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Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud

De
296 pages
Using Copernicanism, Darwinism, and Freudianism as examples of scientific traditions, Copernicus, Darwin and Freud takes a philosophical look at these three revolutions in thought to illustrate the connections between science and philosophy.
  • Shows how these revolutions in thought lead to philosophical consequences
  • Provides extended case studies of Copernicanism, Darwinism, and Freudianism
  • Integrates the history of science and the philosophy of science like no other text
  • Covers both the philosophy of natural and social science in one volume
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Contents
Note: Sections at a more advanced level are indicated by. Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
I Nicolaus Copernicus: The Loss of Centrality 1 Ptolemy and Copernicus 2 A Clash of Two Worldviews 2.1 The geocentric worldview 2.2 Aristotle’s cosmology 2.3 Ptolemy’s geocentrism 2.4 A philosophical aside: Outlook 2.5 Shaking the presuppositions: Some medieval developments 3 The Heliocentric Worldview 3.1 Nicolaus Copernicus 3.2 The explanation of the seasons 3.3 Copernicus and the Copernican turn 3.3.1 A philosophical aside: From empirical adequacy to theoretical validity 3.4 Copernicus consolidated: Kepler and Galileo 4 Copernicus was not a Scientific Revolutionary 4.1 The Copernican method 4.2 The relativity of motion 5 The Transition to Newton 5.1 On hypotheses 6 Some Philosophical Lessons 6.1 The loss of centrality 6.2 Was Copernicus a realist? 6.2.1 Lessons for instrumentalism and realism
ix
x
1
3 3 4 5 5 9 14 17 20 21 25 28
32 32 37 39 42 43 45 47 48 51 52
viContents 6.3 Modern realism 6.4 The underdetermination of theories by evidence 6.4.1 The Duhem–Quine thesis 6power of constraints.4.2 The 6.5 Theories, models, and laws 6and models.5.1 Theories 6of nature, laws of science.5.2 Laws 6.5.3 Philosophical views of laws 6inference view.5.3.1 The 6.5.3.2 The regularity view 6.5.3.3 The necessitarian view 6structural view.5.3.4 The 7 Copernicus and Scientific Revolutions 8 The Anthropic Principle: A Reversal of the Copernican Turn? Reading List Essay Questions
II Charles Darwin: The Loss of Rational Design 1 Darwin and Copernicus 2 Views of Organic Life 2.1 Teleology 2.1.1 TheGreat Chain of Being 2.1.2 Design arguments 2.1.3 Jean Baptiste Lamarck 3 Fossil Discoveries 3.1 Of bones and skeletons 3.2 The antiquity of man 4 Darwin’s Revolution 4.1 The Darwinian view of life 4.1.1 Principles of evolution 4.2 The descent of man 5 Philosophical Matters 5.1 Philosophical presuppositions: Mechanical worldview, determinism, materialism 5.2 From biology to the philosophy of mind 5.2.1 Empiricism 5.2.2 Philosophy of mind 5.2.3 Emergent minds 5.3 The loss of rational design 5.4 Intelligent design (ID) 6 A Question of Method 6.1 Darwinian inferences 6.2 Philosophical empiricism 6.3 Some principles of elimination 6.4 Essential features of eliminative induction
55 58 59 61 64 64 68 69 69 70 73 75 77 83 87 91
93 93 94 94 97 99 104 106 108 110 112 114 116 119 124
125 129 129 132 134 136 139 143 143 147 149 150
Contents 6.5 Falsifiability or testability? 6.6 Explanation and prediction 6.7 Some models of scientific explanation 6.7.1 Hempel’s models 6models.7.2 Functional 6.7.3 Causal models 6.7.3.1 A counterfactualinterventionist account 6.7.3.2 A conditional model of causation 6explanations.7.4 Structural 6.8 A brief return to realism 6.9 Darwin and scientific revolutions 6.9.1 Philosophical consequences Reading List Essay Questions
III Sigmund Freud: The Loss of Transparency 1 Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud 2 Some Views of Humankind 2.1 Enlightenment views of human nature 2.2 Nietzsche’s view of human nature 3 Scientism and the Freudian Model of Personality 3.1 Freud’s model of the mind 3.1.1 A summary of psychoanalytic theory 3.1.2 Analogy with physics 3.1.3 Freud as an Enlightenment thinker 3.1.4 The scientific status of the Freudian model 3.1.4.1 Freud’s methods
3method of eliminative induction, again.1.4.2 The
3.1.5 Freud stands between the empirical and the hermeneutic models 3.1.6 The role of mind in the social world 4 The Social Sciences beyond Freud 4.1 Two standard models of the social sciences – some history 4.1.1 The naturalistic model 4.1.2 The hermeneutic model 4.2 Essential features of social science models 4.2.1 Essential features of the naturalistic model 4.2.2 Essential features of the hermeneutic model 4.3 Questions of methodology 4is.3.1 What Verstehen? 4methodology of ideal types.3.2 Weber’s 4.3.3Verstehenand objectivity 4.4 Causation in the social sciences 4on causation.4.1 Weber 4.4.2 On the existence of social laws
vii 155 157 159 160 161 163 163 165 169 172 174 176 177 183
185 185 187 188 190 191 192 192 195 200 202 202 205 208 209 210 210 211 213 218 218 221 224 225 229 234 236 236 239
viiiContents 4.4.3 Explanation and prediction in the social sciences 4.4.4 Underdetermination 4.4.5 Realism and relativism 4.4.6 Reductionism and functionalism 5 Evolution and the Social Sciences 5.1Sociobiology– the fourth revolution? 5.2 Evolutionary psychology 6 Freud and Revolutions in Thought 6.1 Revolutions in thought vs. revolutions in science Reading List Essay Questions
Name Index
Subject Index
242 243 244 248 253 254 257 261 263 263 269
271
274