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Fundamentals of Conservation Biology

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516 pages
In the new edition of this highly successful book, Malcolm Hunter and new co-author James Gibbs offer a thorough introduction to the fascinating and important field of conservation biology, focusing on what can be done to maintain biodiversity through management of ecosystems and populations.
  • Starting with a succinct look at conservation and biodiversity, this book progresses to contend with some of the subject's most complex topics, such as mass extinctions, ecosystem degradation, and over exploitation.
  • Discusses social, political, and economic aspects of conservation biology.
  • Thoroughly revised with over six hundred new references and web links to many of the organizations involved in conservation biology, striking photographs and maps.

Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/hunter and by request on CD-ROM.

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Contents
List of Case Studies Preface Acknowledgments
PART IBiodiversity and Its Importance
1Conservation and Conservation Biology What Is Conservation? A Brief History of Conservation An Overview of Conservation Ethics What Is Conservation Biology? A Brief History of a Young Discipline Summary
2What Is Biodiversity? Species, Genes, and Ecosystems Structure and Function Measuring Biodiversity The Mismeasure of Biodiversity Biodiversity and Spatial Scales Biodiversity Verbs The Related Concepts of “Integrity” and “Sustainability” Summary
3Species Diversity What Is a Species? How Many Species Are There? The Intrinsic Value of Species and Their Conservation Status The Instrumental Values of Species The Uniqueness Value of Species Summary
4Ecosystem Diversity What Is an Ecosystem? The Values of Ecosystems Ecosystem Diversity and Species Diversity Ecosystems and Landscapes Summary
5Genetic Diversity What Is Genetic Diversity? The Importance of Genetic Diversity
xi xiii xvi
3
4 4 5 10 14 15 20
22 22 24 24 26 26 29 29 33
34 34 36 40 45 60 63
65 65 70 77 80 84
86 86 92
viii Contents
Processes that Diminish Genetic Diversity Cultural Diversity Summary
PART IIThreats to Biodiversity
6Mass Extinctions and Global Change Extinction Episodes of the Past Estimating the Current Rate of Extinction The Prospect of Global Climate Change Summary
7Extinction Processes Why Are Some Species More Vulnerable to Extinction than Others? Populations Population Viability Analysis Summary
8Ecosystem Degradation and Loss Contamination Roads, Dams, and Other Structures Earth, Fire, Water Deforestation Desertification Draining, Dredging, Damming, etc. Fragmentation Summary
9Overexploitation The Long History of Overexploitation Types of Exploitation Consequences of Overexploitation Some Final Perspectives on Exploitation Summary
10Invasive Exotics How Do Species Move? Impacts of Invasive Exotics Success Rates Irony Summary
PART IIIMaintaining Biodiversity
11Protecting Ecosystems Reserve Selection Reserve Design
99 106 106
113
114 114 118 121 128
130 130 135 139 148
150 152 158 162 165 168 170 174 182
184 184 188 194 197 203
205 206 212 217 218 222
225
226 228 235
Reserve Management Summary
12Managing Ecosystems Modified Ecosystems Cultivated Ecosystems Built Ecosystems Restoring Ecosystems Summary
13Managing Populations Providing Resources Controlling Threats Direct Manipulations Epilogue Summary
14Zoos and Gardens Changing Roles Building Arks Theex Situin SituInterface Conservation of Domesticated Species Summary
PART IVThe Human Factors
15Social Factors Values Differ Describing Values Values Change Summary
16Economics The Benefits The Costs The Distribution of Benefits and Costs Problems and Solutions Summary
17Politics and Action Setting Priorities for Action Rights and Responsibilities International Agencies Governments Nongovernmental Organizations Corporations Communities
Contentsix
243 247
252 252 261 267 270 279
281 282 287 298 308 308
310 310 312 319 322 325
329
330 330 336 338 344
346 346 355 356 358 370
372 372 379 379 384 385 386 387
x Contents
Individuals Summary
Epilogue Glossary Literature Cited and Author Index Species Index Subject Index
388 390
392 394 405 476 486