of pairs of photons in an EPR state 7.4Realistic experiment 7.5Timing conditions 8. First generation experiments 8.1Experiments with one channel polarizer 8.2Results 9. Orsay experiments (1980–1982) 9.1The source 9.2countingDetection – Coincidence 9.3Experiment with one–channel polarizers 9.4Experiment with two–channel analyzers 9.5Timing experiment 10. Third Generation: Experiments with pairs of photons produced in parametric down conversion 11. Conclusion
10 Polarization and coherence analysis of the optical two–photon radiation from the metastable state of atomic Hydrogen A. J. Duncan, H. Kleinpoppen, and Z. A. Sheikh
1.Introduction 2.On the Theory of the Two–Photon Decay of the Metastable State of Atomic Hydrogen 3.The Stirling Two–photon Apparatus 4.Angular and Polarization Correlation Experiments 4.1 Two–Polarizers Experiments: Polarization Correlation and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Tests
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Contents
4.2Garuccio–Selleri Enhancement EffectsTests of 4.3Three–Polarizer Experiments 4.4Breit–Teller Hypothesis 5.Coherence and Fourier Spectral Analysis 6.Time Correlation 7.Correlated Emission Spectroscopy of Metastable Hydrogen 8.Conclusions
11 Quantum–State Transmission via Quantum Teleportation Dik Bouwmeester, JianWei Pan, Harald Weinfurter, and Anton Zeilinger
Index
1.Introduction 2.Quantum Teleportation Protocol 3.Experimental Quantum Teleportation 3.1Polarisation Entangled Photons 3.2BellState Analyser 3.3Experimental Setup 3.4Experimental Predictions 3.5Experimental Results 3.6Teleportation of Entanglement 4. Concluding Remarks and Prospects
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