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Fuel Cell Technologies: State and Perspectives

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Fuel Cells have become a potentially highly efficient sustainable source of energy and electricity for an ever-demanding power hungry world. The two main types of fuel cells ripe for commercialisation are the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM). The commercial uses of which include, but are not limited to, military, stand-by power, commercial and industrial, and remoter power. However, all aspects of the electricity market are being considered.

This book has brought together a team of world-renowned experts in all aspects of fuel cell development for both SOFC and PEM in a workshop Environmental-Plant sciences. The workshop held between June 6?10, 2004 was held in the capital city of the Ukraine, Kiev. The reason for the venue was that Ukraine is the third largest resource of zircon sands, a major source of material for the solid oxide fuel cell. Ukraine is looking at undertaking a very large effort in the solid oxide fuel cell arena, and hopes, one day, to be an international player in this market. This book is an outcome from the workshop. The book focuses on the issues related to fuel cells, particularly the state-of-the-art internationally, the issues that were of particular interest for getting fuel cells fully commercialized, and advances in fuel cell materials and technology. The focus was on all types of fuel cells, but the emphasis was particularly on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), due to their importance to the host country. The book is an essential reference to researchers, academics and industrialists interested in up-to-date information on SOFC and PEM development.



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Contents
Contributing Authors..................................................................................... xi Preface .......................................................................................................... x Acknowledgments ......................................................................................xvii HI T RI A PE T F FUEL ELL DEVEL PMENT IN KRAINE ...................................................................................................... 1 O.D. VASYLYEV
LID XIDE FUEL ELL IN RU .K. DEMIN
NTERMEDIATE-TEMPERATURE N. SAMMES, Y. DU
IA ................................................ 11
F ELE TR LYTE ................ 19
ANDIA-ZIR NIA ELE TR LYTE AND ELE TR DE F R SOFCS.......................................................................................................... 35 J.T.S. IRVINE, T. POLITOVA, N. ZAKOWSKY, A. KRUTH, S. TAO, R. TRAVIS, O. ATTIA
EXPLORATION OF COMBUSTION CVD METHOD FOR YSZ THIN FILM ELE TR LYTE F LID XIDE F EL ELL ............ 49 Z. XU, S. YARMOLENKO, J. SANKAR
DEVELOPMENT OF DMFC FOR PORTABLE APPLICATION............. 59 A. SMIRNOVA, D. KANG, N. SAMMES
SYNTHESIS OF POROUS AND DENSE ELEMENTS OF SOFC BY ELECTRON BEAM PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (EBPVD) ........ 7 .D. LEMKEY, B.A. MOVCHAN
LLERENE TR T RE ITABLE F R F EL ELL ELE TR DE ............................................................................................ 81 N. KOPRINAROV, M. KONSTANTINOVA, G. PCHELAROV, M. MARIN
METALLI MATERIAL IN LID XIDE FUEL ELL ................... 97 V. SHEMET, J. PIRON-ABELLAN, W.J. UADAKKERS, . IN HEI ER v
vi
 Table of Contents
SOFC WORLDWIDE – TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT STATUS AND EARLY APPLICATIONS................................................................ 107 . BLUM, R. STEINBERGER-WILCKENS W.A. MEULENBERG, H. NABIELEK
RE ENT RE LT F TA K DE EL PMENT AT R H N ZENTR M LI H........................................................ 123 R. STEINBERGER-WILCKENS L.G.J. DE HAART .C. VINKE L. BLUM A. CRAMER J. REMMEL G. BLASS . TIETZ, W.J. UADAKKERS
CONFIGURATION OF TWIN WALLS IN LSGMO............................... 13 D.I. SAVYTSKII, L. VASYLECHKO, U. BISMAYER, . PAULMANN, M. BERKOWSKI
STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND ION TRANSPORT IN aSr1-yCr O8+....................................................................................... 149 V.L. KOZHEVNIKOV, I.A. LEONIDOV, M.V. PATRAKEEV, J.A. BAHTEE
ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION BASED ON COAL SLURRY ELECTROLYSIS WITH SUBSE UENT USAGE OF PRODUCED HYDR EN IN F EL ELL ................................................................ 157 . TROSHEN'KIN V.B. TROSHEN'KIN
RE LT F R ANI F EL N ER I N AT F EL ELL TEST INSTALLATION ............................................................................ 163 O.M. DUDNIK I.S. SOKOLOVSKA
IP-BA ED FABRI ATI N F F ERAMI MP NENT ROM OXIDE NANOCRYSTALLINE POWDER MATERIALS .......... 175 G.YA. AKIMOV, V.M. TIMCHENKO, E.V. CHAYKA
THE STATE OF FUEL CELLS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN KRAINE .................................................................................................. 181 V.YU. BAKLAN, M. V. UMINSKY, I. P. KOLESNIKOVA
SYNTHESIS OF CERMET Sr(Ti,Fe)--PtRu BY MB TI E. CHINARRO J.C. PEREZ B. MORENO M. CARRASCO J.R. JURAD
N ...... 187
Fuel Cell Technologies: State and Perspectives vii
HYDROGEN STORAGE IN METAL HYDRIDE UNDER ACTION OF SUNLIGHT .......................................................................................... 19 U.M. SOLONIN, D.B. DAN’KO, O.Z. GALIY, I.A. KOSSKO, G.YA. KOLBASOV, I.A. RUSETSKII.
HYDRIDE F TRAN ITI N METAL A HYDR EN M LAT R F R P ER EN INEERIN ............................... 19 . . GORYACHEV V.I. DEKHTERUK M.I. SIMAN .I. FIYALKA
MATHEMATI AL M DELIN AND EXPERIMENTAL T DY OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS....................... 205 S.A. GRIGORIEV, A.A. KALINNIKOV, V.I. POREMBSKY, V.N. ATEE
EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF METAL-HYDRIDE REA T R ............................................................................ 211 . KAPLAN, M. DEMIRALP, T. N. VEZIROGLU
ELL L E-PRE R R YNTHE I F ELE TR ATALYTI ALLY A TI E MP NENT ND MIXED- NDU TIN MEMBRANE REA T R E.V. TSIPIS I.A. BASHMAKOV V.V. KHARTON E.N. NAUMOVICH, J.R. FRADE
F F s .................... 223
GLASS-CERAMIC SEALANTS FOR SOFC-BASED SYSTEMS ......... 231 V.V. KHARTON, E.V. TSIPIS, A.P. CARVALHKOVALEVSKY, E.N. NAUMOVICH, F.M.B. MAR UES, J.R. FRADE, .L. HA LA
EFFE T F “ PHILL” DIFF I N IN LID ELE TR LYTE Zr +8mol.%Sc AND Zr 8mol.% Y ........................................ 239 V.I. BARBASHOV YU. A. KOMYSA
NAN PARTI LE YNTHE I F L M F ATH DE MATERIAL ............................................................................................. 24 .A. DANILENKO T.E. KONCTANTINOVA V.N. KRIVORUCHKO, G.E. SHATALOVA, G.K. VOLKOVA, .S. DOROSHKEVICH, V.A. GLAZUNOVA
viii
 Table of Contents
PERSPECTIVE MATERIALS FOR APPLICATION IN FUEL-CELL TECHNOLOGIES...................................................................................... 253 M. KUZMENKO, N. PORYADCHENKO
ELECTROCONDUCTIVITY OF THE OXIDE NTERLANTHAN ID ITH PER KITE V.V. LASHNEVA, V.A. DUBOK
TR
T
RE............... 259
ELE TR ND TI ITY F THE B LK AND RAIN B NDARIE IN THE 0.8 e -0.2 d ELE TR LYTE PREPARED FR M NAN P DER .................................................... 265 .S. LIPILIN V.V. IVANOV S.N. SHKERIN A.V. NIKONOV V.R. KHRUSTOV
A TWO PHASE MODEL FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS....... 27 M. D. MAT K. ALDAS T.N. VEZIR
EFFE T F IR N XIDE N TR T RE F Y- TABILIZED ZIRCONIA CERAMIC.............................................................................. 279 E.V. PASHKOVA, A.G. BELOUS, O.I. V'YUNOV, .P. I ANIT KII
STRUCTURE, THERMAL EXPANSION AND PHASE TRAN ITI N IN La. .a. .IN LE RY TAL .............. 287 E. PIVAK, L. VASYLECHKO, A. SENYSHYN, M. BERKOWSKI M. KNAPP
N E TI ATI N F HYDR EN INFL EN E N TR T RE OF AMORPHOUS ALLOYS Mg-Cu-Y AND Mg-Ni-Y BY NEW METHOD OF DIFFRACTION FROM ATOMIC COORDINATE PHERE ................................................................................................... 29 O.P. RACHEK, A. GEBERT, M.P. SAVYAK, I.V. UVAROVA
THE YSZ ELECTROLYTE SURFACE LAYER: EXISTENCE, PROPERTIES AND EFFECT ON ELECTRODE HARA TERI TI ................................................................................ 30 . N. HKERIN
Fuel Cell Technologies: State and Perspectives ix
SOLID ELECTROLYTES FROM STABILIZED ZIRCONIUM OXIDE THAT ARE DEVELOPED IN O.J.S.C. “UKRAINIAN RE EAR H IN TIT TE F REFRA T RIE NAMED AFTER A.S.BEREZHNOY” ................................................................................... 307 V.V. PRIMACHENKO V.V. MARTYNENKO I.G. SHULIK T.G. GAL'CHENKO, G.P. OREGHOVA
NAN RI TALLINE P DER Y TEM Zr c F R LID- TATE MBU TI N ELL .................................................. 31 V.G. VERESCHAK N.V. NIKOLENKO K.V. NOSOV
TR T RAL PE LIARITIE AND PR PERTIE F (La,Sr)(Mn,Me) Me=Cu,Cr ................................................................ 32 O.I. V'YUNOV A.G. BELOUS O.Z. YANCHEVSKII D.A. DURILIN, A.I. TOVSTOLYTKIN, V.O. GOLUB, D.Y. P DYAL KY
IMPLE METH D F R THE T DY F TRAN ITI N METAL ALEN E TATE IN MIXED- ALEN E MP ND ................... 329 .V. ZYRIN, T.N. BONDARENKO
PER KITE RELATED MATERIAL F R ATH DE PPLI ATI N ........................................................................................ 335 S. J. SKINNER R. SAYERS R.W. GRIMES
P RE HYDR EN F R F EL ELL : A N EL DE I N F COMPACT ENDOTHERMIC CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMER ...... 34 . TOMASI L. MUTRI F. FERRARI
MI R TR T RAL HARA TERIZATI N F La- r- THIN ILM DEPOSITED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING ON THE TAINLE TEEL INTER NNE T MATERIAL F R F PPLI ATI N.......................................................................................... 35 N. ORLOVSKAYA, A. NICHOLLS, S. YARMOLENKO, J. SANKAR C. JOHNSON R. GEMMEN
aTi -La r - a r and aTi -La r -L2/3Ti UASI-TERNARY SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 37 . VASYLECHKO, V. VASHOOK, U. GUTH
x
 Table of Contents
SOFC POWDER SYNTHESIS BY THE ORGANIC STERIC ENTRAPMENT METHOD ....................................................................... 38 W.M. KRIVEN, B.R. ROSCZYK
NANOSCALED OXIDE THIN FILMS FOR ENERGY N ER I N .......................................................................................... 39 . K A KI
TH
R INDEX……………………………………………….……….417
KEYWORD INDEX……………………………………………………….423
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