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Introduction to Mineral Exploration

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496 pages
This new, up dated edition of Introduction to Mineral Exploration provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of mineral exploration.

  • Covers not only the nature of mineral exploration but also considers other factors essential to successful exploration, from target evaluation to feasibility studies for extraction and production.
  • Includes six detailed case studies, selected for the range of different problems and considerations they present to the mineral explorationist.
  • Features new chapters on handling mineral exploration data and a new case study on the exploration for diamonds.
  • Essential reading for upper level undergraduates studying ore geology, mineral exploration, mining geology, coal exploration, and industrial minerals, as well as professional geologists.

Artwork from the book is available to instructors online at www.blackwellpublishing.com/moon.

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Contents
Contributors Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Units, Abbreviations, and Terminology
Part I – Principles
1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
2
2.1 2.2 2.3
3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6
4
4.1 4.2
Ore, Mineral Economics, and Mineral Exploration Charles J. Moon and Anthony M. Evans
Introduction Mineral economics Important factors in the economic recovery of minerals Structure of the mining industry Some factors governing the choice of exploration areas Rationale of mineral exploration Further reading
The Mineralogy of Economic Deposits Anthony M. Evans
Introduction Mineralogical investigations Further reading
Mineral Deposit Geology and Models Anthony M. Evans and Charles J. Moon
Nature and morphology of orebodies Wall rock alteration Geological models of mineral deposits Further reading Summary of Chapters 1, 2, and 3 Appendix: mineral deposit model classification of Cox and Singer (1986)
Reconnaissance Exploration Charles J. Moon and Michael K.G. Whateley
Exploration planning Desk studies and reconnaissance
ix xi xii xiii
1
3
3 3 11 12 13 14 18
19
19 25 32
33
33 39 40 45 46 46
52
53 57
vi
4.3 4.4 4.5
5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6
6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6
7
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19
8
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5
CONTENTS
Sustainable development Summary Further reading
From Prospect to Prefeasibility Charles J. Moon and Michael K.G. Whateley
Finding a drilling target When to drill and when to stop Recycling prospects The Bre-X Minerals saga Summary Further reading
Remote Sensing Michael K.G. Whateley
Introduction The Landsat System Other imaging systems Photogeology Summary Further reading
Geophysical Methods John Milsom
Introduction Airborne surveys Magnetic surveys Gravity method Radiometrics Resistivity Spontaneous polarization (SP) Induced polarization (IP) Continuous-wave electromagnetics Transient electromagnetics (TEM) Remote source methods (VLF and magnetotellurics) Seismic methods Ground radar Borehole geophysics Geophysics in exploration programs Integration of geological and geophysical data The role of the geologist in geophysical exploration Dealing with contractors Further reading
Exploration Geochemistry Charles J. Moon
Planning Analysis Interpretation Reconnaissance techniques Follow-up sampling
67 69 69
70
70 84 93 100 102 102
104
104 105 116 117 125 126
127
127 127 130 133 135 136 138 138 142 144 145 147 148 149 150 150 151 152 153
155
155 159 162 164 177
8.6 8.7
9
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4
10
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8
11
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10
Summary Further reading
Mineral Exploration Data Charles J. Moon and Michael K.G. Whateley
Data capture and storage Data integration and geographical information systems Integration with resource calculation and mine planning software Further reading
Evaluation Techniques Michael K.G. Whateley and Barry C.Scott
Sampling Pitting and trenching Drilling Mineral resource and ore reserve estimation, grade calculations Geotechnical data Summary Further reading Appendix: use of Gy’s sampling formula
Project Evaluation Barry C.Scott and Michael K.G. Whateley
Introduction Value of mineralisation Cash flow Study definitions Mineral project valuation and selection criteria Risk Inflation Mineral project finance Summary Further reading
Part II – Case Studies
12
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7
13
13.1 13.2
Cliffe Hill Quarry, Leicestershire – Development of Aggregate Reserves Michael K.G. Whateley and William L. Barrett
Introduction Phase 1 – order-of-magnitude study Phase 2 – pre-feasibility study Phase 3 – feasibility study Phase 4 – detailed engineering Quarrying and environmental impact Summary
Soma Lignite Basin, Turkey Michael K.G. Whateley
Introduction Exploration programs
CONTENTS
vii
178 178
179
179 186 197 198
199
199 218 218 230 243 249 250 250
253
253 253 260 262 265 270 271 272 276 276
279
281
281 282 283 284 291 292 293
294
294 295
viii
13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10
14
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8
15
15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4
16
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.9 16.10
17
17.1 17.2 17.3
CONTENTS
Geology Data assessment Geotechnical investigation Lignite quality Lignite reserve estimates Surface mine evaluation Summary Further reading
Witwatersrand Conglomerate Gold – West Rand Charles J. Moon and Michael K.G. Whateley
Introduction Geology Economic background Exploration models Exploration methods Reserve estimation Exploration and development of the southern part of the West Rand Goldfield Conclusions
A Volcanic-associated Massive Sulfide Deposit – Kidd Creek, Ontario Anthony M. Evans and Charles J. Moon
Introduction Volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits The Kidd Creek Mine Conclusions
Disseminated Precious Metals – Trinity Mine, Nevada Michael K.G. Whateley, Timothy Bell and Charles J. Moon
Background Trinity Mine, Nevada Exploration The geology of Pershing County and the Trinity District Development and mining Mineral processing Environmental considerations Grade estimation Ore reserve estimation Summary and conclusions
Diamond Exploration – Ekati and Diavik Mines, Canada Charles J. Moon
World diamond deposits and exploration Canadian discoveries: Ekati and Diavik Summary
Internet Links References Index
298 303 307 309 314 315 319 319
320
320 320 330 333 334 344 345 357
358
358 358 370 381
382
382 386 387 391 395 397 397 399 409 412
413
413 431 443
444 447 469