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From DNA to Diversity

De
272 pages
In this landmark work, the author team led by Dr. Sean Carroll presents the general principles of the genetic basis of morphological change through a synthesis of evolutionary biology with genetics and embryology. In this extensively revised second edition, the authors delve into the latest discoveries, incorporating new coverage of comparative genomics, molecular evolution of regulatory proteins and elements, and microevolution of animal development.
  • An accessible text, focusing on the most well-known genes, developmental processes and taxa.
  • Builds logically from developmental genetics and regulatory mechanisms to evolution at different genetic morphological levels.
  • Adds major insights from recent genome studies, new evo-devo biology research findings, and a new chapter on models of variation and divergence among closely related species.
  • Provides in-depth focus on key concepts through well-developed case studies.
  • Features clear, 4-color illustrations and photographs, chapter summaries, references and a glossary.
  • Presents the research of Dr. Carroll, a pioneer in the field and the past president of the Society for Developmental Biology.
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FDTA01 7/14/04 16:35 Page v
Contents
PREFACE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii
CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
A Brief History of Animals........................................................................1 Animal origins and the fossil record ..............................................................2 The animal tree ..............................................................................................6 General features of animal design and diversity ...........................................8 Evolution and development: DNA and diversity ........................................13
The Genetic Toolkit for Development..................................................17 Before the toolkitaorganizers, fields, and morphogens ............................18 The genetic toolkit .......................................................................................20 Sharing of the genetic toolkit among animals .............................................46 The toolkit and animal design .....................................................................51
Building Animals......................................................................................55 Gene regulation in metazoans .....................................................................55 The architecture of genetic regulatory hierarchies......................................57 The insect body plan....................................................................................61 The vertebrate body plan.............................................................................83 Review: the general logic and mechanisms controlling gene expression in cellular fields .....................................................................95
Evolution of the Toolkit........................................................................103 The history of gene families.......................................................................104 Case study: evolution of theHoxcomplex................................................114 Interpreting the toolkit: inferences about animal evolution .....................119 The toolkit as developmental potential .....................................................127
Diversification of Body Plans and Body Parts..................................131 Diversity of anterior/posterior body organization within arthropods and vertebrates ....................................................................132 Morphological diversity within a conserved body plan............................142 Regulatory evolution and the diversification of homologous body parts ...............................................................................................154
FDTA01 7/14/04 16:35 Page vi
vi
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8
Contents
The Evolution of Morphological Novelties........................................159 What is morphological novelty?.................................................................160 Novel functions from older morphological structures ..............................161 The evolution of vertebrate novelties........................................................170 Evolution of radical body plan changes ....................................................178 Regulatory evolution and the origin of novelties ......................................185
Morphological Variation and Species Divergence...........................191 Evolution of animal color patterns ............................................................192 Nodal points in regulatory networks and the evolution of character number and pattern................................................................201 Qualitative and quantitative aspects of skeletal evolution in stickleback fish .......................................................................................205 More variation than meets the eye: cryptic genetic variation and the potential for morphological evolution.............................................206 Regulatory evolution and species divergence ...........................................208
From DNA to Diversity: The Primacy of Regulatory Evolution.....213 Why is regulatory evolution a primary force in morphological evolution?................................................................................................213 The function and evolution ofcis...................................215regulatory DNA The evolution of regulatory DNA and morphological diversity ...............230
GLOSSARY...............................................................................................................................932
INDEX..............................................................................................................24................5........